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Registros recuperados: 12
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Climate Change and Agriculture In South Asia: Looking for An Optimal Trade Policy AgEcon
Laborde, David.
This paper aims to study how alternative trade policies will help mitigate the effects of climate change in agriculture in South Asia. We use a modified version of MIRAGE CGE for long term projections and allowing modeling of climate change effects (impact on yield) at a subregional level (163 geographical units at the world level) to simulate the effects of 13 SRES scenarios in 8 different trade policy landscapes. Based on these results, we discuss the ranking of trade policy options based on expected values but also in terms of variance using the theory of decision in uncertainty. Choices between unilateral and regional strategies for the countries of the sub regions are compared. Our results confirm that South Asia will be one of the most adversely...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate Change; Trade Policy; Computable General Equilibrium; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; Q54; C68; N5; N75; O24; F13; Q11; Q17.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/104526
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Do Ideas Matter in Strategic Choices Made by Organizations? An Empirical Work on the Participation of Agricultural Organizations to the Political Making Process in Costa Rica AgEcon
D'Hotel, Elodie Maitre; le Cotty, Tristan.
The new institutional economics has recently developed the idea that the institutional environment can have an impact on economic actors' mental perceptions, and reciprocally, that these perceptions can impact on the institutional environment. This latter point seems particularly relevant in the field of economic organisations participation in the political making process. Nevertheless the empirical description of this role of mental perceptions in the political behaviour had not been made clearly. To contribute to this empirical description we lead a comparative study of 4 farm sectors in Costa Rica, based on a dynamic approach of mental perceptions in relation with the institutional change occurring during the liberalisation process. We carry out a...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Political Economy; D7; N5; Z0.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25792
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Economic Incentives for Entry and Exit in Gum Arabic Agroforestry System in Sudan AgEcon
Rahim, Afaf H.; van Ierland, Ekko C.; Wesseler, Justus.
The gum tree (Acacia senegal) in the Sahel-Sudan zone has many environmental benign functions. An important function is to control desertification. In this paper we analyze farmers' economic incentives to preserve the existing gum trees and their incentives to create new plantations using a real options approach. Results indicate that agricultural crops provide higher economic benefits as compared to gum agroforestry system. However, on the one hand, as gum arabic is produced during the dry period and land is abundant, there are low incentives for deforestation. Instead, farmers' tend to leave the land idle and let the tree growing. On the other hand, our results suggest that an increase in the prices of gum arabic of about 330 per cent is needed to induce...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Gum arabic; Deforestation; Entry and exit; Real options; Sudan; Crop Production/Industries; D4; N5; O13; Q12; Q23.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25720
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Efficiency Estimates for the Agricultural Production in Vietnam: A Comparison of Parametric and Non-parametric Approaches AgEcon
Nguyen, Khac Minh; Giang, Thanh Long.
This paper uses both parametric and non-parametric approaches to estimate technical, allocative, and economic efficiencies for the agriculture production in sixty provinces of Vietnam in the period 1990-2005. Under different technology specifications, both approaches show that the average technical, allocative, and economic efficiency estimates were not high, and there would be a large room for the studied provinces to improve their agricultural production efficiency. To examine consistency of the estimates from two approaches under different specifications of returns to scale, we use Spearman rank test, and the results indicate that parametric and non-parametric approaches provide different estimates.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Data envelopment analysis (DEA); Stochastic frontier production function (SFPF); Spearman rank; Production Economics; C14; N5.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58060
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Farm Productivity and Efficiency in Rural Bangladesh: The Role of Education Revisited AgEcon
Asadullah, M. Niaz; Rahman, Sanzidur.
This paper reassesses the debate over the role of education in farm pro duction in Bangladesh using a large dataset on rice producing hous eholds from 141 villages. Average and stochastic production frontier functions are estimated to ascertain the effect of education on productivity and efficiency. A full set of proxies for farm education stock variables are incorporated to investigate the 'internal' as well as 'external' returns to education. The external effect is investigated in the context of rural neighborhoods. Our analysis reveals that in addition to raising rice productivity and boosting potential output, household education significantly reduces production inefficiencies. However, we are unable to find any evidence of externality benefit of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Returns to education; Stochastic production frontier; Bangladesh; Labor and Human Capital; Productivity Analysis; I21; Q12; N5.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25482
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Implicaciones de NAFTA, TLCUEM y de la integración de China a la OMC en el mercado de la berenjena: una perspectiva de equilibrio espacial AgEcon
Guajardo, Ramon; Rios, Maricela.
Este artículo estudia el impacto de NAFTA, TLCUEM y de la integración de China a la OMC en el mercado mundial de la berenjena. Los impactos son medidos en términos de cambios en los flujos comerciales y en los precios. Se especificó y estimó un modelo de equilibrio espacial con precios endógenos y se simularon escenarios alternativos: con y sin la operación de los tratados y la integración de China a la OMC. Los resultados mostraron que la operación de estos tratados crea desviación de comercio. Además, la integración de China a la OMC aun con libre comercio mundial no impacta al mercado mundial de la berenjena.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Modelos de equilibrio espacial; Mercado de la berenjena; Programación cuadrática; Liberación comercial.; Agricultural and Food Policy; C6; D4; F1; N5.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57282
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Lessons for the Forest Service from State Trust Land Management Experience AgEcon
Fairfax, Sally.
This paper argues that state trust land management experience is potentially a source of valuable insights and examples for the U.S. Forest Service. The paper sketches historic and current trends in public resource administration to define what constitutes useful new ideas which might aid the agency in its present crisis. In spite of being this nation's oldest approach to public resource management, the state trust lands are an appropriate source of new ideas in an era in which, the paper suggests: (1) the courts are receding as a major source of executive accountability, (2) the legitimacy of federal agencies, particularly those whose authority is rooted in science, is declining, and (3) the institutional framework for public resource management is...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: State; Trust principles; Non-delegation; Arbitrary and capricious; Prudence; Portfolio; Risk management; Institutional flexibility; Land Economics/Use; H41; H39; N5; Q23; Q28.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10780
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Oil and Agriculture in the Post-Separation Sudan AgEcon
Siddig, Khalid H.A..
The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), which was signed by the government of Sudan and the Sudanese People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) ended more than 20 years of civil war. According to the CPA, the Sudan’s government has 50% of the oil exploited from the wells existing in the south in addition to the oil produced from the northern wells. The latter represents about 30% of the total oil production in Sudan. In January 2011, the people in southern Sudan have voted for separation from the Sudan and in July 2011 the Republic of South Sudan was officially announced as Africa’s newest state. Now the CPA period is over and the south possesses its entire production of oil, but need to use the export infrastructure that exists in the north to export it. For...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Oil; Agriculture; Sudan; South Sudan; Separation; CGE modelling; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; C6; D5; D6; F1; F2; H5; N5.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122341
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Philippine Rice and Rural Poverty: An Impact Analysis of Market Reform Using CGE AgEcon
Cororaton, Caesar B..
This paper looks at how Philippine trade reform which consists of tariff reduction and elimination of quantitative restrictions (QR) on rice imports will affect poverty within two world trade scenarios: Doha and free world trade. The impact of Doha is very small and generates biased effects against agriculture. The impact of Philippine trade reform within the Doha agenda magnifies this biased effect, making rural households worse-off compared to urban households. However, eliminating rice QR generates a set of effects where consumer price reduction dominates nominal income decline. Thus, real income improves and poverty declines across household groups, but the net effects are lower in rural than in urban households. The impact of a free world trade...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Rice; Impact analysis; Agriculture; Poverty; Computable general equilibrium CGE; Trade reform; Doha agreement; Free trade; Rural households; Urban households; Consumer prices; Philippines; Food Security and Poverty; Marketing; F1; I3; N5; O5; Q0; Q1.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58578
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Pourquoi et comment l’instabilité est-elle une caractéristique structurelle des marchés agricoles? AgEcon
Boussard, Jean-Marc.
Agricultural price volatility is "bad". But where does it come from? Remedies are completely different for "endogenous" or "exogenous" fluctuations. The recent crisis seems to indicate that exogenous remedies have been applied to endogenous fluctuations.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Instability; Agricultural policy; Development; Fluctuations; Quotas; Cobweb; Insurance.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Industrial Organization; Political Economy; Production Economics; Public Economics; B5; D4; D6; D8; N5; O1..
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44424
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Rethinking Scientific Management AgEcon
Nelson, Robert H..
The U.S. Forest Service was founded early in the twentieth century with the progressive mission to achieve the scientific management of the forests of the United States. Scientific management was in part a political theory, holding out a model by which social values and technical considerations should function separately in the political process. However, since the 1970s the autonomy of Forest Service professionals to manage the national forests has been undermined by judicial decisions, White House and other executive branch oversight, and routine Congressional interference. Ecological management is a new attempt in the 1990s to revive scientific management but it is not likely to be any more successful than previous efforts. Instead, a new governing...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Scientific management; Progressive era; Forests; Forest Service; Environmental Economics and Policy; H41; N5; Q23; Q28.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10447
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The Impact of El Nino on Northeastern Forests: A Case Study on Maple Syrup Production AgEcon
Bergeron, Nancy; Sedjo, Roger A..
El Nino events are likely to affect maple syrup production since it is very sensitive to weather patterns. A statistically significant direct correlation has not been found in our preliminary analysis, however. This may be because many other factors affect production and because weather anomalies also occur in non-El Nino years. Few defensive activities are available to maple syrup producers to alleviate the negative impacts of weather anomalies on their production. Hence, the value of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forecasts to them is likely to be low, even if a clear correlation between productivity and ENSO events was eventually found. Overall, small welfare impacts of El Nino weather events are expected from their impact on the maple syrup...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: El Nino; Forests; Maple syrup; Economic welfare effects; Dieback; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D61; Q10; Q20; Q23; N5.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10671
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