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Registros recuperados: 16
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Agricultural Insurance as an Environmental Policy Tool AgEcon
Coble, Keith H.; Hanson, Terrill R.; Miller, J. Corey; Shaik, Saleem.
This paper examines the possibility that insurance for row crops, livestock, and aquaculture can be used effectively to encourage producers to adopt practices that will improve environmental behavior. Examples of agricultural environmental insurance are provided and considered in the context of alternative policy mechanisms. The current state of agricultural insurance and the nonagricultural environmental insurance market are explored. We also lay out the characteristics of an insurable risk along with the theoretical basis of insurance provision. An empirical example of an environmental insurance design is provided, and the behavioral implications of such a design are examined. Finally, we discuss important considerations that should be evaluated...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Environment; Insurance; Liability; D81; G22; H23; K13; Q18.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43214
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Coase and Car Repair: Who Should Be Responsible for Emissions of Vehicles in Use? AgEcon
Harrington, Winston; McConnell, Virginia D..
This paper examines the current assignment of liability for in-use vehicle emissions and suggests some alternative policies that may reduce the cost and increase the effectiveness. We first discuss the cost, performance and incentives under current Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) programs, using the recently implemented Arizona "Enhanced I/M" program as an example. These programs were designed to identify and repair vehicles with malfunctioning emission control systems. Since their inception, however, I/M programs have been plagued by transaction costs that have drastically raised the cost of I/M as well as limited its effectiveness. These transaction costs fall into three categories: emission monitoring, repair avoidance, and non-transferability of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Mobile sources; Emissions; Coase; Liability; I/M; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; Q28; R48.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10911
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Das neue Gentechnikgesetz - ein Gentechnikverhinderungsgesetz? AgEcon
Becker, Alexander; Holm-Muller, Karin.
In addition to existing juridical analyses of the new German act for genetic engineering, this article deals with an environmental economic assessment. It is examined what kind of external costs will arise by using/applying genetic engineering and how they will be allocated. Our focus is on the costs that explicitly evolve from the societal postulated coexistence of conventional/ organic farms and users of biotechnology. If the protection of the existing production is accepted, as postulated by politics, the new act internalizes the so called market losses relatively well. In this context, the design of precautionary duties that have to be still established by law is of utmost importance. To avoid the dangers of an excessive liability by the farmer, it is...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Act for genetic engineering; Liability; Coexistence; Market loss; Agricultural and Food Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; K32; Q55.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18775
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Das neue Gentechnikgesetz – ein Gentechnikverhinderungsgesetz? Eine umweltökonomische Analyse der haftungsrechtlichen Neuerungen im Gentechnikgesetz AgEcon
Becker, Alexander; Holm-Muller, Karin.
In this article, legal consequences of the new German genetic engineering act are analyzed. In addition environmental economic analysis is presented of those parts of the act that introduce new litigation regulation to farmers. The different kinds of external costs arising from genetic engineering of plants and their allocation to different actors are considered. The paper focuses on the costs resulting from the postulated coexistence of conventional/organic farms and users of biotechnology. Excessive liability of farmers can be avoided, if the producers of genetically modified seeds accept any litigation claims against farmers. Furthermore, negotiations between neighbouring farms can be an option to keep the costs of damage prevention at reasonable levels.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Genetic engineering act; Liability; Coexistence; Market loss; Precautionary principle; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97315
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Economics of Water Quality Protection from Nonpoint Sources: Theory and Practice AgEcon
Ribaudo, Marc; Horan, Richard D.; Smith, Mark E..
Water quality is a major environmental issue. Pollution from nonpoint sources is the single largest remaining source of water quality impairments in the United States. Agriculture is a major source of several nonpoint-source pollutants, including nutrients, sediment, pesticides, and salts. Agricultural nonpoint pollution reduction policies can be designed to induce producers to change their production practices in ways that improve the environmental and related economic consequences of production. The information necessary to design economically efficient pollution control policies is almost always lacking. Instead, policies can be designed to achieve specific environmental or other similarly related goals at least cost, given transaction costs and any...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Water quality; Nonpoint-source pollution; Economic incentives; Standards; Education; Liability; Research; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33913
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Environmental Remediation Law and Economies in Transition AgEcon
Boyd, James.
The paper discusses the design of environmental remediation laws in countries struggling with fundamental market and institutional reforms. Optimal cleanup standards, liability rules, and enforcement are discussed from the standpoint of both economic efficiency and practical implementation. Particular attention is paid to financing mechanisms and issues that arise during privatization.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental remediation; Liability; Privatization; Transitional economies; Environmental Economics and Policy; K32; P21; Q28.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10721
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Explaining the Changing Institutional Organisation of Dutch Farms: The Role of Farmer's Attitude, Advisory Network and Structural Factors AgEcon
Jongeneel, Roelof A.; Polman, Nico B.P.; Slangen, Louis H.G..
Although the family farm remains the dominant organisational form for farms there are changes in the legal mode of organisation. Applying the new institutional economics and economic organisation theory the different organisation modes are explained, mainly in terms of control and income rights. Important factors are (limited) liability, risk-bearing costs, transaction costs, and residual control and income rights. In an empirical follow-up, based on a sample among 3100 farmers in the Netherlands, the impact of farmers' attitudes, farm advisory network, and structural variables on organisation choice are analysed. Especially the financial advisors appear to play a significant role in the choice of organisation mode. Other factors are age, branche...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm organisation; Ownership and management; Liability; Risk; Residual control and income rights; Attitudes; Advisory network; Farm Management; Industrial Organization; Q12.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24526
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Explaining the Changing Institutional Organisation of Dutch Farms: The Role of Farmer's Attitude, Advisory Network and Structural Factors AgEcon
Jongeneel, Roelof A.; Slangen, Louis H.G..
Although still the family farm is the dominant farm type there are changes in the legal mode of organization. Applying the new institutional economics and economic organisation theory the different organisation modes are explained, mainly in terms of control and income rights. Important factors are (limited) liability, risk-bearing costs, transaction costs, and residual control and income rights. This is subsequently applied to Dutch agriculture, taking into account its special characteristics. In an empirical follow-up, based on a sample of all the farmers in the Netherlands, the farmers attitudes and the farm advisory network are analysed. Finally, farm types are explained using bivariate logit analysis, taking into account attitudinal, advisory-network...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm organization; Ownership and management; Liability; Risk; Residual control and income rights; Attitudes; Advisory network; Industrial Organization.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24441
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Financial Assurance Rules and Natural Resource Damage Liability: A Working Marriage? AgEcon
Boyd, James.
The study explores challenges associated with, and the feasibility of, financial assurance requirements for liabilities arising under U.S. environmental statutes, with a particular emphasis on liabilities associated with natural resource damages (NRDs). The overlap between federal NRD liability and financial assurance arises in the context of two financial assurance rules: one for waterborne vessels that carry oil or hazardous substances, and one for offshore facilities used for oil exploration, drilling, production, or transport. The report addresses the rules' history, their role as a complement to other forms of environmental regulation, and their impact on the regulated community and providers of coverage. Despite numerous difficulties and over...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Financial assurance; Financial responsibility; Natural resource damages; Liability; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; K13; K32; Q38.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10673
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How do GM / non GM coexistence regulations affect markets and welfare? AgEcon
Desquilbet, Marion; Poret, Sylvaine.
This paper presents a theoretical economic model assessing the effect of the level of mandatory genetically modified (GM) / non-GM coexistence regulations on market and welfare outcome. We assume vertical differentiation of GM and non-GM goods on the consumer side. Producers are heterogeneous in their cost savings from GMO adoption. Producers of non-GM crops face a probability of having their harvest downgraded if gene flow from GM fields makes its GMO content above the labeling threshold. The government may impose to GMO producers mandatory ex ante isolation distances from non-GM fields in order to decrease the probability of non-GM harvest downgrading. It may also introduce an ex post compensation to non-GMO farmers for profit losses due to harvest...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Genetically modified organisms; Coexistence; Identity preservation; Regulation; Liability; Vertical differentiation; Law and economics; Marketing; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114757
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Pharmaceutical and Industrial Traits in Genetically Modified Crops: Co-existence with Conventional Agriculture AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo.
This paper discusses the implications of using genetically modified crops to biomanufacture pharmaceuticals and industrial compounds from the perspective of their co-existence with conventional agriculture. Such plant-made pharmaceuticals and plant-made industrial products rely on exciting scientific and technological breakthroughs and promise new opportunities for the agricultural sector, but they also entail novel risks. The management of the externalities and of the possible unintended economic effects that arise in this context is critical and poses difficult questions for regulators.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Biopharming; Co-existence; Externalities; Genetically modified products; Liability; Molecular farming; Regulation; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18544
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PREVENTABLE FOOD BORNE ILLNESS WITH DOSE-RESPONSE DAMAGES: OPTIMAL SHARING OF PREVENTION BETWEEN CONSUMERS AND PROCESSORS AND THE EFFECT OF PRODUCT LIABILITY AgEcon
Roe, Brian E..
As public concern for food safety burgeons concerned policy makers search for ways to manage the risk inherent to food consumption. Product liability laws may serve as efficient means to induce socially optimal levels of care or may efficiently complement regulation of potentially injurious activities. However, two characteristics common to many food borne illness cases are often not considered in the standard liability economics model that yields these prescriptions: dose-response damage functions and victim damage prevention. This paper explores how dose-response relationships common to the biology and epidemiology of food borne illness may effect the shape of resulting social welfare functions and privately chosen prevention efforts under different...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food borne illness; Dose-response; Liability; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21668
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Retroactive Liability and Future Risk: The Optimal Regulation of Underground Storage Tanks AgEcon
Boyd, James; Kunreuther, Howard.
The optimal design of environmental liability policy focuses on two primary policy issues: the cleanup of existing sources of pollution and the definition and enforcement of policies to promote prospectively efficient environmental risk reduction. Through the analysis of a policy toward a pervasive environmental risk -- leaking underground storage tanks - we analyze the effectiveness of an existing policy governing retroactive and prospective liability issues and suggest ways in which that policy can be improved. While we find some theoretical support for the public financing of UST cleanups, we also find the current system to be flawed in its implementation. In general, the paper argues that public financing of past pollution cleanup costs can lead to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Liability; Underground storage tanks; Risk and Uncertainty; K13; Q28.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10768
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The Legal Environment Facing Economic Agents in Production AgEcon
Hipp, Janie S.; Francis, Harriet F..
Agriculture has seen a steady movement toward the increased use of contracts. Agricultural contracts now guide the interrelationships of parties throughout the modern production system, extending well beyond the livestock sector. With this predominance come new issues that require us to reexamine contract theory and the roles of the parties. This review examines legislation, regulations, and recent court rulings in seemingly unrelated areas that have specific relationships to the development of contracts in production agriculture: environmental law and labor law.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Contracting; Environment; Labor; Law; Liability; Relationships; Risk; D23; D86; K12; K31; K32.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43508
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Torts and the Protection of "Legally Recognized" Interests AgEcon
Hoffmann, Sandra A.; Hanemann, W. Michael.
The law of torts plays an important role in completing the legal property rights system by defining the extent to which property is protected from harm. It does this by defining the kinds of interests that will be recognized and protected from harm by the courts, the duty of care owed these recognized interests by others, and the manner in which they will be protected through monetary compensation, restitution, or injunction. Together, these three elements of torts define a right in the "bundle of rights" that constitute property. In this paper, we develop a systematic approach to formalizing the nature of the property rights protected by tort law. We use this approach to reexamine the literature on compensation for nonpecuniary damages. This reexamination...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Torts; Property rights; Liability; Compensation; Damages; Insurance; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; D31; D63; K0; K13.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10472
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What Can Laboratory Experiments Teach Us About Emissions Permit Market Design? AgEcon
Cason, Timothy N..
The laboratory provides a test bed to inform many design choices for emissions permit markets. Experiments are sometimes strongly motivated and structured by specific theoretical models and predictions, but in other cases the experiment itself can be the model of the market and regulatory environment. We review specific experimental applications that address design issues for permit auction rules, permit expiration dates and banking, liability rules, and regulatory enforcement.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Cap-and-trade; Auctions; Liability; Regulation; Compliance; Banking; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90819
Registros recuperados: 16
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