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Registros recuperados: 49
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A Multi-Factorial Risk Prioritization Framework for Food-borne Pathogens AgEcon
Henson, Spencer J.; Caswell, Julie A.; Cranfield, John A.L.; Fazil, Aamir; Davidson, Valerie J.; Anders, Sven M.; Schmidt, Claudia.
To lower the incidence of human food-borne disease, experts and stakeholders have urged the development of a science- and risk-based management system in which food-borne hazards are analyzed and prioritized. A literature review shows that most approaches to risk prioritization developed to date are based on measures of health outcomes and do not systematically account for other factors that may be important to decision making. The Multi-Factorial Risk Prioritization Framework developed here considers four factors that may be important to risk managers: public health, consumer risk perceptions and acceptance, market-level impacts, and social sensitivity. The framework is based on the systematic organization and analysis of data on these multiple factors....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Risk analysis; Risk prioritization; Food-borne pathogens; Benefits and costs; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; I18; L51; Q00; K32; H11.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7385
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A Strategic Perspective on the Impact of Food Safety Standards on Developing Countries AgEcon
Henson, Spencer J.; Jaffee, Steven.
This paper explores the competing concepts of 'standards as barriers' and standards as catalysts' in the context of food safety standards in international trade in agricultural and food products. It is suggested that food safety standards can act as both a barrier to trade and the basis of competitive positioning for developing countries in international markets. This suggests that the application of a strategic framework to analyze and assess alternative responses to evolving food safety standards can throw some light on the circumstances under which standards act to prohibit trade or, alternatively, create competitive trade opportunities. The use of such a framework is illustrated through a brief case study of fish and fishery product exports from...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Food; Trade; Food Safety; Standards; Technical barriers to Trade; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Q18; K32; F13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25456
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Accidents Waiting to Happen: Liability Policy and Toxic Pollution Releases AgEcon
Alberini, Anna; Austin, David H..
Proponents of environmental policies based on liability assert that strict liability imposed on the polluter will induce firms to handle hazardous wastes properly and to avoid disposing them into the environment. Economic theory and a few well-publicized cases, however, suggest that a number of factors may dilute the incentives posed by strict liability. In this paper, we run regressions relating unintended releases of pollution into the environment (aggregated at the state level, and followed over nine years from 1987 to 1995) to the imposition of strict liability on the polluter, exploiting variation across states in the liability provisions of their mini-Superfund laws, and in the years these were adopted. We experiment with instrumental variable...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Strict liability; Toxic spills; Policy endogeneity; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; C33; K32.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10450
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An Interdisciplinary Approach to White-collar Crime in the Food Sector AgEcon
Hirschauer, Norbert; Musshoff, Oliver; Scheerer, Sebastian.
The probability that buyers are deceived with regard to the quality or safety of purchased products (moral hazard) increases with the profits which suppliers can earn through opportunistic behaviour. It decreases with the probability and level of losses that result from disclosure of malpractice. It also decreases with protective factors rooted in the suppliers' social contexts - such as values, emotional bonds etc. - that shield them from yielding to economic temptations. This paper describes how a systematic analysis of economic incentives and social context factors can be provided through an interdisciplinary approach which combines the analytical powers of microeconomics (game theory) and criminology (control theories). The approach is discussed with...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Asymmetric information; Behavioural food risks; Control theories; Game theory; Moral hazard; Opportunistic malpractice; Agribusiness; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; A13; K32; K42.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25688
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Aspekte des Gewässerschutzes und der Gewässernutzung beim Anbau von Energiepflanzen - Ergebnisse eines Forschungsvorhabens im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes AgEcon
Nitsch, Heike; Osterburg, Bernhard; Buttlar, Christine von; Buttlar, Hans-Bernhard von.
Zusammenfassung: Der vorliegende Arbeitsbericht entstand im Rahmen eines Forschungsvorhabens im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes und beleuchtet mit dem Thema „Gewässerschutz und Energiepflanzen“ einen Aspekt, der bisher nicht im Fokus der Diskussionen um den Energiepflanzenanbau stand. In dieser Studie wurden relevante Verwertungsketten für die energetische Nutzung von landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse in Deutschland anhand potenzieller Auswirkungen auf die Gewässer bewertet. Mögliche negative Wirkungen auf die Gewässer sind häufig auch aus Klimaschutzgründen relevant. Vorgestellt werden zudem Möglichkeiten des gewässerschonenden Anbaus. Die Analyse stützt sich auf die Auswertung von Literatur sowie schriftlicher und telefonischer Befragungen verschiedener...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Energiepflanzen; Gewässerschutz; Biogasanlagen; Landnutzung; Steuerungsinstrumente; Energy crops; Water protection; Biogas plants; Regulation instruments; Land use; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; K32; Q18; Q24; Q25; Q42.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103662
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ASYMMETRY IN RAW MILK SAFETY PERCEPTIONS AND INFORMATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR RISK IN FRESH PRODUCE MARKETING AND POLICY AgEcon
Knutson, Ronald D.; Currier, Russell W.; Ribera, Luis A.; Goeringer, L. Paul.
Scientific evidence clearly indicates that consumption of raw milk carries substantial disease-inducing health risks. While federal U.S. policy mandates that milk moving in interstate commerce be pasteurized; within 41 of 50 states, raw milk can be obtained for consumption. Warning labels notwithstanding, a segment of U.S. consumers pays higher prices for higher-risk raw milk than for either organic or conventional milk. The behavioral factors leading to raw milk consumption are explored. The paternalistic regulatory options for reducing the risk associated with drinking raw milk are identified. Implications for fresh produce sold directly from farms to consumers or through farmers markets are drawn.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Raw milk; Pasteurization; Health risks; Behavioral economics; Bounded rationality; Paternalistic regulations; Public health; HACCP; GLOBALG.A.P.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; A12; A13; A14; D11; D18; D46; D71; D78; D82; I18; K23; K32; Q11; Q18.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116440
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Banking on "Green Money": Are Environmental Financial Responsibility Rules Fulfilling Their Promise? AgEcon
Boyd, James.
Financial responsibility rules are an increasingly common form of environmental regulation. Currently, the operators of landfills, underground petroleum storage tanks, offshore rigs, and oil tankers must demonstrate the existence of adequate levels of capital as a precondition to the legal operation of their businesses. Environmental financial responsibility ensures that firms possess the resources to compensate society for pollution costs created in the course of business operations. In addition to providing a source of funds for victim compensation and pollution remediation, financial responsibility is thought to motivate better decision-making, particularly regarding the management of long-term risks. This article describes both the promise of financial...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Financial responsibility; Environmental liability; Waste disposal; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; L51; K32.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10592
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Cleaning Up the Nuclear Weapons Complex: Exploring New Approaches AgEcon
Probst, Katherine N.; Pilling, Carolyn A.; Dunn, Karen T..
In recent years, policy experts have increasingly decried the "piecemeal" approach to environmental protection embodied in existing laws and regulations. This paper analyzes one aspect of the call for more integration: the feasibility and advisability of developing an integrated approach to regulating the cleanup of the nation's nuclear weapons complex. The Cold War has left an unprecedented set of difficulties at sites across the country where vast quantities of hazardous and radioactive materials must be properly managed. Regulatory fragmentation--particularly the phenomenon of multiple regulators and regulations driving the allocation of resources in an uncoordinated fashion--is nowhere more evident than in the current statutory and regulatory framework...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Nuclear weapons complex; Integration; Environmental law; Environmental regulation; Environmental Economics and Policy; H56; K32; Q28.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10765
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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF CO-REGULATORY APPROACHES TO FOOD SAFETY CONTROLS AgEcon
Hussein, Mohamud; Fearne, Andrew; Martinez, Marian Garcia; Di Falco, Salvatore.
Food safety controls are currently enforced in the UK by a variety of regulatory approaches that considerably differ in their efficiency and effectiveness in achieving social goals of safe food supply and improved consumer confidence. Aim of this study is to establish whether a coregulatory enforcement of these controls is more cost-effective than the traditional command-and- control enforcement modes. First of its kind, the study reviewed a vast theoretical literature on economics of food safety and incentives to develop a conceptual framework and appropriate methodology for comparative cost-effectiveness analysis of co-regulatory approaches to food hygiene controls in the UK meat industry. A panel data on costs and compliance of 710 meat firms operating...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Cost-effectiveness; Co-regulation; Food safety; Incentives; Panel data modelling; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; C23; K32; Q18; Q28.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91725
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Context and the VSL: Evidence from a Stated Preference Study in Italy and the Czech Republic AgEcon
Alberini, Anna; Scasny, Milan.
We report on the results of a survey based on conjoint choice experiments that was specifically designed to investigate the effect of context on the Value of a Statistical Life (VSL), an important input into the calculation of the mortality benefits of environmental policies that reduce premature mortality. We define “context” broadly to include i) the cause of death (respiratory illness, cancer, road traffic accident), ii) the beneficiary of the risk reduction (adult v. child), and iii) the mode of provision of the risk reduction (public program v. private good). The survey was conducted following similar protocols in Italy and the Czech Republic. When do not distinguish for the cause of death, child and adult VSL are not significantly different from one...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: VSL; Conjoint Choice Experiments; Mortality Risk Reductions; Cost-benefit Analysis; Forced Choice Questions; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; I18; J17; K32; Q51.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90952
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Das neue Gentechnikgesetz - ein Gentechnikverhinderungsgesetz? AgEcon
Becker, Alexander; Holm-Muller, Karin.
In addition to existing juridical analyses of the new German act for genetic engineering, this article deals with an environmental economic assessment. It is examined what kind of external costs will arise by using/applying genetic engineering and how they will be allocated. Our focus is on the costs that explicitly evolve from the societal postulated coexistence of conventional/ organic farms and users of biotechnology. If the protection of the existing production is accepted, as postulated by politics, the new act internalizes the so called market losses relatively well. In this context, the design of precautionary duties that have to be still established by law is of utmost importance. To avoid the dangers of an excessive liability by the farmer, it is...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Act for genetic engineering; Liability; Coexistence; Market loss; Agricultural and Food Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; K32; Q55.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18775
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Does the Cause of Death Matter? The Effect of Dread, Controllability, Exposure and Latency on the Vsl AgEcon
Alberini, Anna; Scasny, Milan.
The Value of a Statistical Life is a key input into the calculation of the benefits of environmental policies that save lives. To date, the VSL used in environmental policy analyses has not been adjusted for age or the cause of death. Air pollution regulations, however, are linked to reductions in the risk of dying for cancer, heart disease, and respiratory illnesses, raising the question whether a single VSL should be applied for all of these causes of death. We conducted a conjoint choice experiment survey in Milan, Italy, to investigate this question. We find that the VSL increases with dread, exposure, the respondents’ assessments of the baseline risks, and experience with the specific risks being studied. The VSL is higher when the risk reduction is...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: VSL; Conjoint Choice Experiments; Mortality Risk Reductions; Cost-benefit Analysis; Forced Choice Questions; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; I18; J17; K32; Q51.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98097
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Effectiveness of Nitrate Policy in Flanders (1990-2003): Modular Modelling and Response Analysis AgEcon
Veraet, Mieke; Lauwers, Ludwig H.; Lenders, Sonia; Overloop, Stijn.
The impact of current nitrate policy measures in Flanders is estimated. A modular modelling system has been developed for comparing response and pressure indicators and for decomposing the response impact of policy measures. Compared to 1990, the internalised manure surplus is reduced to zero, whereas the distance to target of the soil surface balance to the water quality standard dropped only with 58%. Source-linked and sink-related measures each account for about the half of the manure surplus reduction. The impact of abatement technologies is minor. The modular approach helps to unravel the discrepancy between pressure and response and to propose policy alternatives.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Abatement technology; DPSIR scheme; Nitrogen pollution reduction; Agricultural and Food Policy; B41; C51; H21; K32.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24450
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Environmental Remediation Law and Economies in Transition AgEcon
Boyd, James.
The paper discusses the design of environmental remediation laws in countries struggling with fundamental market and institutional reforms. Optimal cleanup standards, liability rules, and enforcement are discussed from the standpoint of both economic efficiency and practical implementation. Particular attention is paid to financing mechanisms and issues that arise during privatization.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental remediation; Liability; Privatization; Transitional economies; Environmental Economics and Policy; K32; P21; Q28.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10721
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Environmental Standards and Their Linkage to Support Instruments of the EU Common Agricultural Policy AgEcon
Osterburg, Bernhard; Nitsch, Heike; Kristensen, Lone.
Agricultural support payments in the EU are increasingly connected to compliance with environmental standards, through cross-compliance and "Good Farming Practice"-conditions. In this paper, this relatively new approach is analysed regarding targeting, compatibility with legal procedures, and effects on income and production. Compliance with standards is reinforced by more systematic controls and reductions of support payments. As farms are affected by such sanctions to a different extent, risk-analysis for selection of farms to be controlled is a crucial element of implementation. The real environmental impacts have to be considered, especially if indirect control indicators are applied. Furthermore, technical assistance and audits have to be promoted for...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Good Farming Practice; Cross-compliance; Environmental standards; Agricultural and Food Policy; K32; Q28.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24521
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Expanding the Focus of Cost-Benefit Analysis for Food Safety: A Multi-Factorial Risk Prioritization Approach AgEcon
Caswell, Julie A..
A pressing need in the area of food safety is a tool for making overall, macro judgments about which risks should be given priority for management. Governments often seek to base this prioritization on public health impacts only to find that other considerations also influence the prioritization process. A multi-factorial approach formally recognizes that public health, market-level impacts, consumer risk preferences and acceptance, and the social sensitivity of particular risks all play a role in prioritization. It also provides decision makers with a variety of information outputs that allow risk prioritization to be considered along different dimensions. Macro-level prioritization of risks based on multiple factors is an important expanded use of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Cost-benefit analysis; Food safety; Risk prioritization; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Risk and Uncertainty; I18; L51; Q18; K32; H11.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42131
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Farms and Ecosystem Services AgEcon
Ruhl, J.B..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Ecosystem services; Multifunctionality; Green subsidies; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q57; K32; Q18; Q01; Q32; Q38.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94651
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Financial Assurance Rules and Natural Resource Damage Liability: A Working Marriage? AgEcon
Boyd, James.
The study explores challenges associated with, and the feasibility of, financial assurance requirements for liabilities arising under U.S. environmental statutes, with a particular emphasis on liabilities associated with natural resource damages (NRDs). The overlap between federal NRD liability and financial assurance arises in the context of two financial assurance rules: one for waterborne vessels that carry oil or hazardous substances, and one for offshore facilities used for oil exploration, drilling, production, or transport. The report addresses the rules' history, their role as a complement to other forms of environmental regulation, and their impact on the regulated community and providers of coverage. Despite numerous difficulties and over...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Financial assurance; Financial responsibility; Natural resource damages; Liability; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; K13; K32; Q38.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10673
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Financial Responsibility for Environmental Obligations: Are Bonding and Assurance Rules Fulfilling Their Promise? AgEcon
Boyd, James.
Financal assurance rules, also known as financial responsibility or bonding requirements, foster cost internalization by requiring potential polluters to demonstrate the financial resources necessary to compensate for environmental damage that may arise in the future. Accordingly, assurance is an important complement to liability rules, restoration obligations, and other regulatory compliance requirements. The paper reviews the need for assurance, given the prevalence of abandoned environmental obligations, and assesses the implementation of assurance rules in the United States. From the standpoint of both legal effectiveness and economic efficiency, assurance rules can be improved. On the whole, however, cost recovery, deterrence, and enforcement are...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Financial assurance; Financial responsibility; Bonding; Environmental insurance; Environmental Economics and Policy; K13; Q38; K32.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10809
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Global Compensation for Oil Pollution Damages: The Innovations of The American Oil Pollution Act AgEcon
Boyd, James.
Via technology and operations standards, U.S. regulation exerts an important influence over worldwide marine safety standards. But in addition, several other aspects of U.S. law deserve wider international consideration and adoption. First, the Oil Pollution Act's natural resource damage provisions are an innovative and effective way to deter marine pollution and provide for the restoration of injured ecological resources. Second, the relatively strict financial requirements imposed on marine transporters help ensure that polluters, rather than the public, pay if damage is caused. Liability and financial responsibility rules are not unknown in other countries. But the United States has a longer history with implementation and applies its rules more...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Oil Pollution Act; Natural resource damages; Environmental liability; Financial assurance; Financial responsibility; Valuation; Farm Management; K13; K32; Q38.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10691
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