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Registros recuperados: 31
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13 + 1: A Comparison of Global Climate Change Policy Architectures AgEcon
Aldy, Joseph E.; Barrett, Scott; Stavins, Robert N..
We critically review the Kyoto Protocol and thirteen alternative policy architectures for addressing the threat of global climate change. We employ six criteria to evaluate the policy proposals: environmental outcome, dynamic efficiency, cost effectiveness, equity, flexibility in the presence of new information, and incentives for participation and compliance. The Kyoto Protocol does not fare well on a number of criteria, but none of the alternative proposals fare well along all six dimensions. We identify several major themes among the alternative proposals: Kyoto is "too little, too fast"; developing countries should play a more substantial role and receive incentives to participate; implementation should focus on market-based approaches, especially...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Policy architecture; Kyoto Protocol; Efficiency; Cost effectiveness; Equity; Participation; Compliance; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10541
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Afforestation Generated Kyoto Compliant Carbon Offsets: A Case Study in Northeastern Ontario AgEcon
Biggs, Jeffrey.
With the first commitment period beginning in 2008, resource managers are starting to consider the various management options available to them under the Kyoto Protocol. Though many papers discuss the potential for generating carbon offsets through afforestation at national, provincial and regional scales, none examine the factors critical to decision makers at the management unit level. This paper uses the best available modelling and economic data and applies it at the scale of the Timmins Management Unit (TMU), concentrating on the quality and availability of carbon budget models, domestic carbon market concerns (including price, leakage and permanence) and the presence of an enabling environment (considering government support, afforestation expertise,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Afforestation; Carbon markets; Carbon modelling; Enabling environment; Kyoto Protocol; Northeastern Ontario; Scenario development; Timmins management unit; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q23; Q27.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37007
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Beyond Copenhagen: A Realistic Climate Policy in a Fragmented World AgEcon
Carraro, Carlo; Massetti, Emanuele.
We propose a realistic approach to climate policy based on the Copenhagen Agreement to reduce Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions. We assess by how much the non-binding, although official, commitments to reduce emissions made in Copenhagen will affect the level of world GHGs emissions in 2020. Our estimates are based on official communications to the UNFCCC, on historic data and on the Business-as-Usual scenario of the WITCH model. We are not interested in estimating the gap between the expected level of emissions and what would be needed to achieve the 2°C target. Nor do we attempt to calculate the 2100 temperature level implied by the Copenhagen pledges. We believe these two exercises are subject to high uncertainty and would not improve the current state...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Kyoto Protocol; International Climate Agreements; Climate Policy; Clean Development Mechanism; Environmental Economics and Policy; F5; Q01; Q54; Q58.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98094
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Can an Effective Global Climate Treaty Be Based on Sound Science, Rational Economics, and Pragmatic Politics AgEcon
Stavins, Robert N..
The Kyoto Protocol (1997) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) may come into force without U.S. participation, but its effects on climate change will be trivial. At the same time, the economic and scientific consensus points to the need for a credible international approach. A reasonable starting point is the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which was signed by 161 nations and ratified by 50, including the United States, and entered into force in 1994. In this paper, I remain agnostic on the question of the Kyoto Protocol's viability. Some analysts see the agreement as deeply flawed, while others see it as an acceptable or even excellent first step. But virtually everyone agrees that the Protocol is not...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Global climate change; Global warming; Policy architecture; Kyoto Protocol; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q54; Q58; Q48; Q39.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10720
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Changing the Allocation Rules in the EU ETS: Impact on Competitiveness and Economic Efficiency AgEcon
Demailly, Damien; Quirion, Philippe.
We assess five proposals for the future of the EU greenhouse gas Emission Trading Scheme (ETS): pure grandfathering allocation of emission allowances (GF), output-based allocation (OB), auctioning (AU), auctioning with border adjustments (AU-BA), and finally output-based allocation in sectors exposed to international competition combined with auctioning in electricity generation (OB-AU). We look at the impact on production, trade, CO2 leakage and welfare. We use a partial equilibrium model of the EU 27 featuring three sectors covered by the EU ETS – cement, steel and electricity – plus the aluminium sector, which is indirectly impacted through a rise in electricity price. The leakage ratio, i.e. the increase in emissions abroad over the decrease in EU...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emission Trading; Allowance Allocation; Leakage; Spillover; Climate Policy; Kyoto Protocol; Border Adjustment; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q5.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46623
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Climate Change Meets Trade in Promoting Green Growth: Potential Conflicts and Synergies AgEcon
Zhang, ZhongXiang.
To date, border adjustment measures in the form of emissions allowance requirements (EAR) under the U.S. proposed cap-and-trade regime are the most concrete unilateral trade measure put forward to level the carbon playing field. If improperly implemented, such measures could disturb the world trade order and trigger a trade war. Because of these potentially far-reaching impacts, this paper focuses on this type of unilateral border adjustment, which requires importers to acquire and surrender emissions allowances corresponding to the embedded carbon contents in their goods from countries that have not taken climate actions comparable to that of home country. This discussion is mainly on the legality of unilateral EAR under the WTO rules. Given that the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Post-2012 climate negotiations; Border carbon adjustments; Carbon tariffs; Emissions allowance requirements; Cap-and-trade regime; Lieberman-Warner bill; Waxman-Markey bill; World Trade Organization; Kyoto Protocol; Developing countries; United States; Environmental Economics and Policy; F18; Q48; Q54; Q56; Q58.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59475
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Developing Country Participation: The Kyoto-Marrakech Politics AgEcon
Sari, Agus.
The US has repeatedly criticized the lack of "meaningful participation" of developing countries in the Kyoto Protocol. I discuss the course of negotiations on developing country participation between the conferences at Kyoto in 1997 and Marrakech in 2001. The reluctance of developing countries to enter into discussions on quantitative emissions targets can be explained by the principle of "common, but differentiated responsibilities" enshrined in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the fact that both per capita cumulative emissions and per capita income are still much lower in developing countries than in the industrialized world. Moreover, the Clean Development Mechanism that generates emissions credits for projects in developing countries...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International climate policy; Kyoto Protocol; Developing countries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q540; Q560.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26302
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Economic Analysis and the Formulation of U.S. Climate Policy AgEcon
Toman, Michael.
Economic analysts within government agencies as well as outside government has played a noticeable and increasing role in formulating U.S. climate policy. However, that role has remained limited; in particular, economic analysis has largely been ignored and occasionally even derided in the context of setting targets for GHG control. This paper explores this uneasy relationship between analysis and policy during several U.S. administrations. Some of these problems stem from the incompleteness of the economic analyses themselves, and economic analysts sometimes have not been the most effective advocates for their own findings. However, I think one of the biggest obstacles to more effective use of economic analysis in climate policymaking has been a basic...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change; Kyoto Protocol; Council of Economic Advisers; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q2; Q4.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10528
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Economics of Forest Ecosystem Carbon Sinks: A Review AgEcon
van Kooten, G. Cornelis; Sohngen, Brent.
Carbon terrestrial sinks are seen as a low-cost alternative to fuel switching and reduced fossil fuel use for lowering atmospheric CO2. In this study, we review issues related to the use of terrestrial forestry activities to create CO2 offset credits. To gain a deeper understanding of the confusing empirical studies of forest projects to create carbon credits under Kyoto, we employ meta-regression analysis to analyze conditions under which forest activities generate CO2-emission reduction offsets at competitive ‘prices’. In particular, we examine 68 studies of the costs of creating carbon offsets using forestry. Baseline estimates of costs of sequestering carbon are some US$3–$280 per tCO2, indicating that the costs of creating CO2-emission offset credits...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change; Kyoto Protocol; Meta-regression analysis; Carbon-uptake costs; Forest sinks; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q2; Q25; H43; C19.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37037
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Effects of Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Policies: The Role of International Trade AgEcon
Schneider, Uwe A.; Lee, Heng-Chi; McCarl, Bruce A.; Chen, Chi-Chung.
The Kyoto Protocol represents the first international agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Proposed mitigation efforts may involve the agricultural sector through such options as planting trees, crop and livestock management changes, and biofuels production. The combined use of these strategies could substantially reduce net emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. However, countries where the Protocol imposes emissions caps have expressed concern about their competitiveness with countries that are not part of the Kyoto Protocol. In a free-trade arena, food production and exports in unregulated countries could increase and reduce market share for the producers in complying countries. We examine the effects of differential Protocol...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural Sector Model; Crop exports; Food production; Greenhouse gas emission mitigation; International trade; Kyoto Protocol; Leakage; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18366
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Forest Carbon Sequestration: Some Issues for Forest Investments AgEcon
Sedjo, Roger A..
A major problem being faced by human society is that the global temperature is believed to be rising due to human activity that releases carbon dioxide to the atmosphere; i.e., global warming. The major culprit is thought to be fossil fuel burning, which is releasing increasing amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The problem of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide can be addressed a number of ways. One of these is forestry and forest management. This paper examines a number of current issues related to mitigating the global warming problem through forestry. First, the overall carbon cycle is described, and the potential impact of forests on the buildup of atmospheric carbon is examined. A major focus is the means by which forests and forest...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Forests; Carbon; Sinks; Sequestration; Forest management; Kyoto Protocol; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q10; Q15; Q21; Q23; Q24.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10571
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Forest Carbon Sinks: European Union, Japanese, and Canadian Approaches AgEcon
Amano, Masahiro; Sedjo, Roger A..
This report compares the approaches of the governments of Japan, Canada, and the European Union member countries toward using carbon sinks to meet their respective Kyoto Protocol carbon reduction targets. Various policies have been proposed by which governments can sequester carbon by promoting afforestation and reforestation, slowing deforestation, and undertaking forest management activities under Articles 3.3 and 3.4. At this time, carbon emissions reduction programs are still under development, both within individual countries and within the context of the protocol. Although some of the details have been worked out, concrete definitions are often still lacking, especially as regards impermanence of forests, additionality, leakage, and socioeconomic and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate; Sinks; Kyoto Protocol; Forestry; Canada; Japan; European Union; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; F01; Q23; Q28; Q48.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10913
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From Kyoto to Copenhagen: Meeting the Climate Change Challenge AgEcon
Gaisford, James D..
In spite of some superficial success in achieving its overall global target, there has been much disillusionment with the progress on climate change since the Kyoto Protocol was negotiated in 1997. The key problems in addressing GHG emissions under the Kyoto Protocol have been the incomplete coverage across countries and lack of credibility. While significantly more onerous reduction commitments should be expected and required of developed countries in the name of economic fairness, GHG emissions must also be capped effectively in developing countries.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Clean Development Mechanism; Copenhagen Accord; Greenhouse gas emissions; Kyoto Protocol; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90592
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From Kyoto to Copenhagen: Meeting the Climate Change Challenge AgEcon
Gaisford, James D..
In spite of some superficial success in achieving its overall global target, there has been much disillusionment with the progress on climate change since the Kyoto Protocol was negotiated in 1997. The key problems in addressing GHG emissions under the Kyoto Protocol have been the incomplete coverage across countries and lack of credibility. While significantly more onerous reduction commitments should be expected and required of developed countries in the name of economic fairness, GHG emissions must also be capped effectively in developing countries.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Clean Development Mechanism; Copenhagen Accord; Greenhouse gas emissions; Kyoto Protocol; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90593
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Global Climate Policy and Corresponding Activities on a City-Level AgEcon
Sippel, Maike.
Cities are not affected by global climate policy and the Kyoto Protocol - however many of them engage in voluntary activities. This paper analyses how communities in general and especially the city of Hamburg can contribute to global climate protection in their citypartnerships according to the slogan "think global, act local". Possible activities are in the fields of awareness-raising, capacity-building, exchange of experiences and joint project implementation. A focus is layed on projects according to the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol in north-south citypartnerships. There is a clear potential for reduction of transaction costs in this kind of projects due to the institutional links of the citypartnership. For Hamburg, CDM-potential...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: CDM; Citypartnership; Climate policy; Hamburg; Kyoto Protocol; Transaction costs; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26247
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Global Warming and the Future of Pacific Island Countries AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
This article briefly outlines the cause of global warming, its trends and consequences as indicated by the International Panel on Climate Change. Sea-level rise is one consequence of particular concern to Pacific island states. It also reviews the views of economists about connections between economic growth and global warming. Whereas the majority of economists did not foresee a conflict between economic growth and global warming, the possibility of such a conflict is now more widely recognized following the Stern Report. International efforts, such as through the Kyoto Protocol, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and their atmospheric concentration are discussed and prospects for post-Kyoto policies are considered. It is predicted that a significant...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change; Environmental Kuznets curve; Global warming; Kyoto Protocol; Pacific islands; Post Kyoto; Sea-level rise; Small island developing states; Stern Report.; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55106
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Greenhouse gases emission and sustainable development of animal agriculture OAK
Takahashi, Junichi; 高橋, 潤一.
2006年8月3日とかちプラザ・レインボーホールで開催、日本ユネスコ国内委員会主催の帯広農村開発教育国際セミナー(OASERD)国際連合ユネスコアジア太平洋地域教育開発計画事業(APEID)シンポジウム「地球にやさしい農畜産業をめざして : 温室効果ガスの発生と制御」講演資料
Palavras-chave: Global warming; Greenhouse gas; Nitrous oxide; Methane; Kyoto Protocol.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://ir.obihiro.ac.jp/dspace/handle/10322/1892
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Host Country Attractiveness for CDM Non-Sink Projects AgEcon
Jung, Martina.
In the present study, CDM host countries are classified according to their attractiveness for CDM non-sink projects. A cluster analysis is conducted based on three different factors determining host country attractiveness (mitigation potential, institutional CDM capacity and general investment climate) in order to elaborate a CDM host country classification. The results suggest that only a small proportion of potential host countries will attract most of the CDM investment. The CDM (non-sink) stars are China, India, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, South Africa, Indonesia and Thailand. They are followed by attractive countries like Costa Rica, Trinidad and Tobago, Mongolia, Panama, and Chile. While most of the promising CDM host countries are located in Latin...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Clean development mechanism; Kyoto Protocol; Attractiveness; Cluster analysis; Farm Management; Q25; C49.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26328
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International Environmental Agreements: Emissions trade, safety valves and escape clauses AgEcon
Karp, Larry S.; Zhao, Jinhua.
We explain how the structure of multi-national or multi-regional environmental agreements affect their chance of success. Trade in emissions permits has ambiguous and in some cases surprising effects on both the equilibrium level of abatement, and on the ability to persuade nations or regions to participate in environmental agreements. An escape clause policy and a safety valve policy have essentially the same properties when membership in environmental agreement is pre-determined, but they create markedly different effects on the incentives to join such an agreement. The two policies lead to a qualitative difference in the leverage that a potential member of the agreement exercises on other members.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Kyoto Protocol; Escape clause; Emissions trade; Cost uncertainty; Participation game; International Environmental Agreement; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Risk and Uncertainty; C72; H4; Q54.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51611
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O mercado de carbono como instrumento de conservação da floresta amazônica AgEcon
Lamarca Junior, Mariano Rua; Silva, Cesar Roberto Leite da.
Este trabalho analisa a questão ambiental presente nas políticas públicas para a região amazônica, incluindo a Lei de Gestão de Florestas Públicas (Lei 11.284/06), sancionada com o objetivo de regulamentar a gestão de florestas públicas no Brasil e promover o desenvolvimento sustentável. O Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo (MDL) do Protocolo de Kyoto é sugerido como instrumento de conservação florestal. Por meio de um cenário hipotético de desmatamento “zero” e 100% do carbono não emitido vinculado a projetos de conservação florestal, estimou-se que uma receita econômica equivalente à da exploração madeireira poderia ser obtida no mercado de carbono, contribuindo para a manutenção do equilíbrio climático reduzindo a emissão de Gases de Efeito Estufa, bem...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Mercado de carbono; Protocolo de Kyoto; Mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo (MDL); Conservação da floresta amazônica; Aquecimento global; Carbon market; Kyoto Protocol; Clean development mechanism (CDM); Amazon forest conservation; Global warming; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108159
Registros recuperados: 31
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