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An electrically operated kola nut pods breaking machine CIGR Journal
Bamgboye, A. Isaac; Okedun, R. A..
Kola nut pod breaking is a very tedious task manually; therefore its mechanization is essential for effective processing.  The objectives of this study are to design and fabricate a kola nut pod breaking machine and performance evaluation of kola nut pods breaking machine.  Some physical and mechanical properties required for machine design were determined using standard methods.  The machine was powered by an electric motor, with the hammer attached to the shaft using a drum with a rope tension of 171.68N, cross–sectional area of 5.027 x 10-5m2 and 3414.90 kN/m2 tensile stress.  The speed of the machine used by the pulley was 308.57 r/min to operate. The machine was evaluated by using one to four pods at a time, and was replicated four times.The average...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Farm Machinery kola nut pods; Machine capacity; Machine efficiency; Mechanical properties; Kola nut pod breaking machine.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3394
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Biodegradable foams based on starch, polyvinyl alcohol, chitosan and sugarcane fibers obtained by extrusion BABT
Debiagi,Flávia; Mali,Suzana; Grossmann,Maria Victória Eiras; Yamashita,Fábio.
Biodegradable foams made from cassava starch, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sugarcane bagasse fibers and chitosan were obtained by extrusion. The composites were prepared with formulations determined by a constrained ternary mixtures experimental design, using as variables: (X1) starch / PVA (100 - 70%), (X2) chitosan (0 - 2%) and (X3) fibers from sugar cane (0 - 28%). The effects of varying proportions of these three components on foam properties were studied, as well the relationship between their properties and foam microstructure. The addition of starch/PVA in high proportions increased the expansion index and mechanical resistance of studied foams. Fibers addition improved the expansion and mechanical properties of the foams. There was a trend of red and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cassava starch; Mechanical properties; Microstructure; Expansion.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132011000500023
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Calculation of viscoelastic properties of edible films: application of three models Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment.
CHANDRA,Prabir K.; SOBRAL,Paulo J. do A..
The viscoelastic properties of edible films can provide information at the structural level of the biopolymers used. The objective of this work was to test three simple models of linear viscoelastic theory (Maxwell, Generalized Maxwell with two units in parallel, and Burgers) using the results of stress relaxation tests in edible films of myofibrillar proteins of Nile Tilapia. The films were elaborated according to a casting technique and pre-conditioned at 58% relative humidity and 22ºC for 4 days. The testing sample (15mm x 118mm) was submitted to tests of stress relaxation in an equipment of physical measurements, TA.XT2i. The deformation, imposed to the sample, was 1%, guaranteeing the permanency in the domain of the linear viscoelasticity. The models...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Edible films; Myofibrillar protein; Linear viscoelasticity; Mechanical properties.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612000000200021
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Classification of papaya crispiness based on mechanical properties CIGR Journal
Terdwongworakul, Anupun.
This research investigated an objective technique for the classification of papaya varieties based on crispiness. Five varieties of papaya were sampled with variation in crispiness. The papaya samples were mechanically tested using texture profile analysis and rectangular blade cutting methods. Discriminant analysis based on the mechanical properties measured using rectangular blade cutting was performed to develop a classification model. The obtained discriminant model was capable of classifying the papaya samples into five different groups with an accuracy of 82.4%.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Papaya; Classification; Mechanical properties.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3472
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Comportement Mécanique de Composites Renforcés de Lamelles de Bambou, Influence du Vieillissement dans l’Eau de Mer ArchiMer
Davies, Peter; Arhant, Mael; Le Gac, Pierre Yves; Le Gall, Maelenn; Kemlin, Guillaume.
There are more than a thousand species of bamboo and some of these contain large amounts of fibres with attractive properties. However, the extraction of the fibres without damaging them is difficult, requiring energy and special equipment. One solution is to use the bamboo in the form of thin strips taken from fibre-rich regions of the plant, as done by the Cobratex company in an innovative process. These contain the fibres but they are protected from damage and keep their alignment. This paper presents the results from a study of bamboo strips, alone and in an infused composite. The influence of seawater immersion is investigated. The composite weight gain is high, around 25 %, but most of the water is in the natural canals of the wood. The influence of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bamboo; Density; Mechanical properties; Wet aging.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00593/70534/68681.pdf
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Dégradation de matériaux composites dans un environment marin: Nouveaux materiaux et methodes d'essais ArchiMer
Pomies, F; Carlsson, L; Choqueuse, Dominique; Davies, Peter.
The change in composite material properties when these are exposed to a marine environment is of considerable importance to both designers and users of these materials. In this paper new materials are first studied, composites composed of a glass fibre reinforced thermoplastic PPS matrix. It is shown that their poor interfacial resistance to moisture ingress compromises severely the advantage of using a matrix which does not absorb moisture. In the second part of the paper the application of two non-destructive test techniques for following damage development, based on ultrasonic wave propagation and vibration (modal) analysis, are described. These are complemented by first results from a study using fracture mechanics tests to characterise delamination...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Fractures; Vibration; Epoxy resins; Tests; Materials testing; Mechanical properties; Ultrasonics; Moisture; Ship technology; Composite materials; Mécanique de la rupture; Vibration; Ultrasonique; Thermoplastique; Epoxyde; Humidité.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1064.pdf
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Determination of selected physical and mechanical properties of Chinese jujube fruit and seed CIGR Journal
Li, Rui; Peng, Jun; Sun, Shipeng; Al-Mallahi, Ahmad; Fu, Longsheng.
Some of physical characteristics and mechanical properties of two widely commercialized varieties of Chinese jujube (Zizyphus jujube cv. junzao and Zizyphus jujube cv. huizao) were studied at 62.2% and 35.4% w.b. for fruits and seeds of junzao and 70.3% and 25.2% w.b. for fruits and seeds of huizao. The results showed that fruits and seeds of junzao were larger in all the dimensions and heavier than that of huizao while the fruits of junzao were smaller in true density, bulk density and porosity than that of huizao. The aspect ratio and sphericity of both cultivars fruits were spherical and more likely to roll than slide. And all the physical parameters measured and calculated of both cultivars fruits and seeds were significant different to each other. The...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Fruit physical and mechanical properties Chinese jujube; Junzao; Huizao; Physical characteristics; Mechanical properties.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3738
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Determining of the mechanical properties of unbroken canola pods CIGR Journal
Azadbakht, Mohsen; Ghajarjazi, Ehsan; Ghaderifar, Farshid.
The mechanical properties for the threshing mechanism design, distance setting and the size of thrasher for better threshing and less damage to the seeds were used. In this study the mechanical properties of unbroken pods of canola were investigated including failure force, failure deformation, failure strain, failure energy, toughness, and modulus of elasticity planted in three canola varieties in the fields of Aliabad city in Iran including Hyola 50, 401, and 420 at the three times of sampling in pre-harvest, harvest and post-harvest in two direction of loading (in the direction of small and medium diameter). Canola varieties had different moisture levels at the same time, and this moisture was measured as a sub factor. The results show that moisture...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Canola; Mechanical properties; Canola pod..
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3350
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Determining the concrete stiffness matrix through ultrasonic testing REA
Gonçalves,Raquel; Giacon Júnior,Milton; Lopes,Igor M..
The determination of the modulus tangent (Eci ) and of the modulus secant (Ecs) of the concrete can be done using compression test but, to be simpler, it is used relations with characteristic strength (f ck). Relations are also used to determine the transversal modulus (Gc) and, in the case of the Poisson's ratio (ν), a fixed value 0.20 is established. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of the ultrasonic propagation waves to determine these properties. For the tests were used specimens with f ck varying from 10 to 35 MPa. For the ultrasonic tests were used cylindrical and cubic specimens. The modulus of deformation obtained by ultrasound was statistically equivalent to the obtained by compression tests. The results of modules obtained...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Compressive strength; Modulus of deformation; Mechanical properties.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162011000300003
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Development and characterization of edible films based on gluten from semi-hard and soft Brazilian wheat flours (development of films based on gluten from wheat flours) Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment.
Tanada-Palmu,Patrícia Sayuri; Grosso,Carlos R.F..
Edible films based on gluten from four types of Brazilian wheat gluten (2 "semi-hard" and 2 "soft") were prepared and mechanical and barrier properties were compared with those of wheat gluten films with vital gluten. Water vapor, oxygen permeability, tensile strength and percent elongation at break, solubility in water and surface morphology were measured. The films from "semi-hard" wheat flours showed similar water vapor permeability and solubility in water to films from vital gluten and better tensile strength than the films from "soft" and vital gluten. The films from vital gluten had higher elongation at break and oxygen permeability and also lower solubility in water than the films from the Brazilian wheat "soft" flours. In spite of the vital gluten...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Mechanical properties; Permeability; Vital gluten.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612003000200027
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Effect of moisture content on physio-mechanical properties of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) CIGR Journal
Sharanagat, Vijay Singh; Goswami, T. K..
Study to determine physical and mechanical properties of seeds at different moisture content is necessary for the design of equipment to handle, process, transport, and store the same.  The physical properties of coriander seeds have been evaluated as a function of seed moisture content, varying from 8% to 16% (w.b.). In the moisture 11.2%, seeds major, minor and medium dimensions were 5.062, 3.27, and 3.404 mm respectively. Sphericity of the seeds was found to be 0.757 with a surface area of 46.167 mm2.  One thousand seed weight increased linearly from 8.89 to 9.826 g when the moisture content increases from 8.5 to 15.89% (w.b.).  The true density of coriander seeds decreased when the moisture content increased 8.73 to 12%, from this point, true density...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Food process engineering physical properties; Mechanical properties.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2759
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Effect of recycling on mechanical behaviour of biocompostable flax/poly(L-lactide) composites ArchiMer
Le Duigou, Antoine; Pillin, Isabelle; Bourmaud, Alain; Davies, Peter; Baley, Christophe.
The biocompostability of natural fibre-reinforced biopolymers, also known as biocomposites, makes them an attractive alternative to glass fibre-reinforced petrochemical polymers. The aim of this work is to study the capacity of flax/PLLA (poly(L-lactide)) biocomposite (20% and 30% fibres by weight) to be recycled. Mechanical properties were evaluated initially, and shown to be similar to those of glass/PP and superior to hemp/PP and sisal/PP composites. Then after repeated injection cycles tensile properties were shown to be conserved until the third cycle. Matrix degradation and fibre aspect ratio were followed using molecular weight measurements, thermal and rheological analyses, image analysis of sections and SEM fractography. These techniques revealed...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mechanical properties; Recycling; Flax fibres; PLLA.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-6360.pdf
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Effect of snake venom derived fibrin glue on the tendon healing in dogs: clinical and biomechanical study J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis.
Ferraro,G. C.; Moraes,J. R.; Shimano,A. C.; Pereira,G. T.; Moraes,F. R.; Bueno de Camargo,M. H..
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of snake venom derived fibrin glue on the strength oftendon healing in dogs. The deep digital flexor tendon of the 5th digit of 24 thoracic limbs was partially sectioned for adhesive application. On the 7th, 15th, and 30th postoperative day tendons segments were removed for the clinical and biomechanical study. Results indicated that 62.5% of the tendons showed stump retraction and 20.8% moderate to excessive adherence, which affected gliding. The biomechanical evaluation showed that, over time, tendon healing gained progressive resistance for maximum traction and permanent deformations with satisfactory results on the 15th day for rigidity and resilience compared to the other two studied periods. Snake...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Dog; Fibrin glue; Mechanical properties; Snake venom; Healing; Tendon.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992005000300005
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Effective engineering properties in the design of storage structures of postharvest dry bean grain Agronomy
Kibar, Hakan; Igdir University; Öztürk, Turgut; Igdir University; Temizel, Kadir Ersin; Ondokuz Mayis University.
Selected engineering properties (physical and mechanical) of dry bean under non-irrigation and drip-irrigation were determined and compared. These properties are necessary for the design of equipments for harvesting, processing, transporting, estimating loads in storage structures for crops and flow problems in silos such as arching, ratholing, irregular flow and segregation. Some engineering characteristics such as: average length, width, thickness, the geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface area, volume, thousand grain mass (M1000), bulk and true densities, porosity, angle of internal friction, static coefficient of friction, Poisson ratio and pressure ratio were studied. The highest average values for physical properties were recorded at...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering dry bean; Physical properties; Mechanical properties; Statistical analysis.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAgron/article/view/19394
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Elaboration and characterization of pectin-gellan films added with concentrated supernatant of Streptococcus infantarius fermentations, and EDTA: effects on the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in a Mexican cheese medium, and physical-mechanical properties Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment.
JIMÉNEZ-VILLEDA,Perla-Yesenia; RODRÍGUEZ-HERNÁNDEZ,Adriana-Inés; LÓPEZ-CUELLAR,Ma.-del-Rocío; FRANCO-FERNÁNDEZ,Melitón-Jesús; CHAVARRÍA-HERNÁNDEZ,Norberto.
Abstract Films were prepared with 0.2% (w/v) gellan gum, 1% (w/v) citric pectin, 0.5% (w/v) glycerol, 5 mM CaCl2, 0.05 M Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and different concentrations of an antimicrobial activity-concentrated supernatant (AMC) obtained from fermentations of Streptococcus infantarius, which produces bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (i.e., treatments F1, F2 and F3 with 75, 90 and 120 arbitrary units (AU)/mL, respectively). The treatments were based on a minimum-inhibitory-concentration (i.e., AMC, 90 AU/mL, plus EDTA, 0.05 M) for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes growing in brain-heart-infusion medium at 35 °C. The films hindered the bacterium growth in selective media: E. coli -MacConkey, S....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Lactic acid bacterium; Bacteriocins; Biopreservation; Mechanical properties; Gas permeability.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612019000200436
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Elasticity modulus and damping ratio of macaw palm rachillas Ciência Rural
Villar,Flora Maria de Melo; Pinto,Francisco de Assis de Carvalho; Santos,Fábio Lúcio; Grossi,José Antônio Saraiva; Velloso,Nara Silveira.
ABSTRACT: The macaw palm has been identified as a prime feed stock for biodiesel industries in the near future coming decades. However, there are no machines for harvesting and detaching fruits in the biofuel industry; hence, the study of the dynamic behavior of the fruit-rachilla system would aid in the development of such machines. Thus, this study seeks to determine the modulus of elasticity and the damping ratio of four different plant accessions obtained from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV). Tensile testing was conducted to determine the modulus of elasticity. From the graphical results of tension versus specific strain, it was possible to determine the modulus of elasticity by using the tangent method. To...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Acrocomia aculeata; Dynamic behavior; Mechanical properties.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782017000200851
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Elements sur le comportement experimental et numerique de la structure d'un voilier de 7m70 en cours de navigation ArchiMer
Baley, C; Cailler, M.
The experimental sailing boat "Mesure Z," has been designed and built on behalf of F.I.N., (the French marine industry association). This research project has been managed in close collaboration with Bureau Veritas, Ifremer and the CEA. The GRP hull is similar to that of a production sailing boat, but it has been designed as a transducer-hull, i.e. a hull sufficiently sensitive to allow measurements (hull strains, acceleration, spar loads, etc), due to its structure and mechanical characteristics. This paper presents different aspects of the experimental boat, the materials and structure of the transducer-hull, and the behaviour of the central and bow regions of the hull during sailing.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Finite element method; Navigation; Measurement; Boating; Sailing ships; Mechanical properties; Ship technology; Composite materials; Navigation; Comportement mécanique; Eléments finis; Mesure; Matériau composite; Voilier.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1073.pdf
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Endommagement mecanique de materiaux composites. Role sur les proprietes hygrothermiques ArchiMer
Perreux, D; Suri, C; Varchon, D; Oytana, C.
The mechanical behaviour of polymer based glass fibre composites depends on the damage level and the amount of moisture present. Two anelastic damage models, both adapted to the mechanical properties of epoxy and polyester matrix polymers, are proposed. A coupling effect between the kinetics of damage and moisture level is shown.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Moisture; Damage; Modelling; Ship technology; Mechanical properties; Composite materials; Humidité; Endommagement; Modélisation; Comportement; Matériau composite.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1062.pdf
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Engineering properties of luffa (L. cylindrica) seed relevant to the processing machineries CIGR Journal
Dauda, Solomon Musa; Aliyu, Mohammed; Balami, Ayuba Audu; Mohammed, Ibrahim Shaba; Abdulfatai, Yusuf.
Some physical and mechanical properties of Luffa (L. cylindrica) seeds were investigated at five different moisture content levels of 6%, 12%, 18%, 24% and 30%.  The physical properties which included geometric mean diameters (minor, major, intermediate), sphericity, weight, bulk density and coefficient of static friction were determined.  The mean values of the physical properties of the seeds were determined as major diameter 1.1423-1.2427 cm, width 0.54-0.6743 cm, thickness 0.8633-1.079 cm, geometric mean diameter 0.8102-0.9663 cm, sphericity 0.7104-0.7703, surface area 2.0620-2.9512 cm2, specific gravity 0.7600-1.0267, bulk density 0.3730-0.6053 g m-3, and porosity 0.5823-0.0430, respectively.  The physical properties of the seed showed that the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Luffa seeds; Moisture content; Physical properties; Mechanical properties.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4138
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Engineering properties of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) calyxes CIGR Journal
Aregbesola, Omotayo Adeteju; Faborode, Micheal Oladimeji; Ezeokoli, Obinna Ikenna.
Physical, mechanical and thermal properties of dried and freshly harvested Roselle calyxes were determined using standard procedures based on literature. The obtained results showed that in terms of shape and size, the red variety was more slender with a pointed apex when compared to the dark red variety (Hibiscus sabdariffa. L). Porosity values were close for the dried calyxes and were 53.85% for fresh calyxes. A high percent (72.21%) of whole calyxes was obtained for the fresh calyxes when compared to that for the two varieties of dried calyxes studied. The value of angle of repose for the fresh calyxes was 51.530 while the dry calyxes had lower values (23.10 and 22.40o) for red and dark red calyxes, respectively. Results also showed that the coefficient...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural engineering; Food processing Roselle calyxes; Physical properties; Mechanical properties; Thermal properties; Dry calyxes; Fresh calyxes.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3664
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