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Registros recuperados: 88
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A Multi-Factorial Risk Prioritization Framework for Food-borne Pathogens AgEcon
Henson, Spencer J.; Caswell, Julie A.; Cranfield, John A.L.; Fazil, Aamir; Davidson, Valerie J.; Anders, Sven M.; Schmidt, Claudia.
To lower the incidence of human food-borne disease, experts and stakeholders have urged the development of a science- and risk-based management system in which food-borne hazards are analyzed and prioritized. A literature review shows that most approaches to risk prioritization developed to date are based on measures of health outcomes and do not systematically account for other factors that may be important to decision making. The Multi-Factorial Risk Prioritization Framework developed here considers four factors that may be important to risk managers: public health, consumer risk perceptions and acceptance, market-level impacts, and social sensitivity. The framework is based on the systematic organization and analysis of data on these multiple factors....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Risk analysis; Risk prioritization; Food-borne pathogens; Benefits and costs; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; I18; L51; Q00; K32; H11.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7385
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A Note on Emissions Taxes and Incomplete Information AgEcon
Chavez, Carlos A.; Stranlund, John K..
In contrast with what we perceive is the conventional wisdom about setting emissions taxes under uncertainty, we demonstrate that setting a uniform tax equal to expected marginal damage is not generally efficient under incomplete information about firms’ abatement costs and damages from pollution. We show that efficient taxes will deviate from expected marginal damage if there is uncertainty about the slopes of the marginal abatement costs of regulated firms. Moreover, efficient emissions tax rates will vary across firms if a regulator can use observable firm-level characteristics to gain some information about how the firms’ marginal abatement costs vary.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions Taxes; Incomplete Information; Uncertainty; Environmental Economics and Policy; Public Economics; Risk and Uncertainty; L51; Q28.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42129
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A Pro-Market Agenda for El Salvador AgEcon
Engel, Eduardo M.R.A..
This paper argues that, despite important productivity gains, reforms have benefited consumers much less than expected in El Salvador. Antitrust legislation, consumer protection and an adequate regulation of privatized utilities are central ingredients of a successful market economy. Major reforms that are needed in each one of these areas in El Salvador are described.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Market reform; Antitrust legislation; Consumer protection; Privatization; Regulation of utilities; Political Economy; D18; L40; L51; L94; L96; O12.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28438
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A Safety Valve for Emissions Trading AgEcon
Stranlund, John K..
This paper considers the optimal design of an emissions trading program that includes a safety valve tax that allows pollution sources to escape the emissions cap imposed by the aggregate supply of emissions permits. I demonstrate that an optimal hybrid emissions trading/emissions tax policy involves a permit supply that is strictly less than under a pure emissions trading scheme and a safety valve tax that exceeds the optimal pure emissions tax as long as expected marginal damage is an increasing function. While the expected level of emissions under a hybrid policy may be more or less than under pure emissions trading or a pure emissions tax, under the assumption that uncertainty about aggregate marginal abatement costs is symmetric the most likely...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions Taxes; Emissions Trading; Uncertainty; Safety Valve; Hybrid Emissions Control; Environmental Economics and Policy; Public Economics; Risk and Uncertainty; L51; Q28.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53125
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Accountability in Government and Regulatory Policies: Theory and Evidence AgEcon
Guerriero, Carmine.
Revised version of paper added 01/16/09
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Election; Agency; Judges; Regulation; Electricity; K23; L51; Q43.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37849
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Adoption of Pollution Prevention: The Role of Information Spillover, Mandatory Regulation, and Voluntary Program Participation AgEcon
Bi, Xiang; Deltas, George; Khanna, Madhu.
Interest in promoting Pollution Prevention (P2) has been increasing since 1991, following the passage of the Pollution Prevention Act (PPA) of 1990. As part of the PPA, facilities that are subject to the Toxics Releases Inventory (TRI) are required to disclose the number of incremental P2 activities for each listed chemicals from 1991 onward. Though the disclosure is required by the PPA, the adoption of P2 remains a voluntary initiative by firms. To promote P2 ethic among firms, the U.S.EPA has established several voluntary programs and P2 information clearinghouse. P2 technologies were more likely to be facility- and operation- specific and involved considerable information costs and uncertainty. Firms might learn about P2 technologies from their peers...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Pollution prevention; Toxics Release Inventory (TRI); Voluntary 33/50 program; Information spillover; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q55; C21; L51.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103741
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Alleged Transmission Undersupply: Is Restructuring the Cure or the Cause? AgEcon
Brennan, Timothy J..
Widespread concern over transmission capacity requires theoretical support to infer inadequacy from observed trends indicating reductions in the ratio of transmission to generation capacity over time. If integrated utilities had been regulated with allowed returns exceeding capital costs, transmission generation ratios would have been excessive, and observed trends might be a correction. However, numerous commentators claim that post-restructuring transmission rates have been too low, with NIMBY also discouraging investment. We model the possibility that inadequate separation between generation and transmission may result in reduced investment, in order to preserve incumbent market power in generation. However, consideration of transmission price caps and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity transmission; Regulation; Deregulation; Vertical integration; Environmental Economics and Policy; L94; L51; L22.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10723
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An Experimental Analysis of Compliance in Dynamic Emissions Markets AgEcon
Stranlund, John K.; Murphy, James J.; Spraggon, John M..
Two important design elements for emission trading programs are whether and to what extent firms are able to bank emissions permits, and how these programs are to be enforced. In this paper we present results from laboratory emissions markets designed to investigate enforcement and compliance when these markets allow permit banking. Banking is motivated by a decrease in the aggregate permit supply in the middle of multi-period trading sessions. Consistent with theoretical insights, our experiments suggest that high permit violation penalties have little deterrence value in dynamic emissions markets, and that the main challenge of enforcing these programs is to motivate truthful self-reports of emissions.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Compliance; Enforcement; Emissions trading; Laboratory experiments; Permit markets; Permit banking; Environmental Economics and Policy; Public Economics; C91; L51; Q58.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93966
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Auctioning Monopoly Franchises: Award Criteria and Service Launch Requirements AgEcon
Dosi, Cesare; Moretto, Michele.
We study the competition to acquire the exclusive right to operate an infrastructure service, by comparing two different specifications for the financial proposals - "lowest price to consumers" vs "highest concession fee", and two alternative contractual arrangements: a contract which imposes the obligation to immediately undertake the investment required to operate the concessioned service and a contract which simply assigns to the winning bidder the right to supply the market at a date of her choosing. By comparing the returns of these alternative award criteria and concessioning conditions, we show that concessioning without imposing rollout time limits may or may not provide a higher expected social value, depending on the bidding rule used to allocate...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Concessions; Auctions; Award criteria; Service Rollout Time limits; Public Economics; L51; D44; D92.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50409
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Banking on "Green Money": Are Environmental Financial Responsibility Rules Fulfilling Their Promise? AgEcon
Boyd, James.
Financial responsibility rules are an increasingly common form of environmental regulation. Currently, the operators of landfills, underground petroleum storage tanks, offshore rigs, and oil tankers must demonstrate the existence of adequate levels of capital as a precondition to the legal operation of their businesses. Environmental financial responsibility ensures that firms possess the resources to compensate society for pollution costs created in the course of business operations. In addition to providing a source of funds for victim compensation and pollution remediation, financial responsibility is thought to motivate better decision-making, particularly regarding the management of long-term risks. This article describes both the promise of financial...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Financial responsibility; Environmental liability; Waste disposal; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; L51; K32.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10592
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Bankruptcy Risk and Imperfectly Enforced Emissions Taxes AgEcon
Stranlund, John K.; Zhang, Wei.
Under favorable but reasonable conditions, an imperfectly enforced emissions tax produces the efficient allocation of individual emissions control; aggregate emissions are independent of whether enforcement of the tax is sufficient to induce the full compliance of firms, and differences in individual violations are independent of firm-level differences. All of these desirable characteristics disappear when some firms under an emissions tax risk bankruptcy—the allocation of emissions control is inefficient, imperfect enforcement causes higher aggregate emissions, and financially insecure firms choose higher violations.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Bankruptcy; Emissions Taxes; Limited Liability; Environmental Economics and Policy; Public Economics; Risk and Uncertainty; L51; Q28; Q58.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42127
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Bankruptcy Risk and the Performance of Tradable Permit Markets AgEcon
Stranlund, John K.; Zhang, Wei.
We study the impact of bankruptcy risk on markets for tradable environmental and natural resource permits. We find that firms that risk bankruptcy demand more permits than if they were financially secure. Consequently, bankruptcy risk in a competitive market for tradable property rights causes an inefficient distribution of individual choices among regulated firms. Moreover, the equilibrium distribution of permits is not independent of the initial distribution of permits. In fact, the inefficiency that is associated with bankruptcy risk is mitigated if financially insecure firms are given a larger share of the initial allocation of permits.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Bankruptcy; Tradable permits; Permit markets; Environmental Economics and Policy; L51; Q28; Q58.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7384
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Border Enforcement and Firm Response in the Management of Invasive Species AgEcon
Ameden, Holly A.; Cash, Sean B.; Zilberman, David.
This analysis presents a theoretical model of firm response to border enforcement and evaluates both the intended and unintended effects under two enforcement regimes: destruction versus treatment of contaminated shipments. The results indicate that importers may respond to increased inspection by reducing shipments and decreasing due care. In response to increased pest populations, firms may reduce shipments and increase due care, indicating that an enforcement response may not be necessary. The analysis reveals the importance of the nature of the due-care technology, as well as the relationships underlying the probability of detection, in determining the effects of enforcement.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Border enforcement; Environmental regulation; Invasive species; Trade and environment; F18; L51; Q17; Q56; Q58.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37112
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Can Information Costs Affect Consumer Choice?—Nutritional Labels in a Supermarket Experiment— AgEcon
Kiesel, Kristin; Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto.
This paper investigates whether information costs under currently regulated nutritional labeling prevent consumers from making healthier food choices. We implement five nutritional shelf label treatments in a market-level experiment. These labels reduce information costs by highlighting and summarizing information available on the Nutritional Facts Panel. Following a difference-in-differences and synthetic control method approach, we analyze weekly store-level scanner data for microwave popcorn purchases from treatment and control stores. Our results suggest that consumer purchases are affected by information costs. Implemented low calorie and no trans fat labels increase sales. In contrast, implemented low fat labels decrease sales, suggesting that...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Nutritional labeling; Information cost; Scanner data; Market-level experiment; Difference-in-differences; Synthetic control method; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; C93; D01; D18; D83; L51.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116433
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Capital Structure and Regulation: Does Ownership Matter? AgEcon
Bortolotti, Bernardo; Cambini, Carlo; Rondi, Laura; Spiegel, Yossi.
We construct a comprehensive panel data of 96 publicly traded European utilities over the period 1994-2005 in order to study the relationship between the capital structure of regulated firms, regulated prices, and investments, and examine if and how this interaction is affected by ownership structure. We show that firms in our sample increase their leverage after becoming regulated by an independent regulatory agency, but only if they are privately controlled. Moreover, we find that the leverage of these firms has a positive and significant effect on regulated prices, but not vice versa, and it also has a positive and significant effect on their investment levels. Our results are consistent with the theory that privately-controlled firms use leverage...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Regulated utilities; Regulatory agencies; Capital structure; Leverage; Investment; Private and state ownership; Public Economics; L51; G31; G32; L33.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7449
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Certification as a Rationale for Voluntary Agreements AgEcon
Gonzalez, Patrick.
I model the participation of firms in a voluntary agreement as a costly certification process whereby a firm informs the Regulator of its pollution intensity. Without this knowledge, the Regulator imposes the same tax on all firms in a heterogeneous industry, unduly hurting the clean ones with the lowest intensity. Certification allows clean firms to get a tax rebate. It also entails an informational externality as the dispersion of types decreases within the pool of non-participating firms, following an unraveling process. Because participation is a firm’s private decision, there is such a thing as a bad voluntary agreement.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Certification; Voluntary agreements; Pigovian taxes; Pollution; Environmental Economics and Policy; L51; Q53; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117827
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China’s Electricity Market Reform and Power Plants Efficiency AgEcon
Ma, Chunbo; Zhao, Xiaoli; Ma, Qian; Zhao, Yue.
In the past three decades, Chinese electricity industry has experienced a series of regulatory reforms serving different purposes at different stages. In 2002, the former vertically integrated electricity utility - the State Power Corporation (SPC) – was divested and the generation sector was separated from the transmission and distribution networks in an effort to improve production efficiency. In this paper we study the impact of the reform on efficiency of fossil-fired power plants using plant-level data during 2000-2008. Our results from the data envelopment analysis (DEA) and panel regressions show that: 1) the total factor productivity (TFP) growth mainly comes from technological change; 2) the technical efficiency of previously SPC-managed power...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Efficiency; DEA; Malmquist Index; China; Electricity; Industrial Organization; Productivity Analysis; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D24; L11; L51; L94; L98.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117811
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CO-EXISTENCE COSTS UNDER GERMAN REGULATION - CASE STUDIES OF BT MAIZE AgEcon
Reitmeier, Daniela; Menrad, Klaus.
Paper prepared for presentation at the 10th ICABR International Conference on Agricultural Biotechnology: Facts, Analysis and Policies Ravello (Italy), June 29th to July 2nd, 2006
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Co-existence measure; GMO; Bt maize; GIS; Germany; Agricultural and Food Policy; L51; O32.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91329
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Collective Voluntary Approaches to Food Safety with Heterogeneous Firms: Monitoring and Design? AgEcon
Bignebat, Celine; Rouviere, Elodie.
Collective quality management systems are well known instruments to manage the quality and/or the safety of foodstuffs. They can be considered as voluntary approaches to food safety. In environmental economics some empirical studies emphasize that firms entering into a collective voluntary program behave differently because their motivations differ. To the best of our knowledge, there is no formal discussion on the effectiveness of a collective voluntary program in which firms adopt different behaviour once they entered the program. Starting from this two strand of literature, we extend the analytical framework of collective voluntary approaches considering heterogeneous firms and applying it to food safety issues. We show that according to firm’s...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Voluntary Approaches; Food Safety; Collective Action; Heterogeneity; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Q18; L51; L81.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9441
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Concession Bidding Rules and Investment Time Flexibility AgEcon
Dosi, Cesare; Moretto, Michele.
We study the competition to operate an infrastructure service by developing a model where firms must report a two-dimensional sealed bid: the price to consumers and the concession fee paid to the government. Two bidding rules are considered in this paper. One rule consists of awarding the concession to the firm that reports the lowest price. The other consists of granting the franchise to the bidder offering the highest fee. We compare the outcome of these rules with reference to two alternative concession arrangements. The former imposes the obligation to immediately undertake the investment required to roll-out the service. The latter allows the concessionaire to optimally decide the investment timing. The focus is on the effect of bidding rules and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Concessions; Auctions; Bidding Rules; Managerial Flexibility; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; L51; D44; D92.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6630
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