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Registros recuperados: 26
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Agricultural Efficiency Gains and Trade Liberalization in Sudan AgEcon
Siddig, Khalid H.A.; Babiker, Babiker Idris.
The traditional agriculture in Sudan occupies 60% of the total cultivated land and employs 65% of the agricultural population. Nevertheless, it is characterized by its low crop productivity, which is mainly driven by low technical efficiency, while drought and civil conflicts threaten most of its areas countrywide. Therefore, it has contributed only an average of 16% to the total agricultural GDP during the last decade. This paper addresses from an empirical point of view the sectoral and macroeconomic implications of agricultural efficiency improvement in Sudan and assesses the efficiency gains under the assumption of trade liberalization. Efficiency improvement experiments are implemented by augmenting the efficiency parameters of labor, capital, and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural efficiency; Liberalization; Sudan SAM; CGE analysis; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Consumer/Household Economics; Crop Production/Industries; Food Security and Poverty; Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; D2; D5; D6; E1; E2; F1; F2; H2.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/112786
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Assessing the Effects of NAFTA ON Canada/US Agricultural Trade AgEcon
Deng, Hugh; Nzuma, Jonathan M..
While there seems to be an agreement that Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (CUSTA)/North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have benefited member countries, some analysts have argued that the agreements had little effect on the bilateral Canada/US agricultural trade as many other factors have contributed to the increased trade flows. Results from this study reveal that the aggregate bilateral agricultural trade flows have generally experienced a steady growth since the implementation of NAFTA with trade flows seemingly favoring Canada more than the US since 1992. At the industry level, the impacts of NAFTA on Canada/US agricultural trade were varied with the sub-sectors analyzed responding differently to the bilateral trade liberalization.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: CUSTA/NAFTA; Agricultural trade; Liberalization; Integration; Trade flows; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24704
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Comparing the evolution of spatial inequality in China and India: a fifty-year perspective AgEcon
Gajwani, Kiran; Kanbur, Ravi; Zhang, Xiaobo.
In the second half of the last century, both India and China have undergone major transitions and have moved to more liberalized economies. This paper relates the observed patterns in regional inequality to major events during this period. Because of China’s institutional barriers to migration, regional inequality is much higher than in India. Also, China’s decentralization and opening up are closely related to the observed regional inequality - particularly the inland-coastal disparity - since the reform period. From the Green Revolution age to the period of economic liberalization in India, the evolution of regional comparative advantage has shifted from the quality of land to the level of human capital as India integrates with the international market....
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Liberalization; Liberalized economics; Regional inequality; Migration; Decentralization; Green revolution; Economic conditions; International economic relations; Human capital; Spatial inequality; International Relations/Trade; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55409
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COTTON SECTOR POLICIES AND PERFORMANCE IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA:LESSONS BEHIND THE NUMBERS IN MOZAMBIQUE AND ZAMBIA AgEcon
Boughton, Duncan; Tschirley, David L.; Zulu, Ballard; Ofico, Afonso Osorio; de Marrule, Higino Francisco.
Cotton is one of the most important smallholder cash crops in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). How to ensure input supply, credit recovery and competition is a subject of intense policy debate. This paper examines the performance of cotton sector development policies in Mozambique and Zambia. Both countries face the challenge of organizing input supply to farmers in the absence of rural credit markets, and competing in international markets distorted by production subsidies in developed countries. Both countries privatized cotton ginning in the 1990s. Emerging from civil war, Mozambique established geographical monopolies to interlink input and output markets and facilitate credit recovery. In Zambia, the government completely liberalized the cotton sector,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Cotton; Mozambique; Zambia; Liberalization; Agricultural policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25855
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Dairy Markets in Asia: An Overview of Recent Findings and Implications AgEcon
Beghin, John C..
This paper is an overview of important findings regarding the ongoing evolution of Asian dairy markets based on a series of new economic investigations. These investigations provide systematic empirical foundations for assessing Asian dairy markets with their new consumption patterns, changing industries, and trade prospects under different domestic and trade policy regimes. The findings are drawn from four case studies (China, India, Japan, and Korea), as well as a prospective analysis of future regional patterns of consumption and a policy analysis of trade liberalization of Asian dairy markets. The overview distills the findings of these new investigations and integrates them in the earlier economic literature; it draws policy implications and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Asia; China; Dairy; India; Japan; Korea; Liberalization; Trade integration; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18303
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Economic Analysis of the Liberalization of Red Meat Markets in the Pacific Region from 1988 to 2007 AgEcon
Charlebois, Pierre; Gagne, Stephan; Gendron, Carole.
The liberalization of red meat (beef and pork) markets since 1988 is a good example of government action that has led to significant gains for the Canadian and American agri-food industries. Japan, South Korea and Mexico are the main countries that have liberalized their red meat markets since 1988. This industry has also benefited from the agreement between Canada and the United States. It has also made gain from the liberalization of the pork market in Australia and the Philippines, and the beef market in Indonesia. This analysis captures the impact on the price received by farmers as well as on Canadian production in the absence of these increased market access. The combination of lower prices and lower production would have caused annual average...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Liberalization; Benefits; Red meats; Pork; Beef; Japan; Korea; Mexico; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47133
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Food policy liberalization in Bangladesh: How the Markets and the Government Delivered? AgEcon
Chowdhury, Nuimuddin; Farid, Naser; Roy, Devesh.
Three factors, advent of new technology (HYV), development of infrastructure and market liberalization working in tandem have delivered favorable food security outcomes for Bangladesh. Bangladesh’s food-policy has benefited from a liberalized trade regime and a consistent downsizing of the government, all with favorable effects on poverty and nutrition. Post liberalization, the findings suggest a perceptible increase in the cost-effectiveness of the public food grain distribution system (PFDS). The favorable effects of liberalization are also evident in growths in outputs, market size, the size of private stocks, the emergence of a two peak harvest seasonality, and finally in declining real rice prices. The government has moreover downsized the PFDS,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food policy; Liberalization; Government policy; Markets; Food security; Agricultural and Food Policy; Marketing.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58574
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Impact of Public Market Information System (PMIS) on Farmers Food Marketing Decisions: Case of Benin AgEcon
Kpenavoun Chogou, Sylvain; Lebailly, Philippe; Adegbidi, Anselme; Gandonou, Esaie.
To sell their surpluses of maize, the main staple in Benin, farmers may choose among three modes of transaction: they may sell under a contract with itinerant traders, or they may sell without a contract at the farmgate or on distant markets. It has been postulated that farmers may choose a profitable mode of transaction if they have good access to information on the prevailing market conditions. Using detailed farm household survey data from Benin, this paper applies the Nested Logit model to test this hypothesis. The results show that farmers are likely to opt for selling at the farmgate without a contract if they have good access to information. However, such a decision may not be related to access to information through the government supported 'Public...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Public Market Information System; Farmers; Modes of transaction; Liberalization; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52999
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Impact of the EU Sugar Policy Reform and the WTO-DDA on the U.S. Sugar Industry AgEcon
Andino, Jose; Taylor, Richard D.; Koo, Won W..
The EU reforms will increase the Caribbean sugar price, but will not affect the U.S. sugar industry. If liberalization occurs based on the WTO-DDA, U.S. wholesale sugar price will decrease from 24.89 to 23.79 cents per pound. It is also expected the Caribbean price to increase from 8.7 to 12.1 cents per pound. Key Words: Sugar, Liberalization, EU Reform, Doha Development Agenda
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Sugar; Liberalization; EU Reform; Doha Development Agenda; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19334
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IMPORTÂNCIA DA LIBERALIZAÇÃO DOS MERCADOS AGRÍCOLAS MUNDIAIS PARA A ECONOMIA BRASILEIRA AgEcon
Figueiredo, Adelson Martins; Santos, Maurinho Luiz dos; Lima, Jandir Ferrera de.
O protecionismo no mercado agrícola mundial foi assunto deixado à margem das negociações multilaterais de comércio até a Rodada Uruguai. Ademais, mesmo com sua inclusão nessa rodada de negociações os resultados foram aquém do esperado. Assim, a discussão sobre o fechamento de um acordo agrícola se transformou em tema importante nos fóruns de negociações multilaterais da OMC. O objetivo deste trabalho é estimar e comparar o grau de importância dos setores agroindústrias na geração de crescimento econômico no Brasil e nos EUA. Para isso, usaram-se as matrizes de insumo-produto de Brasil e EUA, através das quais foram estimados os índices de Rasmussen-Hirschman e os índices puros de ligação. Os resultados mostram que setores da agricultura, pecuária e...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Liberalização; Agronegócio; Crescimento econômico; Brasil; EUA; Liberalization; Agribusiness; Economic growth; Brazil; The USA; Agribusiness; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108616
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Intra-Industry Trade, Multilateral Trade Integration, and Invasive Species Risk AgEcon
Tu, Anh Thuy; Beghin, John C..
We analyze the linkage between protectionism and invasive species (IS) hazard in the context of two-way trade and multilateral trade integration, two major features of real-world agricultural trade. Multilateral integration includes the joint reduction of tariffs and trade costs among trading partners. Multilateral trade integration is more likely to increase damages from IS than predicted by unilateral trade opening under the classic Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson (HOS) framework because domestic production (the base susceptible to damages) is likely to increase with expanding export markets. A country integrating its trade with a partner characterized by relatively higher tariff and trade costs is also more likely to experience increased IS damages via...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Exotic pest; Intra-industry trade; Invasive species; Liberalization; Trade cost; Trade integration; Trade protection; Two-way trade; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18505
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Liberalization and Structural Change: Evidence from Nepalese Manufacturing AgEcon
Sharma, Kishor.
The consequences of liberalization on structural changes are examined using data from manufacturing industry in Nepal which is classified as a least developed country. This is important because doubts that liberalization may not solve the problems of low-income developing countries remain strong due mainly to low supply elasticities and the early stage of industrialization. Results suggest some structural changes in manufacturing output and trade orientation. However, no significant improvements were recorded in the overall productivity growth and spatial distribution of manufacturing which appear to be due mainly to the lack of basic infrastructure and the shortage of skilled manpower. Thus, appropriate investment policies, which channel resources to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Liberalization; Import penetration; Export intensity; Total factor productivity growth; Nepal; International Relations/Trade; E13; F13; F14; F43; 041.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28394
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Liberalizing Agricultural Trade: Will It Ever Be a Reality? AgEcon
McCalla, Alex F..
The World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Agriculture was signed in June 1994. It accomplished two things: it brought agricultural trade under the rules of WTO, and it set schedules for reducing barriers to trade under the three pillars of liberalization--market access, export assistance, and domestic support. Nine years later there has been precious little liberalization. The new Doha Round has ambitious objectives for agricultural trade liberalization. However, given recent behavior by rich developed countries, it seems unlikely that developing countries will get increased access to Northern markets or reduced competition from subsidized exports, despite their now representing a majority of WTO members.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Barriers; Distortions; Improved access; Liberalization; Policy; Protection; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31067
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Market Liberalization and Agricultural Intensification in Kenya (1992-2002) AgEcon
De Groote, Hugo; Kimenju, Simon Chege; Owuor, George; Wanyama, Japheter.
This study analyses the impact of the liberalization on the intensification of maize production in Kenya. It first analyses the impact of liberalization on input and output prices, followed by an analysis of farmer practices comparing two major farmer surveys, from 1992 and 2002. The results show that liberalization has had a general positive impact on the evolution of prices, with a decrease of input/output price ratios. However, fluctuations of maize prices has become very high and, combined with a decrease of marketing by the marketing board, has increased the uncertainty in maize production. The liberalization has also resulted in a decrease in extension services. Fortunately, farmers have an increased access to credit services. The combined effect of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Liberalization; Intensification; Adoption; Maize; Africa; International Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25419
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Mexico Agriculture Policy Review AgEcon
Cahill, Carmel; Jotanovic, Aleksandar; Abraham, Cally.
As a NAFTA partner and Canada's third largest export market for agri-food products, developments in Mexico are of direct interest to Canada. Rural poverty, low productivity, poor infrastructure and unclear property rights for both land and water still inhibit the efforts of Mexico's government to improve competitiveness of its agricultural sector.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Mexico; Agricultural policy; Liberalization; Resource governance; Infrastructure; Subsistence; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; Land Economics/Use; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46509
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MODELING TARIFF RATE QUOTAS IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT: THE CASE OF SUGAR MARKETS IN OECD COUNTRIES AgEcon
van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Beghin, John C.; Mitchell, Don.
We use mixed-complementarity-problem programming to implement tariff rate quotas (TRQs) in the global computable general equilibrium (CGE) Linkage model. We apply the approach to TRQs in sugar markets in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. We calibrate the model on 2000 policy levels for OECD countries to reflect the full implementation of their World Trade Organization commitments. We look at reforms of TRQ and TRQ-like schemes in the European Union, the United States, and Japan, as well as multilateral trade liberalization. We derive the impact of reforms on welfare, bilateral trade flows, and terms of trade. A 33 percent multilateral decrease of ad valorem tariffs, combined with a 33 percent increase in imports under...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: CGE model; Doha; Liberalization; Sugar; Tariff rate quota; Trade negotiations; TRQ; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18612
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Poverty and environmental degradation under trade liberalization: searching for second-best policy options. AgEcon
Pascual, Unai; Martinez-Espineira, Roberto.
Forest based agricultural systems in the tropics are being opened up to international trade at an unprecedented rate. This is the case of tropical agriculture in Mexico under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which is also having significant impacts on the decentralized land use decisions of small-scale farmers and on the natural resource base on which they depend. This paper develops a bioeconomic model of a typical forest-land based farming system that is integrated with the non-farm labour sector, as typically found in tropical regions. The data used to generate the simulations were gathered in two communities of Yucatan (Mexico) in 1998-2000. Through a systemdynamics framework, the agro-ecological and farming economic subsystems are...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Rural povery; Soil degradation; Slash-and-burn; Land-use model; Liberalization; Mexico; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; Q12; Q23; D13; I3.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7992
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Structural Change in Transition Economies: Does Foreign Aid Matter? AgEcon
Fardmanesh, Mohsen; Tan, Li.
This paper addresses whether the initial declines in the manufacturing and real wages in transition economies were anything unexpected to justify policy reversal, and whether the “often-recommended” foreign aid would have helped them curb these declines in any significant way. It answers these questions with the help of a two-sector three-factor small open economy model and simulation exercises. It concludes that, given the relative price distortions and the market disequilibria that transition economies inherited from their planning era, the initial declines in their manufacturing and real wages are to be mostly expected. Foreign aid, whose impact is noticeable only when it is in excess of 5% of GDP, does not curb the decline in their real wages in any...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Liberalization; Structural adjustment; Transition economies; East European economies; Soviet Republics; Foreign aid; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; P2.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56754
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THE DOHA ROUND OF THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION: APPRAISING FURTHER LIBERALIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETS AgEcon
Beghin, John C.; Fabiosa, Jacinto F..
Using the Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) modeling system, we investigate the multilateral removal of border taxes and farm programs and their distortion of world agricultural markets. We find that agricultural and trade distortions have significant terms-of-trade effects. Terms-of-trade effects caused by trade barriers are much larger than those caused by domestic farm programs. World trade is also significantly impacted. Trade expansion is substantial for most commodities, especially dairy, meats, and vegetable oils. Net agricultural and food exporters, such as Brazil, Australia, and Argentina, emerge with expanded exports, whereas net importing countries with limited distortions before liberalization are penalized by higher world...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Doha Round; Domestic farm program; Liberalization; Partial equilibrium; Trade distortion; World Trade Organization; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18611
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The Evolution of Grain Policy Beyond Europe: Ottoman Grain Administration in the Late Eighteenth Century AgEcon
Agir, Seven.
During the second half of the eighteenth century, the Ottoman policy-makers adopted a more liberal attitude towards price formation in the Ottoman grain markets. This was accompanied by the fiscal and administrative centralization of the grain trade. These seemingly contradictory policy changes could, in part, be explained in the context of conjectural changes in grain demand and supply, which rendered pre-emptive privileges and price controls less effective. The policy change, however, was not only a practical response to the strains on the pre-existing supply network but also reflected a new concern with the state of agricultural production along with the emergence of emulation as a development strategy.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: B15; N33; N35; N43; N45; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy; Ottoman economic institutions; Grain markets; Liberalization.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/107271
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