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Registros recuperados: 31
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"A Definition at Last, but What Does It All Mean?"—Newspaper Coverage of the USDA Organic Seal and its Effects on Food Purchases- AgEcon
Kiesel, Kristin.
Replaced with revised version of paper 07/06/08.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Consumer demand; Labeling; Media effect; Organic food; Scanner data; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6351
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A Model of Labeling with Horizontal Differentiation and Cost Variability AgEcon
Saak, Alexander E..
We study optimal disclosure of variety by a multi-product firm with random costs. In our model there are two varieties that are horizontally differentiated and differ in overall quality, but buyers cannot distinguish between them without labels. The equilibrium prices for labeled varieties are increasing functions of the absolute value of the cost differential and do not reveal which variety is cheaper to produce. Nondisclosure is most common when there is moderate uncertainty about the relative input cost, not too much idiosyncrasy in consumer valuations, and not too much difference in quality across varieties. Although mandatory disclosure of variety benefits consumers, it decreases expected welfare when relative input cost variability is large and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Industrial Organization; Marketing; Information; Labeling; Quality disclosure; Product differentiation.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103540
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An analysis of trade related international regulations of genetically modified food and their effects on developing countries AgEcon
Gruere, Guillaume P..
This paper reviews current trade-related regulations of genetically modified (GM) food and discusses their effects on developing countries. There is a large heterogeneity in current import approval and marketing policies of GM food worldwide. At the international level, the harmonization efforts are led by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and the World Trade Organization. While internationally harmonized guidelines for safety approval have been finalized, we show that there is no clear consensus on labeling regulations for GM food, and there is an increasing risk of conflicts among international agreements. We analyze the GM food regulations of two large rich importers, Japan and the European Union (EU) and discuss...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Genetically modified food; Developing countries; Biotechnology; Biosafety; Trade regulation; Labeling; International trade; Tariff; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55422
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Analysis of Consumer Preferences for Biotech Labeling Formats AgEcon
Harrison, R. Wes; Mclennon, Everald.
Conjoint analysis is used to measure the preferences of United States consumers for labeling of biotech foods. The study found that consumers in the sample support mandatory labeling of biotech foods. This suggests that U.S. consumers would support revisions to the present voluntary labeling policy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Results also showed that the preferred labeling formal is a text disclosure that describes the benefits of biotechnology in combination with a biotech logo.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Biotechnology; Labeling; Conjoint Analysis; Q18; Q13.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42937
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CEAGO VINEGARDEN: HOW GREEN IS YOUR WINE? ENVIRONMENTAL DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGY THROUGH ECO-LABELS AgEcon
Delmas, Magali A.; Doctori-Blass, Vered; Shuster, Kara.
wine eco-labeling case study
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Organic wine; Biodynamic wine; Labeling; Case study; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37326
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Do Native and Invasive Labels Affect Consumer Willingness to Pay for Plants? Evidence from Experimental Auctions AgEcon
Yue, Chengyan; Hurley, Terrance M.; Anderson, Neil O..
The ultimate objective of commercial horticultural activities is to satisfy the needs of the final consumer. Consumer demand for novel plants drives the ornamental plant industry. Therefore, dispersal of native and invasive horticultural plants can be understood by considering the decisions/choices of consumers who decide which plants to purchase from retailers. In contrast to previous studies on invasive and native plants, this study uses an experimental auction to elicit consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for labeled native and invasive attributes. Results from a censored random effect model show that consumers’ WTP for plants decreases when the plants are labeled as invasive and increases when plants are labeled as native. The study finds that...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Native plants; Invasive plants; Willingness to pay; Labeling; Auction; Marketing; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49212
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ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF PURITY STANDARDS IN BIOTECH LABELING LAWS AgEcon
Giannakas, Konstantinos; Kalaitzandonakes, Nicholas G..
This paper develops a model of heterogeneous consumer preferences to analyze the market and welfare effects of reduced purity standards for non-GM labeled food. Analytical results show that purity standards affect the equilibrium prices and quantities of both the GM and non-GM products as well as the welfare of the groups involved. A change in purity standards is shown to create winners and losers among the consumers as well as among the suppliers of the GM and conventional products.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural biotechnology; Genetically modified products; Labeling; Purity standards; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19393
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ECONOMICS OF FOOD LABELING AgEcon
Golan, Elise H.; Kuchler, Fred; Mitchell, Lorraine.
Federal intervention in food labeling is often proposed with the aim of achieving a social goal such as improving human health and safety, mitigating environmental hazards, averting international trade disputes, or supporting domestic agricultural and food manufacturing industries. Economic theory suggests, however, that mandatory food-labeling requirements are best suited to alleviating problems of asymmetric information and are rarely effective in redressing environmental or other spillovers associated with food production and consumption. Theory also suggests that the appropriate role for government in labeling depends on the type of information involved and the level and distribution of the costs and benefits of providing that information. This report...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Labeling; Information policy; Nutrition Labeling and Education Act; Dolphin-safe tuna; National organic standards; Country-of-origin labels; Biotech food labeling; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34069
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Effect of a peel passion fruit flour (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) extract on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the morphology of red blood cells BABT
Rebello,Bernardo Machado; Moreno,Silvana Ramos Farias; Ribeiro,Camila Godinho; Neves,Rosane de Figueiredo; Fonseca,Adenilson de Souza da; Caldas,Luis Querino de Araújo; Bernardo-Filho,Mario; Medeiros,Aldo da Cunha.
Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (maracuja) is a fruit consumed in Brazil and worldwide. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used in nuclear medicine. The effect of P. flavicarpa extract on the radiolabeling of blood constituents and on red blood cells morphology was evaluated. Blood samples from Wistar rats was incubated with P. flavicarpa extract. After that, the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc was carried out. Samples of plasma and blood cells were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid to isolate the soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells. The radioactivity in each fractions was counted and the percentage of radioactivity was determined. Blood smears were also prepared to morphological evaluation and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Labeling; Blood; Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa; Radiobiocomplexes; Technetium-99m.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132007000600019
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Effect of an extract of Artemisia vulgaris L. (Mugwort) on the in vitro labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m BABT
Terra,Danielle Amorim; Amorim,Lúcia de Fátima; Catanho,Maria Tereza Jansen de Almeida; Fonseca,Adenilson de Souza da; Santos-Filho,Sebastião David; Brandão-Neto,José; Medeiros,Aldo da Cunha; Bernardo-Filho,Mario.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of an extract of the Artemisia vulgaris L. (mugwort) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc). Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with a mugwort extract and the radiolabeling of blood constituents was carried out. Plasma and blood cells were separated by centrifugation. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged to isolate soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Mugwort extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on the blood compartments and on the blood cells proteins (insoluble...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Artemisia vulgaris L.; Technetium-99m; Blood constituents; Labeling.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132007000600015
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Effects of Country-of-Origin Labeling on Meat Producers and Consumers AgEcon
Lusk, Jayson L.; Anderson, John D..
Although several studies have estimated the costs of country-of-origin labeling (COOL), no previous study has documented how these costs will be distributed across the livestock sector or how producer and consumer welfare will be affected. This analysis presents an equilibrium displacement model of the farm, wholesale, and retail markets for beef, pork, and poultry that documents how producers and consumers will be affected by COOL. Findings reveal that as the costs of COOL are shifted from the producer to the processor and retailer, producers are made increasingly better off while consumers are made increasingly worse off. Further, an increase in aggregate consumer demand of 2% to 3% is likely sufficient to offset lost producer welfare due to COOL costs.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Beef; Country of origin; Equilibrium displacement model; Labeling; Pork; Poultry; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31110
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Environmental Labeling, Protected Geographical Indications and the Interests of Developing Countries AgEcon
Grote, Ulrike.
Among developing countries, one can identify both proponents and opponents of extending the use of geographical indications (GIs) beyond wines and spirits. Such an extension is currently being discussed under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) of the World Trade Organization. While labeling is mostly based on private initiatives, GIs are considered to be long-term public rights. Proponents therefore regard GIs as the stronger tools for protecting their national property rights and offering them new opportunities to develop their export markets. Opponents, however, consider GIs to be new barriers to trade that impede their export opportunities. This article clarifies these positions and pulls together some...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Developing countries; Geographical indications; Labeling; WTO; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48795
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Food Safety and Imports: An Analysis of FDA Food-Related Import Refusal Reports AgEcon
Buzby, Jean C.; Unnevehr, Laurian J.; Roberts, Donna.
This report examines U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) data on refusals of food offered for importation into the United States from 1998 to 2004. Although the data do not necessarily reflect the distribution of risk in foods, the study found that import refusals highlight food safety problems that appear to recur in trade and where the FDA has focused its import alerts, examinations (e.g., sampling), and other monitoring efforts. The data show some food industries and types of violations are consistent sources of problems both over time and in comparison with previous studies of more limited data. The three food industry groups with the most violations were vegetables (20.6 percent of total violations), fishery and seafood (20.1 percent), and fruits...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Adulteration; Food imports; Food and Drug Administration (FDA); Food safety; Misbranding; Labeling; Refusal; Shipment; Violation; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58626
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GM FOOD LABELING POLICIES OF THE U.S. AND ITS TRADING PARTNERS AgEcon
Rousu, Matthew C.; Huffman, Wallace E..
Much of the international controversy of GM foods is due to labeling policies. Countries around the world have chosen different policies to label GM foods. We examine the labeling policies of several areas: the United States, the European Union, Australia, Japan, Canada, and China. We discuss each country's GM labeling policy, along with a brief history of how each country arrived at their current policy. We conclude by discussing how different policies are due to different ethical concerns of GM foods, along with the difference in perceived risks GM foods pose to health, the environment, and trade.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; GM foods; Labeling; Trade; Marketing; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18245
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Identifying Market Preferences for High Selenium Beef AgEcon
Hovde, Scott C.; Wachenheim, Cheryl J.; Hearne, Robert R.; Nganje, William E..
Selenium is an element found in relatively high concentrations in crops and livestock raised on high-selenium soils located in North and South Dakota. Evidence suggests that a high-selenium diet such as would be obtained from consuming these products can reduce the risk of certain cancers. The region's livestock and grain producers are exploring potential high-selenium product marketing opportunities. A choice experiment was conducted to identify preferred attributes for a high-selenium beef product and the characteristics of potential market segments. In a national survey, participants chose between different levels of health claim approval and research, prices, and selenium origin. A multinomial logit regression model was estimated. Labeling...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Choice Experiment; FDA approval; Functional Foods; Health Claim; Labeling; Selenium; Consumer/Household Economics; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7633
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Il quadro normativo sulle denominazioni commerciali dei prodotti ittici nella gestione delle frodi: strumento di gestione o problema irrisolto? AgEcon
Gaviglio, Anna; Pirani, Alberto; Demartini, Eugenio.
Authors suppose the amounts of fraudulent seafood sales reported in recent years to be somehow correlated to the problems of Italian commercial fish-naming policy. However, given the lack of data and studies, the work has an exploratory nature focusing on three main issues: the seafood labeling policy framework, the evolution of lists of fish species’ trade names and the spread and type of fraudulent sales. According data authors believe that the fish-naming system is improving, however that lack of studies estimating the right amount of diversification in trade names for marine species seems so to be a weakness for a winning policy. Furthermore, seafood retailers seems to assume an important role on fraud management and government should support research...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Fish products; Labeling; Consumer protection; Research perspectives; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; L15; Q18; Q22.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/130451
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Imports From China and Food Safety Issues AgEcon
Gale, H. Frederick, Jr.; Buzby, Jean C..
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) increased attention to food imports from China is an indicator of safety concerns as imported food becomes more common in the United States. U.S. food imports from China more than tripled in value between 2001 and 2008. Addressing safety risks associated with these imports is difficult because of the vast array of products from China, China’s weak enforcement of food safety standards, its heavy use of agricultural chemicals, and its considerable environmental pollution. FDA import refusal data highlight food safety problems that appear to recur in trade and where FDA has focused its import alerts and monitoring efforts. FDA refusals of food shipments from China suggest recurring problems with “filth,” unsafe...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: China; Food imports; Food safety; U.S. Food and Drug Administration; FDA; Misbranding; Labeling; Refusals; Shipment; Violation.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58620
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INFORMATION POLICY AND GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD: WEIGHING THE BENEFITS AND COSTS AgEcon
Teisl, Mario F.; Caswell, Julie A..
The labeling of genetically modified foods (GMFs) is the topic of a debate that could dramatically alter the structure of the U.S. and international food industry. The current lack of harmonization of policy across countries makes GMF labeling an international trade issue. The U.S. and Canada do not require GMFs to be labeled unless the GMF is significantly different than the conventional food or the GMF presents a health concern. However, many other countries are requiring GMFs to be labeled. This paper discusses empirical work on the sources and magnitude of benefits and costs from labeling programs, with particular emphasis on the impact of the design of the labeling program on benefits and costs.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: GMOs; Biotechnology; Labeling; Benefits; Costs; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14534
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Ion specificity in determining physico-chemical properties of drinking water Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment.
PREZIOSO,Domenico; DI DOMENICO,Dante; PANE,Manuela; CICCARELLI,Donato; D’ERRICO,Gerardino.
Abstract Drinking water plays a key role in regulating the daily salt intake, thus potentially affecting (either in positive or in negative direction) the incidence of diet-related pathologies, including nephrolithiasis. Being regarded as wholesome, bottled water is increasingly preferred to tap water. However, its physico-chemical characterization, as reported on the label, is usually limited to pH and conductivity measurements, along with ion content. Other parameters, which also are likely to influence the processes in which water is involved in the body, are usually neglected. In this work, the surface tension and density of tap water and two bottled mineral waters produced in Italy are investigated. These parameters are critically determined by the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Bottled mineral water; Labeling; Surface tension; Density; Ion content.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612019000200485
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Labeling Policies in Food Markets: Private Incentives, Public Intervention, and Welfare Effects AgEcon
Zago, Angelo M.; Pick, Daniel H..
This study considers the welfare impact of labeling policies of agricultural commodities with specific characteristics. Using a model of vertical differentiation, the effects on equilibrium and welfare levels are calculated. The introduction of the regulation and the emergence of two differentiated competitive markets leaves consumers and high-quality producers better off, while low-quality producers are worse off. With high costs and low quality differences, the total welfare impact of the regulation can be negative. Findings show that when high-quality producers can exercise market power, the regulation could be more easily accepted by producers, but it would have a negative effect on consumers.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Asymmetric information; Food markets; Labeling; Market power; Vertical differentiation; Welfare effects; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31143
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