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Registros recuperados: 57
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A first genetic linkage map of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis ArchiMer
Lallias, Delphine; Hecquet, Céline; Boudry, Pierre; Lapegue, Sylvie; Beaumont, Andy.
The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, from the White Sea to the Atlantic coast of southern France, and is an economically important species (1 million tons per year, FAO, 2002). At present however, little domestication has been achieved with bivalves, in contrast to agricultural crops, livestock and horticultural species like tomatoes, where selection and production is entirely controlled by man. For bivalves, despite their economic importance, no lines with selected characteristics have been taken to the production scale. There is therefore a need to make up for lost time. Our interest in genetic mapping sprang from some results showing a genetic component to some economically important traits like growth and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: QTLs; AFLP; Genetic; Mussel; Mytilus edulis; Genetic linkage map.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/acte-3465.pdf
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Bilan de l'état zoosanitaire des mollusques en Méditerranée française : 1988-2001 ArchiMer
Pichot, Yves.
The fact that molluscs from the Mediterranean have benefited from a privileged zoosanitary condition compared to those of the other French coasts has for a long time limited the control of farms and natural fields in this area. It is only in the early 70's, because of the pathological problems and risks observed in other areas that Mediterranean molluscs started to be stictly under zoosanitory control. This control was however limited until the early 90's. With the implementation of the European directives 91/67 and 95/70 for the protection of molluscs against diseases and their propagation, with the creation in 1992 of REPAMO- IFREMER (with a watch unit in the Mediterranean), the control of molluscs in the Mediterranean has considerably improved. Since...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Méditerranée; Zoosanitaire; Mortalité; Huître plate; Ostrea edulis; Huître creuse; Crassostrea gigas; Moule; Mytilus galloprovincialis; Palourde; Tapes decussatus; Telline; Donas trunculus; Mediterranean; Zoosanitary; Mortality; Flat oyster; Ostrea edulis; Pacific cupped oyster; Crassostrea gigas; Mussel; Mytilus galloprovincialis; Clam; Tapes decussatus; Coquina clam; Donax trunculus.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00145/25579/23717.pdf
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Bilan des travaux de la cellule zoosanitaire de La Trinité Sur Mer. Réseau de Pathologie des Mollusques. Secteurs Nord-Loire. Année 1998 ArchiMer
Martin, Anne-genevieve; Tige, Gilbert; Hirata, Toshio; Kuntz, Gregoire; Le Coguic, Yvette.
Within the context of the mollusc pathology monitoring network, this report assesses the follow-up and work done by the zoosanitary unit of Trinité-sur-Mer on the whole of the French farming and bed areas of the North Loire for the year 1998.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Herpes virus; Pathology; Mortality; Britanny (France); Normandy; Clam; Abalone; Cockle; Mussel; Pacific cupped oyster; European flat oyster; Herpès virus; Pathologie; Mortalité; Bretagne; Normandie; Naissain; Palourde; Ormeau; Coque; Moule; Huître creuse; Huître plate.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1999/rapport-1920.pdf
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Biochemical characterization and inhibitory effects of dinophysistoxin-1, okadaic acid and microcystine l-r on protein phosphatase 2a purified from the mussel Mytilus chilensis. Biol. Res.
RIVAS,MARIELLA; GARCÍA,CARLOS; LIBERONA,JOSÉ L; LAGOS,NÉSTOR.
Protein phosphatases are involved in many cellular processes. One of the most abundant and best studied members of this class is protein phosphatase type-2A (PP2A). In this study, PP2A was purified from the mussel Mytilus chilensis. Using both SDS-PAGE and size exclusion gel filtration under denaturant conditions, it was confirmed that the PP2A fraction was essentially pure. The isolated enzyme is a heterodimer and the molecular estimated masses of the subunits are 62 and 28 kDa. The isolated PP2A fraction has a notably high p-NPP phosphatase activity, which is inhibited by NaCl. The hydrolytic p-NPP phosphatase activity is independent of the MgCl2 concentration. The time courses of the inhibition of the PP2A activity of p-NPP hydrolysis by increasing...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Chile; Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP); Mussel; Mytilus chilensis; Protein Phosphatase 2A; Microcystine L-R.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602000000300005
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Biological effects of the "Erika" oil spill on the common mussel (Mytilus edulis) ArchiMer
Bocquene, Gilles; Chantereau, Sebastien; Clerendeau, Christelle; Beausir, Emilie; Menard, Dominique; Raffin, Bernard; Minier, Christophe; Burgeot, Thierry; Leszkowicz, Annie Pfohl; Narbonne, Jean-françois.
A 3-year survey was made of several biological markers in mussels (Mytilus edulis) exposed in situ to the oil that came ashore after the wreck of the "Erika" tanker on the Brittany (France) coast in December 1999. The mussel response was assessed using a set of 7 biomarkers, most of them related to the metabolism of organic contaminants. After a series of validation tests, data was evaluated for only 5 biomarkers: acety1cholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) adducts. No significant reductions in GST or CAT levels were observed, levels of DNA adducts and MDA were high during the 6 months immediately following the accident and levels of AChE were significantly lower during...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mytilus edulis; Mussel; Biomarkers; Monitoring; Survey; PAH; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; Oil spill.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2004/publication-403.pdf
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Comparaison des performances d'élevage de moules en 4 sites mytilicoles de la baie de Vilaine, de février 2000 à février 2001 ArchiMer
Mazurie, Joseph; Bouget, Jean-francois; Claude, Serge; Fleury, Pierre-gildas; Langlade, Aime.
Mussel samples have been placed in plastic-mesh bags hung on wood poles (« bouchots »), at 4 locations of a mussel culture area in the bay of Vilaine (South Brittany, France). They have been monitored for one year, from February 2000 to February 2001. The recorded growth have been rather fast (plus 1.2 g per month between April and September), and mortalities moderate (between 15% to 25%), with better results in southern stations, further from the estuary. Among the physico-chemical parameters recorded, the most striking were very low salinities (below 10 g/l) recorded for days, after heavy rains. They provoqued a valve closure of mussels (recorded by a « valvometer »). Some physiological indicators being tested (muscle force and hermeticity) seemed to...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Valve movements; Hermeticity; Muscle strength; Mortality; Growth; South Brittany; Bay of Vilaine; Mytilus edulis; Mussel; Écartements valvaires; Herméticité; Force musculaire; Mortalité; Croissance; Bretagne sud; Baie de Vilaine; Mytilus edulis; Moule.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2001/rapport-6373.pdf
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Comparative study on the contamination and decontamination of Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas and blue mussel Mytilus edulis by oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid ArchiMer
Pouliquen, Hervé; Le Bris, Hervé; Buchet, Vincent; Pinault, Louis.
Marine fish farms use many antibacterial agents to prevent or fight bacterial diseases. The major part of the orally supplied drugs reach the environment, either directly due to excessive feeding and reduced appetite of the cultured fish, or indirectly after passing through the fish. Some of the drugs entering the environment may be taken up by bivalves. Comparative contamination and decontamination of Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas and blue mussel Mytilus edulis were studied when these bivalves were kept during 10 d in seawater containing oxytetracycline (OTC) or oxolinic acid (OA) at concentrations of 0.15 and 1.50 mg l(-1). After the 10 d exposure at the seawater concentrations of 0.15 and 1.50 mg l(-1), OTC and OA concentrations in bivalve tissues...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mussel; Oxolinic acid; Oxytetracycline; Oyster.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00282/39359/39437.pdf
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Contamination chimique du milieu marin : de la mesure à l'évaluation des risques ArchiMer
Abarnou, Alain.
This activity report entitled (“Chemical contamination of the marine environment: from measurement to risk assessment”) summarizes the main stages my career at Ifremer from November 1975 to june 2013. The first chapter deals with the seawater chlorination and chlorinated waters released into the sea, the identification and the conditions of the formation of various by-product of these processes. The second chapter concerns PCBs, their nature, their chemical analysis in environmental matrices. PCBs are considered as the best examples of persistant and bioaccumulable compounds and therefore, in all this report they are flagship contaminants to which other groups of studied substances are compared. The third chapter refers to studies performed within marine...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Chlore; Chloration de l’eau de mer; Oxydant; Bromoforme; Impact environnemental; Mécanismes réactionnels; Désinfection; Polluants organiques persistants (POP); PCB; Dioxines; HAP; PBDE; Chlordécone; Baie de Seine; Organismes marins; Moules; Poissons; Surveillance environnementale; Analyse; Bioaccumulation; Chlorine; Seawater chlorination; Oxidizing agent; Bromoform; Environmental impact; Reaction mechanisms; Disinfection; Persitsent organic pollutants (POPs); PCBs; Dioxins; PAHs; PBDEs; Chlordecone (kepone); Baie de Seine; Marine organisms; Mussel; Fish; Environmental monitoring; Chemical analysis; Bioaccumulation.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00168/27946/26237.pdf
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Differential distribution and defence involvement of antimicrobial peptides in mussel ArchiMer
Mitta, Guillaume; Vandenbulcke, Franck; Noel, Thierry; Romestand, Bernard; Beauvillain, Jean Claude; Salzet, Michel; Roch, Philippe.
In previous papers, we characterised 3 types of 4-kDa, cysteine-rich, cationic antimicrobial peptides: MGDs (for Mytilus galloprovincialis defensins), mytilins and myticins, which are abundant in the mussel hemocytes. In the present work, me revealed a differential distribution of the cells expressing the different genes. In addition, using confocal and electron microscopy, we confirmed that defensins and mytilins were partially located in different sub-types of circulating hemocytes although the peptides can be located in the same cell, and even in the same granule. We also demonstrated that mytilins exert their microbicidal effect within the cells through the process of phagosome-mytilin granule fusion leading to the co-location of ingested bacteria and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Innate immunity; Hemocyte; Mussel; Myticin; Mytilin; Defensin; Antimicrobial.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2000/publication-413.pdf
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Effect of Azadinium spinosum on the feeding behaviour and azaspiracid accumulation of Mytilus edulis ArchiMer
Jauffrais, Thierry; Contreras, Andrea; Herrenknecht, Christine; Truquet, Philippe; Sechet, Veronique; Tillmann, Urban; Hess, Philipp.
Azadinium spinosum, a small toxic dinoflagellate, was recently isolated and identified as a primary producer of azaspiracid toxins (AZAs). Previous experiments related to AZA accumulation in blue mussels upon direct feeding with A. spinosum revealed increased mussel mortality and had negative effects on the thickness of the digestive gland tubules. Therefore we conducted follow up experiments in order to study effects of A. spinosum on mussel feeding behaviour. Individual assessment of mussel feeding time activity (FTA), clearance rate (CR), filtration rate (TFR), absorption rate (AR), faeces and pseudofaeces production were carried out on mussel fed either toxic (A. spinosum) or non-toxic (Isochrisis aff. galbana (T-Iso)) diets. Furthermore, AZA...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bivalve molluscs; Mussel; Ecophysiology; AZA biotransformation; AZA accumulation; Trophic transfer; Dinoflagellate; Azaspiracid.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00090/20174/17832.pdf
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Effect of food supply on the detoxification in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, contaminated by diarrhetic shellfish toxins ArchiMer
Marcaillou-le Baut, Claire; Haure, Joel; Mondeguer, Florence; Courcoux, Anne; Dupuy, Beatrice; Penisson, Christian.
The objective of this study was to identify a possible effect of food on the acceleration of decontamination in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, containing diarrhetic toxins belonging to the okadaic acid (OA) structural group. An experimental protocol was designed to describe and compare the decontamination kinetics and detoxification rates of naturally OA-contaminated mussels that had either received or not received food for three weeks. The protocol was applied in two trials (in June 2006 and June 2007, called Ker06 and Ker07), conducted one year apart on samples of mussels collected in the same area, at the same season. Okadaic acid (OA), the main lipophilic toxin produced by the toxic alga Dinophysis acuminata, was analysed over the course of the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mussel; Feeding; Digestive gland; Depuration; Okadaic acid; Acyl esters; Marine lipophilic biotoxins; Mass spectrometry.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00025/13650/10883.pdf
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Effects of dissolved mercury on embryogenesis, survival and growth of Mytilus galloprovincialis mussel larvae ArchiMer
Beiras, R; His, Edouard.
The effects of Hg concentrations ranging from 0 (control) to 1024 mu g l(-1) upon embryogenesis, survival and growth of Mytilus galloprovincialis mussel larvae were investigated. Embryogenesis was abnormal in 50% of the individuals at 10 mu g l(-1). The 48 h LC(50) for D-shaped, early umbonate, late umbonate and eyed larvae were 51, 164, 322 and 383 pg l(-1) respectively. The LC(50) was an allometric function of ash-free dry weight with exponent b = 0.60. Larval growth was significantly reduced after 6 d exposure to 4 mu g Hg l(-1) and after 10 d exposure to 2 mu g l(-1). No significant differences in lethal or sublethal sensitivity to Hg were found between M. galloprovincialis and previously studied Crassostrea gigas embryos and larvae. The implications...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mercury; Mytilus; Mussel; Larva; Growth; Embryo; Bioassay; Ecotoxicology.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00258/36946/35665.pdf
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Effects of dissolved mercury on embryogenesis, survival, growth of Mytilus galloprovincialis mussel larvae ArchiMer
Beiras, Ricardo; His, Edouard.
The effects of Hg concentrations ranging from 0 (control) to 1024 µg 1-1 upon embryogenesis, survival and growth of Mytilus galloprovincialis mussel larvae were investigated . Embryogenesis was abnormal in 50 % of the individuals at 10µg 1-1. The 48 h LC50 for D-shaped, early umbonate, late umbonate and eyed larvae were 51, 164, 322 and 383 µg 1- 1 respectively. The LC50 was an allometric function of ash-free dry weight with exponent b = 0.60. Larval growth was significantly reduced alter 6 d exposure to 4 µg Hg 1-1 and alter 10 d exposure to 2 µg 1-1. No significant differences in lethal or sublethal sensitivity to Hg were found between M. galloprovincialis and previously studied Crassostrea gigas embryos and larvae. The implications of these findings for...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mercury; Mytilus galloprovincialis; Mussel; Larvae; Growth; Embryonic development; Bioassay; Ecotoxicology.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00037/14868/12192.pdf
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Étude de la formation d'adduits et de 8-oxodguo à l'ADN de moule, Mytilus sp: perspectives d'utilisation dans le milieu marin en tant que biomarqueurs de génotoxicité des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques ArchiMer
Akcha, Farida.
In the aim to develop biomarkers of genotoxicity for the biomonitoring of the marine environment,the formation of DNA adducts and oxidized DNA bases was studied for the sentinel organism, Mytilus sp, following exposure to B[a]P via the trophic supply. DNA adducts and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-désoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) were respectively measured by 32P post-labeling technique and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection. The developped model of exposure was validated for the realisation of toxicological studies in Mytilus sp. The bioavailability of B[a]P for the exposed organisms and its biotransformation resulted in variations in most of the measured enzymatic biomarkers of exposure. Such an exposure allowed the expression...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Moule; B[a]P; Adduits; 8-oxodGuo; Biomarqueurs; Mussel; B[a]P; Adducts; 8-oxodGuo; Biomarkers.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00076/18770/16349.pdf
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Etude et modélisation de la dynamique des populations de bivalves en élevage (Crassostrea gigas et Mytilus galloprovincialis) dans le bassin de Thau (Méditerranée, France) et des ascidies solitaires associées ArchiMer
Gangnery, Aline.
The total standing stock of bivalves cultured in Thau Lagoon (France) that is mainly constituted of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, and the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, vary between 14,000 and 20,000 tons within a year. These variations were attributed to the rearing cycle of molluscs in the lagoon but also to their growth performances. Oysters cultured in the Thau Lagoon presented the best growth rate ever reported whereas trophic conditions are low : mean concentrations in organic particulate matter and total chlorophyll a averaged 1 mg.l-1 and 1.2 µg.l-1, respectively. The development of a growth model shows that temporal pattern (i.e. seasonality) of bivalve growth is explained by water temperature and spatial pattern is...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Lagoon ecosystem; Resource management; Rearing strategies; Production; Standing stock; Hydrobiology; Growth; Shellfish culture; Ascidiella aspersa; Mussel; Oyster; Ecosystème lagunaire; Gestion des ressources; Stratégies d'élevage; Production; Stock; Hydrobiologie; Croissance; Conchyliculture; Ascidiella aspersa; Moule; Huître.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2003/these-102.pdf
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Exposure of marine mussels Mytilus spp. to polystyrene microplastics: Toxicity and influence on fluoranthene bioaccumulation ArchiMer
Paul-pont, Ika; Lacroix, Camille; Gonzalez Fernandez, Carmen; Hegaret, Helene; Lambert, Christophe; Le Goic, Nelly; Frere, Laura; Cassone, Anne-laure; Sussarellu, Rossana; Fabioux, Caroline; Guyomarch, Julien; Albentosa, Marina; Huvet, Arnaud; Soudant, Philippe.
The effects of polystyrene microbeads (micro-PS; mix of 2 and 6 μm; final concentration: 32 μg L−1) alone or in combination with fluoranthene (30 μg L−1) on marine mussels Mytilus spp. were investigated after 7 days of exposure and 7 days of depuration under controlled laboratory conditions. Overall, fluoranthene was mostly associated to algae Chaetoceros muelleri (partition coefficient Log Kp = 4.8) used as a food source for mussels during the experiment. When micro-PS were added in the system, a fraction of FLU transferred from the algae to the microbeads as suggested by the higher partition coefficient of micro-PS (Log Kp = 6.6), which confirmed a high affinity of fluoranthene for polystyrene microparticles. However, this did not lead to a modification...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Microplastics; Fluoranthene; Mussel; Depuration; Oxidative system.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00344/45502/45848.pdf
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Faecal contamination of echinoderms: first report of heavy Escherichia coli loading of sea urchins from a natural growing area ArchiMer
Bouchoucha, Marc; Piquet, Jean-come; Chavanon, Fabienne; Dufresne, C.; Le Guyader, Soizick.
Although little evidence existed to support that view, European countries and in particular France, have regarded echinoderms, including sea urchins, as low risk in terms of feacal contamination. It is hypothesized that the sea urchins mode of feeding, which is based on grazing and differs from bivalve molluscs, would prevent it from concentrating high levels of Escherichia coli. Here, we monitored E. coli levels in sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus) and in filter-feeder mussels (Mytillus galloprovincialis), collected concurrently from the same natural area over a 1-year period to verify this assumption. Sea urchins were collected on the seafloor, whereas mussels were collected from the water column at a depth of 4 m. Our results showed heavy bacterial...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: E. coli; Fecal contamination; Mussel; Sea urchin; Shellfish monitoring program.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00310/42086/41400.pdf
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Genetic linkage mapping in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis, and the search for Quantitative Trait Loci of resistance to a disease in O. edulis. ArchiMer
Lallias, Delphine.
Genetic linkage maps consist of ordering molecular markers across the genome and require a high number of markers for a good coverage of the genome. Such maps represent a framework which enables the identification and localisation of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for traits of interest, such as growth or disease resistance, with the final aim of achieving genetic improvement through marker-assisted selection (MAS). Data on bivalves are scarce. No genetic map has yet been constructed in any mussel or flat oyster species. We report construction of a preliminary genetic linkage map in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis (n=14). Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used in a mapping family containing 86 full-sibs issued from a controlled...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Microsatellite; AFLP; Mussel; Flat oyster; QTL; Genetic mapping; Microsatellite; AFLP; Moule; Huître plate; QTL; Cartographie génétique.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/these-2603.pdf
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Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Black Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Linnaeus, 1758) Culture in Izmir Bay (Iskele-Urla)-Turkey: Preliminary Results on the Annual Feeding Cycle Using a Qualitative Approach ArchiMer
Lok, Aynur; Metin, Gulnur; Acarli, Sefa; Goulletquer, Philippe.
Considering the filtration capacity of mussels to qualitative particle selection, our study focused directly on ingested species by assessing mussel stomach content of various size classes (1-5 cm) over a year (August 97-June 98) rather than monitoring seawater samples. Different size of mussels (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 cm in length) was sampled monthly from the sides of fish cage floats in Urla-Izmir. Stomach contents were analyzed under microscope and different plankton species were grouped taxonomically. Bacillariophycea, Dinophyceae, Oxyphceae, Euglenophyceae as phytoplanktonic species were observed in the stomach contents of mussels as well as zooplanktonic species including Ciliata, Cladocera, Copepod, bivalve and gastropod larvae. Over the sampling period,...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mussel; Mytilus galloprovincialis; Harmful; Phytoplankton; Stomach content; Aegean Sea.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00032/14329/11621.pdf
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Hydrocarbon pollution along Moroccan coasts and BPH activity in the mussel Perna perna ArchiMer
Azdi, M.; Moukrim, A.; Burgeot, Thierry; Budzinski, H.; Chiffoleau, Jean-francois; Kaaya, A.; Zekhnini, A.; Narbonne, J. F.; Guarrigues, Ph..
Specimens of the mussel Perna perna were collected along Moroccan coasts to determine the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAHs) bioaccumulated in the tissues, and to measure benzo[ a] pyrene hydroxylase (BPH) activity. Chemical analysis of PAHs show that the Mediterranean (Nador, Martil, Tanger) and central Atlantic coasts ( from Rabat to Jorf Lihoudi) are those most contaminated ( 351 245 ng.g(-1) dry weight in Tanger). The mussel contaminants were of mixed origin for most of the locations with non negligible inputs of petrogenic origin in many of them. Baseline levels of PAHs were between 6 and 55 ng.g(-1) dry weight. BPH activity showed significant correlation (r(s) = 0.64, P < 0.05) with total PAH concentrations at the six most...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mussel; Perna perna; Moroccan coasts; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Benzoapyrene hydroxylase; Baseline level.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00000/10995/12929.pdf
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