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Agricultural Subsidies and Forest Pressure in Malawi's Miombo Woodlands AgEcon
Fisher, Monica G.; Shively, Gerald E..
This paper examines impacts of an agricultural subsidy program on forest pressure in Malawi. Using household survey data, we measure the effect on forest product marketing and on forest clearing of Malawi's Starter Pack Scheme (SPS). Regression results show households receiving a free packet of hybrid maize seed and chemical fertilizer (a "starter pack") had lower levels of commercial forest extraction than nonrecipient households. In addition, no measurable effect of starter pack receipt is found on forest clearing decisions, suggesting the program raised agricultural output without encouraging agricultural expansion. Findings thus indicate potential modest improvement in forest condition due to the SPS.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Africa; Agricultural intensification; Conservation and development; Malawi; Tropical deforestation; Agricultural and Food Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8646
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Alternative Soil Fertility Management Options in Malawi - An Economic Analysis AgEcon
Sauer, Johannes; Tchale, Hardwick.
In this paper, we analyze the factors that influence the productivity of maize among smallholder farmers, given that unfavourable output and input market conditions throughout the 1990s have compelled smallholder farmers into unsustainable agricultural intensification. We use farm-household survey data in order to compare the productivity of smallholder maize production under integrated (ISFM) and chemical-based soil fertility management using a normalized translog yield response model. The results indicate higher maize yield responses for integrated soil fertility management options after controlling for the intensity of fertilizer application, labour intensity, seed rate, land husbandry practices as well as selected policy factors. The estimated model is...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Malawi; Smallholder agriculture; Soil fertility management; Yield response model; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21423
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Alternative Soil Fertility Management Options in Malawi – An Economic Analysis AgEcon
Sauer, Johannes; Tchale, Hardwick.
In this paper, we analyze the factors that influence t he productivity of maize among smallholder farmers, given that unfavourable output and input market conditions throughout the 1990s have compelled smallholder farmers into unsustainable agricultural intensification. We use farm-household survey data in order to compare the productivity of smallholder maize production under integrated (ISFM) and chemicalbased soil fertility management using a normalized translog yield response model. The results indicate higher maize yield responses for integrated soil fertility management options after controlling for the intensity of fertilizer application, labour intensity, seed rate as well as land husbandry practices a s well as selected policy factors. The...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Smallholder agriculture; Yield response model; Soil fertility management; Malawi; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25407
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Aquaculture for African smallholders AgEcon
Brummett, Randall E.; Noble, R..
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Small scale aquaculture; Integrated farming; Aquaculture systems; Appropriate technology; Malawi; Agribusiness.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44729
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Determinants of Agricultural Technology adoption: the case of improved groundnut varieties in Malawi AgEcon
Simtowe, Franklin; Asfaw, Solomon; Diagne, Aliou; Shiferaw, Bekele A..
This paper applies the Average Treatment Effect (ATE) framework on data obtained from a random cross-section sample of 594 farmers in Malawi to document the actual and potential adoption rates of improved groundnut varieties and their determinants conditional on farmers’ awareness of the technology. The fact that not all farmers are exposed to the new technologies makes it difficult to obtain consistent estimates of population adoption rates and their determinants using direct sample estimates and classical adoption models such as probit or tobit. Our approach tries to control for exposure and selection bias in assessing the adoption rate of technology and its determinants. Results indicate that only 26% of the sampled farmers grew at least one of the...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Groundnuts; Adoption; Average Treatment Effect; Malawi; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95921
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Determinants of Moral hazard in Microfinance: Empirical Evidence from Joint Liability Lending Schemes in Malawi AgEcon
Simtowe, Franklin; Zeller, Manfred; Phiri, Alexander.
Moral hazard is widely reported as a problem in credit and insurance markets, mainly arising from information asymmetry. Although theorists have attempted to explain the success of Joint Liability Lending (JLL) schemes in mitigating moral hazard, empirical studies are rare. This paper investigates the determinants of moral hazard among JLL schemes from Malawi, using group level data from 99 farm and non-farm credit groups. Results reveal that peer selection, peer monitoring, peer pressure, dynamic incentives and variables capturing the extent of matching problems explain most of the variation in the incidence of moral hazard among credit groups. The implications are that Joint Liability Lending institutions will continue to rely on social cohesion and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Moral hazard; Joint liability; Dynamic incentives; Group lending; Malawi; Financial Economics.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25287
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Disrupting Demand for Commercial Seed: Input Subsidies in Malawi and Zambia AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob.
Input subsidy programs that provide inorganic fertilizer and improved maize seed to small farmers below market rates are currently receiving a great deal of support as a sustainable strategy to foster an African Green Revolution. In recent years numerous countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania, and Zambia have implemented such programs at substantial cost to government and donor budgets. For example, in 2008 Malawi spent roughly 70% of the Ministry of Agriculture’s budget or just over 16% of the government’s total budget subsidizing fertilizer and seed. In Zambia between 2004 and 2011, an average of 40% of the government’s agricultural sector budget was devoted to fertilizer and maize seed subsidies...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Malawi; Zambia; Seed; Input subsidies; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123554
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Does Subsidizing Fertilizer Increase Yields? Evidence from Malawi AgEcon
Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob; Jayne, Thomas S.; Black, J. Roy.
Despite their strain on government and donor budgets, fertilizer subsidies have once again become popular policy tools in several Sub-Saharan Africa countries as a potential way to increase yields in staple crops like maize. Policy makers often assume that farmers who receive the subsidy will achieve yield responses that are similar to those obtained by farmers who pay commercial prices for the input. This notion has not been verified empirically. Our study uses panel data from Malawi, a country that recently implemented a fertilizer subsidy program, to compare maize yield response to fertilizer from farmers who received subsidized fertilizer with yield responses from those who paid commercial prices for the input. Descriptive results indicate that maize...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Malawi; Fertilizer Subsidies; Production Function; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49532
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Food Calorie Intake and Food Security under Grain Price Inflation: Evidence from Malawi AgEcon
Pan, Suwen; Fang, Cheng; Sanogo, Issa; Mutuc, Maria Erlinda M..
A comprehensive analysis of food demand and nutrient consumption using recent, representative household survey data from Malawi is presented. Expenditure and price elasticities have been estimated for 20 food groups using a quadratic almost ideal demand system based on 4 income groups identified by the Goldfeld-Quandt tests. Although the current boom of maize price provides an opportunity to rethink development strategies that diversify the commodity sectors, developing countries will not necessarily benefit from this change absent significant improvements in production capacities and trade infrastructures. Malawi is likely to suffer from higher commodity prices in the short-run.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Goldfeld-Quandt tests; A quadratic almost ideal demand system; Malawi; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Security and Poverty; D12; O13; R21; R31; Q11; Q12.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103266
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Food Crises and Food Markets: Implications for Emergency Response in Southern Africa. AgEcon
Tschirley, David L.; Jayne, Thomas S..
Concern about humanitarian crises in southern Africa, especially in light of the surge in world food prices since 2007, has been accompanied by calls for direct government action in food markets. This paper reviews how Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique handled private food markets during the food crises of 2001/02, 2002/03, and 2005/06, which may provide important lessons for the management of future crises. Lack of trust between government and traders can lead to behavior that undermines the interests of each and harms consumers and farmers; Malawi and Zambia have persistently fallen into this trap while Mozambique has partially avoided it. Empirical policy analysis can make an important contribution to resolution only within a consultative process involving...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Southern Africa; Malawi; Mozambique; Zambia; Markets; Emergency response; Trust; Food Security and Poverty; Q18.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54559
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FOOD INFLATION IN MALAWI: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ECONOMY AgEcon
Ularo, Khonje Makaiko Gonapanyanja.
Despite consecutive years of good harvest, Malawi has experienced continuous price escalation of staple food commodities unsolved over the time. The real price of maize in Malawi has increased by 141 percent between 1998 and 2008, and has been rising along with the food prices of many other commodities over this period. This study therefore investigates the determinants of food inflation rate in Malawi and its effect on the economy. Monthly and annual data were collected from National Statistical Office and Reserve Bank of Malawi from 1978 to 2008. Data were analyzed by estimating an error correction model (ECM). The results show that fertilizer prices, crop diversification index, maize prices, diesel prices, real exchange rates and real interest rates...
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation Palavras-chave: Food inflation; ECM; Crop diversification; GDP; Economy; Malawi; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117802
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Governance of Aquatic Agricultural Systems: Analyzing Representation, Power, and Accountability Ecology and Society
Ratner, Blake D.; WorldFish; b.ratner@cgiar.org; Cohen, Philippa; ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University; WorldFish; p.cohen@cgiar.org; Barman, Benoy; WorldFish; b.barman@cgiar.org; Mam, Kosal; WorldFish; k.mam@cgiar.org; Nagoli, Joseph; WorldFish; j.nagoli@cgiar.org; Allison, Edward H.; School of International Development, University of East Anglia; WorldFish; e.allison@cgiar.org.
Aquatic agricultural systems in developing countries face increasing competition from multiple stakeholders over rights to access and use natural resources, land, water, wetlands, and fisheries, essential to rural livelihoods. A key implication is the need to strengthen governance to enable equitable decision making amidst competition that spans sectors and scales, building capacities for resilience, and for transformations in institutions that perpetuate poverty. In this paper we provide a simple framework to analyze the governance context for aquatic agricultural system development focused on three dimensions: stakeholder representation, distribution of power, and mechanisms of accountability. Case studies from Cambodia, Bangladesh, Malawi/Mozambique,...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Accountability; Bangladesh; Cambodia; Civil society; Coastal zone management; Environmental governance; Livelihoods; Malawi; Mozambique; Power; Social-ecological resilience; Solomon Islands; Stakeholder representation; Wetlands.
Ano: 2013
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HIV/AIDS and Adolescent's School-Work Choices in Malawi AgEcon
Nankhuni, Flora J..
Malawi is facing a severe HIV/AIDS Pandemic. With an estimated prevalence rate of 14.2%, it ranks eight in the world. About 900,000 Malawians were infected by 2003 and there were110,000 new infections and 87,000 deaths due to HIV/AIDS in 2003. The disease has poten tially devastating impacts. For example, 'taking children out of school' is mentioned as one of the coping mechanisms (Garbus 2003) but evidence is mixed. Doctor (2004) found no statistically significant difference between enrollment of orphans and non-orphans and mentioned an effective extended family structure as explanation. However, HIV/AIDS, poverty, macroeconomic policies, and food shortages are reported to render informal safety networks of the extended family systems irrelevant (Garbus...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Demographic Economics; Time Allocation; Malawi; Labor and Human Capital; 01; J1; J2; Human Capital; 05.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25540
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Improved Legume Seed Demand Systems in Central Malawi: What Do Farmers' Seed Expenditures Say about Their Preferences? AgEcon
Kankwamba, Henry; Mangisoni, Julius H.; Simtowe, Franklin; Mausch, Kai; Siambi, Moses.
The overall objective of this paper is to assess the demand for improved groundnut, bean, and soybean seed in central Malawi. Specifically, it examines how smallholder farmers respond to changes in market prices of improved legume seed. It also assesses factors that affect the decision to participate in improved seed technology transfer. Considering four commodities namely groundnuts, beans, soybeans and maize, a staple food, the paper estimates a multivariate probit and a linear approximate of the Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS) using cross section data collected by ICRISAT in 2010. Uncompensated price and expenditure elasticities are reported for the LA/AIDS model. The paper finds high own price elasticities in all four commodities considered. It...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Legumes; Multivariate Probit; LA/AIDS; Malawi; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123945
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Income and Price Elasticities of Food Demand and Nutrient Consumption in Malawi AgEcon
Ecker, Olivier; Qaim, Matin.
Widespread malnutrition in developing countries calls for appropriate interventions, presupposing good knowledge about the nutritional impacts of policies. Little previous work has been carried out in this direction. We present a comprehensive analytical framework, which we apply for Malawi. Using household data and a demand systems approach, we estimate income and price elasticities of food, calorie, and micronutrient consumption. These estimates are used for policy simulations. Given multiple nutrient deficiencies, income-related policies are better suited than price policies to improve nutrition. While consumer subsidies for maize increase calorie and mineral consumption, they contribute to a higher prevalence of vitamin deficiencies.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Quadratic almost ideal demand system; Food security; Micronutrient malnutrition; Calorie elasticities; Nutrient elasticities; Malawi; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6349
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Insights from Poverty Maps for Development and Food Relief Program Targeting: An Application to Malawi AgEcon
Benson, Todd.
Poverty mapping applies models of household welfare developed from detailed household consumption and expenditure surveys to the extensive but less detailed data from national censuses. A poverty map for Malawi, developed by drawing upon information from the 1997–98 Malawi Integrated Household Survey with the 1998 Malawi Population and Housing Census, provides aggregate estimates of household welfare and poverty at a highly disaggregated level—down to the level of local government wards. Given the close association between welfare and food security in most Malawi households, such a detailed poverty map can be of considerable value to development and relief organizations, as they plan and target activities to improve the ability of poor households to cope...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Poverty mapping; Food security; Malawi; Food relief; Targeting; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55897
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IWRM and Rural Livelihood Project in Dzimphutsi: Process documentation AgEcon
van Koppen, Barbara; Shaba, Stalin.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Water resource management; Multiple use; Project planning; Project management; Participatory management; Community involvement; Dams; Irrigation schemes; Irrigated farming; Fish ponds; Livestock; Domestic water; Villages; Water scarcity; Institution building; Water users; Impact assessment; Malawi; Dzimphutsi Village; Mtendere Irrigation Scheme; Nkudzi River; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Crop Production/Industries; Demand and Price Analysis; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Land Economics/Use; Livestock Production/Industries; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91814
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Jatropha cultivation in Malawi and Mozambique: impact on ecosystem services, local human well-being, and poverty alleviation Ecology and Society
von Maltitz, Graham P.; CSIR, South Africa; Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa; gvmalt@csir.co.za; Gasparatos, Alexandros; Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science (IR3S), University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; gasparatos@ir3s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Fabricius, Christo; Sustainability Research Unit, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa; christo.fabricius@nmmu.ac.za; Morris, Abbie; Independent development practitioner, Malawi; Chittock.abbie@gmail.com; Willis, Kathy J.; Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK; Royal Botanical Gardens Kew, UK; kathy.willis@zoo.ox.ac.uk.
Jatropha-based biofuels have undergone a rapid boom-and-bust cycle in southern Africa. Despite strong initial support by governments, donors, and the private sector, there is a lack of empirical studies that compare the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of Jatropha’s two dominant modes of production: large plantations and smallholder-based projects. We apply a rapid ecosystem services assessment approach to understand the impact of two Jatropha projects that are still operational despite widespread project collapse across southern Africa: a smallholder-based project (BERL, Malawi) and a large plantation (Niqel, Mozambique). Our study focuses on changes in provisioning ecosystem services such as biofuel feedstock, food, and woodland products...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Ecosystem services; Jatropha; Malawi; Mozambique; Smallholders.
Ano: 2016
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Macroeconomic adjustment and agricultural performance in Southern Africa: a quantitative overview AgEcon
Bautista, Romeo M..
"February 1996." Includes bibliographical references (p. 29-30).
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Macroeconomics -- Models; Economic development; Agricultural development -- Africa; Southern; Malawi; Tanzania; Zimbabwe; Zambia; International Development.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97768
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Malawi’s Maize Marketing System AgEcon
Jayne, Thomas S.; Sitko, Nicholas J.; Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob; Mangisoni, Julius H..
National food security in Malawi depends on improving the performance of maize markets. Ensuring that grain is consistently available at tolerable prices is crucial for consumers’ food security. At the same time, surplus producing farmers need to receive farm-gate prices consistently above production costs to intensify the use of fertilizer and other productivity enhancing technologies in a sustainable manner. These concerns give rise to the classic food price dilemma for policy makers in Malawi: how to keep prices low enough to ensure low income consumers’ access to food while keeping prices high enough to promote farm production incentives. These tensions cannot be avoided but they can be relieved through reducing food marketing margins, which shrink the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food security; Malawi; Maize; Marketing; Food policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Marketing; Q12; Q18.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/62162
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