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Registros recuperados: 15
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A exclusão social de mulheres jovens, com idade entre 15 a 24 anos, no mercado de trabalho no Brasil AgEcon
Fernandes, Rosangela Aparecida Soares; Lima, Joao Eustaquio de; Santos, Cristiane Marcia.
Vários fatores como escolaridade, renda per capita, experiência, maternidade, raça, dentre outros, têm contribuído para a exclusão de mulheres jovens no mercado de trabalho. O objetivo deste artigo é identificar a situação das mulheres jovens, com idade entre 15 e 24 anos, no mercado de trabalho brasileiro em 2005. Estimou-se um modelo logit multinomial para as probabilidades das jovens encontrarem, em determinado período de tempo, em uma das seguintes ocupações: inativo, ativo e empregado, ou ativo e desempregado. Verificou-se que, o aumento da escolaridade e experiência diminui as probabilidades de emprego e desemprego e aumenta a probabilidade inatividade. A renda per capita relaciona-se positivamente com as probabilidades de inatividade e empregado e...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Ercado de trabalho; Mulheres jovens; Emprego; Exclusão social; Desemprego; Labour market; Young women; Employment; Social exclusion; Unemployment; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108575
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Agricultural and Rural Labour Markets in the EU Candidate Countries of Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan.
Factor Markets Coordination: Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), Brussels, Belgium
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Labour market; Agricultural and rural labour structures; Education; Gender; Unemployment and living conditions in rural areas; Candidate countries; European Union.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Labor and Human Capital; Political Economy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117487
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¿Cómo se ajusta el mercado de trabajo ante cambios en el salario mínimo en el Perú?: una evaluación de la experiencia de la última década AgEcon
Jaramillo, Miguel; Lopez, Kristian.
Luego de alcanzar un pico histórico en 1986, el salario mínimo sufrió una caída estrepitosa, junto con el nivel medio de las remuneraciones, hasta inicios de los noventas. Sin embargo, desde mediados de los noventas se ha incrementado considerablemente, acercándose al nivel promedio de las remuneraciones tanto de trabajadores no calificados como de informales. Este estudio describe el marco institucional del salario mínimo en el mercado laboral peruano y analiza su relación con la distribución de los ingresos laborales para diferentes grupos del mercado laboral (trabajadores no calificados, informales, mujeres y jóvenes). Así mismo, aprovecha las variaciones recientes para identificar los efectos de un alza sobre las remuneraciones y el empleo a lo largo...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Empleo; Salarios; Salario mínimo; Mercado de trabajo; Perú; Employment; Wages; Minumum wage; Labour market; Peru; Labor and Human Capital; J3; J4.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37728
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¿Crisis real o crisis de expectativas?: el empleo en el Perú antes y después de las reformas estructurales AgEcon
Saavedra Chanduvi, Jaime.
En esta investigación se analizan los mecanismos de ajuste del mercado de trabajo entre 1986 y 1997. Luego de un estancamiento del empleo entre 1988 y 1992, periodo recesivo en el cual el mercado de trabajo se ajustó a través de una reducción en los ingresos reales y una menor tasa de participación laboral, a partir de 1993, el empleo empezó a crecer junto con el nivel de actividad económica. El mercado de trabajo fue capaz de absorber el aumento de la oferta de empleo en ese periodo. El aumento del empleo fue generado íntegramente por el sector privado, ya que el empleo público se redujo. Sin embargo, hay grupos demográficos específicos, como los hombres de mayor edad, para quienes el crecimiento del empleo ha sido muy pequeño, y las probabilidades de...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Empleo; Desempleo; Ingreso; Mercado de trabajo; Sector informal; Ajuste estructural; Employment; Unemployment; Income; Labour market; Informal sector; Structural adjustment; Peru; Labor and Human Capital; E24; D31; J2; J4.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37981
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Dilemmas in Hungarian higher education AgEcon
Herneczky, Andrea; Marselek, Sandor.
Higher rates of employment are essential to economic growth. The best way to increase the rate of employment is through training and education. Transforming education to mass education, as well as the weakening of the previous knowledge of students has caused a quality decay among job-seekers. The motivation behind education is not sound; the number of majors in higher education is higher than necessary and is not adjusted to the requirements of the labour market. Hands-on training has been forced into the background. Career offices at large colleges and universities may improve the entrants’ chances of finding a job. Higher education institutions are also responsible for the continuous further training of their graduate students with BSc degrees, which...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Higher education; Bologna process; Innovation; Research; Labour market; Felsőoktatás; Bolognai folyamat; Innováció; Kutatás; Munkaerőpiac; Public Economics; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92535
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Does Social Capital Mitigate Precariousness? AgEcon
Sabatini, Fabio.
There is a surprising gap in the economic literature on social capital. First, we lack studies addressing the effects of social capital on those facets of development that can contribute in making growth more sustainable in the long run, like, for example, human development and social cohesion. Second, it is still unclear what type of networks may exert a positive effect on the different dimensions of development. In particular, the literature has not yet provided a rigorous assessment of the role of strong family ties, that are generally referred to as a form of bonding social capital causing backwardness. This paper carries out an empirical investigation into the relationship between the three types of social capital so far identified by the literature...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Social capital; Human development; Labour market; Precariousness; Italy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Labor and Human Capital; Risk and Uncertainty; J24; O15; Z13.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6358
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Effects of Economic Globalisation on Employment Trend and Wages in Developing Countries: Lessons from Nigeria Experiences AgEcon
Elijah, Obayelu Abiodun.
Since 1986, Nigeria has gradually been integrating with the global economy. This paper examines the effect of globalization on employment and wages in Nigeria. The effects of globalization have been difficult to isolate and evaluate theoretically and empirically due to it multi-faceted nature, but this study attempt to analyse the effects on employment and employees’ wages by looking at what happened before, during and after globalization in Nigeria. Information and data were mainly gathered through secondary sources, The results of the analysis shows that globalisation of the Nigeria economy through various economic reforms, deregulation and privatisation has led to downsizing of employment in civil service thereby compounding the widespread job...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Globalization; Labour market; Employment; Wages; Developing countries and Nigeria; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7433
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Estabilidad laboral e indemnizaciómn: efectos de los costos de despido sobre el funcionamiento del mercado laboral peruano AgEcon
Saavedra Chanduvi, Jaime; Maruyama Sasaki, Eduardo.
A inicios de la década de los noventa los costos de despido impuestos por la legislación laboral peruana eran aún bastante elevados. La estabilidad laboral absoluta y los altos pagos de indemnización por despido funcionaban en la práctica como impuestos a la contratación que convertían al empleo formal en un factor de producción cuasi-fijo. En 1991 se inició un proceso de cambios en la legislación laboral que ha llevado a que el Perú sea uno de los países que más ha flexibilizado su mercado de trabajo durante la década pasada. Las reformas permitieron una reducción importante en los costos de despido, principalmente debido a la abolición de la estabilidad laboral y la paulatina reducción del pago de indemnización por despido. En esta investigación se...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Empleo; Estabilidad laboral; Despido; Indemnización por censantía; Mercado de trabajo; Economía del trabajo; Perú; Employment; Employment stability; Severance pay; Dismissal; Labour market; Labour economics; Peru; Labor and Human Capital; J21; J4; J65.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37813
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Market relations in education as the factor, which has impact on the quality of human capital AgEcon
Pavlovska, Valentina.
Market relations in Latvian economy increasingly develop in the field of education. Education becomes a special product and people must know how to sell and how to buy it. Graduates’ ability to fit labour market requirements is an important indicator of education quality. Consequently, the education product should meet labour market requirements. Market research data show that employers, education institutions and students have different visions of what the labour market requirements are.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Market relations in labour market; Demand and supply of education; Labour market; Quality; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; I2; J24.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94606
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Menos desiguales: la distribución del ingreso luego de las reformas estructurales AgEcon
Jaramillo, Miguel; Saavedra, Jaime.
Entre 1997 y 2006 —el periodo posterior a la reforma estructural en Perú— el coeficiente de Gini del ingreso familiar per cápita disminuyó de 0.54 a 0.49. Otros hallazgos claves en el análisis de la evolución reciente de la desigualdad en el Perú son el rol de los ingresos no laborales en la reducción de la desigualdad del ingreso, la identificación de niveles de desigualdad mayores en las zonas urbanas que en las rurales y la disminución más pronunciada de la desigualdad en las zonas urbanas. Entre los factores que explican la desigualdad es reveladora la importancia del área de residencia (urbana/rural) como protagonista de un rol mucho mayor que el sugerido por estimados para periodos anteriores. Así mismo, se evidencia una dinámica de mercado que ha...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Desigualdad economica; Distribucion del ingreso; Politica social; Politica gubernamental; Mercado de trabajo; Economic disparity; Income distribution; Social policy; Government policy; Labour market; Peru; Labor and Human Capital; Political Economy; D33.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/107397
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Reconciling Globalisation and Technological Change: Growing Income Inequalities and Remedial Policies AgEcon
Svizzero, Serge; Tisdell, Clement A..
Since the mid-1970s wage inequality and skills differentials have increased sharply in OECD countries, and the following have been singled out by economists as possible major contributors: (a)economic globalisation processes; (b)skill-biased technological change; and (c) public policy or institutional change. Although these factors are most commonly considered as independent influences, we argue after critically outlining views about the two first mentioned factors, that strong interdependence exists between these influences. The article then examines potential policy responses to this growing inequality. Protectionism, increased provision of education and skill-enhancement, greater compensation via social services for the disadvantaged and negative...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Education; Fiscal competition; Globalisation; Income distribution; Labour market; Protectionism; Technological change; International Relations/Trade; Public Economics.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90511
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SOME ASPECTS OF EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF THE LABOR MARKET IN KAZAKHSTAN AgEcon
Alimbekova, Guljan; Ilyasova, Alya.
The paper raises issue of self-employed in Kazakhstan. The authors believe that complex measures must be implemented - in areas of legislation and state social policy, statistical reporting and taxation - to create better conditions for self-employed people. Otherwise, the self-employed sector might become a source of poverty extension in the country.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Labour market; Unemployment; Living standards; Employees; Self-employed population.; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; I3; J83.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94597
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THE LINK BETWEEN EDUCATION AND THE STATE OF THE LABOUR MARKET IN HUNGARY AgEcon
Csehne Papp, Imola.
Education became one of the largest sub-system of modern societies in the past century. The role of education is no longer interpreted only as the conveyor of culture, knowledge and values, but it is also attributed a significant role in its contribution to economic development and the promotion of social integration. The development of the theory of the human capital is associated with Theodore W. Schulz. According to his presumptions, the people make investments through education and training that increase their ability to produce, their productivity and thus the market value of their work. There have different explanations created to justify the contribution of education to economic development. The most significant from among them are as follows:...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Labour market; Education; Unemployment; Possibility of employment; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58919
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THE ROLE OF SKILLS AND COMPETENCES IN THE NATIONAL HIGHER EDUCATION AND IN THE LABOUR MARKET AgEcon
Herneczky, Andrea; Varga, Erika; Marsalek, Sandor.
Due to the rapid technological, technical and economic development in the 21st century, knowledge and learning have become decisive economic factors and the role of human resources has also come in the limelight. The competitiveness of an entire national economy, a region or even a continent is basically determined by human resources with the suitable competencies. The labour market is in need of graduates who possess not only expertise in its strict sense but also master some economic, IT and foreign language skills. The free movement of labour is only of benefit to those who are able to communicate in a foreign language at a suitable level in addition to having specialised knowledge. We set out to carry out a questionnaire-based study to prove that...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Competence; Competitiveness; Human resources; Model; Education; Labour market; Kompetencia; Versenyképesség; Emberi erőforrás; Modell; Oktatás; Munkaerőpiac; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99203
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Why Is French Equilibrium Unemployment So High? An Estimation of the WS-PS Model. AgEcon
L'Horty, Yannick; Rault, Christophe.
Unemployment in France rose steadily from the early-seventies to the mid-eighties. Since the mid-eighties it has continued to experience fluctuations around a very high average level. Equilibrium unemployment theories are a useful framework within which to account for these developments. A multivariate estimation of the WS-PS model on macroeconomic quarterly data, which includes a larger number of potential unemployment determinants than earlier work, allows an enriched reading of the rise in French unemployment and of its persistence at a high level. We estimated it using a conditional VAR-ECM model, which is based upon the weak exogeneity properties of variables over the 1970-1/1996-4 period. The rise in equilibrium unemployment by 10 points in 25 years...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Labour market; WS-PS model; Equilibrium unemployment; Cointegration; Conditional VAR-ECM model; Labor and Human Capital; C32; E24.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44062
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