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Registros recuperados: 10
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ACCOUNTING FOR SPATIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERSHEDS IN EVALUATING WATER POLLUTION ABATEMENT POLICIES AgEcon
Qiu, Zeyuan; Prato, Anthony A..
This study evaluates three agricultural nonpoint pollution abatement policies: regulating the spatial pattern of agricultural activities, ambient tax, and abatement tax/subsidy. All three policies incorporate spatial characteristics of agricultural emission loading and movement for an agricultural watershed in the Midwest. The effects of spatial variation in natural conditions and landscape features on agricultural emissions and crop yield are evaluated using a newly developed biophysical simulation model and experimental data. While the policies are equally cost effective in reducing agricultural nonpoint source pollution, their implementation feasibility is quite different.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Atrazine; Environmental policy; Nonpoint pollution; Simulation; Watershed management; Water quality; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15135
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CHEATING ON NONPOINT MARGIN: HOW MUCH MIGHT IT COST? AgEcon
Johansson, Robert C..
Trading of pollution permits with banking and borrowing can achieve an optimal distribution of abatement across agents and time. However, when the environmental constraint is binding under imperfectly observed abatement practices, there is an incentive for sources to misrepresent their activities. This cheating can erode the efficiency of a permit system in achieving an environmental standard, but it is shown that this incentive to cheat causes similar efficiency losses in a command-and-control mechanism employing a uniform reduction policy.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Nonpoint pollution; Emissions trading system; Asymmetric information.; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21856
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Controlling Urban Air Pollution Caused by Households: Uncertainty, Prices, and Income AgEcon
Chavez, Carlos A.; Stranlund, John K.; Gomez, Walter.
We examine the control of air pollution caused by households burning wood for heating and cooking in the developing world. Since the problem is one of controlling emissions from nonpoint sources, regulations are likely to be directed at household choices of wood consumption and combustion technologies. Moreover, these choices are subtractions from, or contributions to, the pure public good of air quality. Consequently, the efficient policy design is not independent of the distribution of household income. Since it is unrealistic to assume that environmental authorities can make lump sum income transfers part of control policies, efficient control of air pollution caused by wood consumption entails a higher tax on wood consumption and a higher subsidy for...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Efficiency; Urban air pollution; Nonpoint pollution; Environmental policy; Uncertainty; Environmental Economics and Policy; Public Economics; Risk and Uncertainty; L51; H23; Q28.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93964
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Cost and benefits of using best management practices to control non-point sources of pollution under environmental and economic uncertainty AgEcon
Rodriguez, Hector German; Popp, Jennie S. Hughes; Gbur, Edward E.; Chaubey, Indrajeet.
The economy of northwest Arkansas, including the Lincoln Lake watershed (a sub-watershed of the Illinois River), relies greatly upon livestock and poultry production. The supply of production by-products is increasingly under scrutiny as one of the potential sources of water pollution in the region. In light of the recent economic crisis, methodologies that help producers to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of several practices before implementing them may be a cost-effective means of increasing BMP adoption. This study uses stochastic dominance techniques to evaluate, environmentally and economically, ten best management practices (BMPs) combinations to lessen water pollution in the Lincoln Lake watershed. All BMP combinations analyzed were...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Nonpoint pollution; Watershed; Best management practices; Risk analysis; Stochastic dominance; Environmental Economics and Policy; Risk and Uncertainty; Q25; Q53.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103344
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Do baseline requirements hinder trades in water quality trading programs? AgEcon
Ribaudo, Marc; Ghosh, Gaurav S.; Shortle, James S..
The Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Agriculture are promoting point/nonpoint trading as a way of reducing the costs of meeting water quality goals while giving nonpoint sources a larger role in meeting those goals. Farms can create offsets or credits in a point/nonpoint trading program by implementing management practices such as conservation tillage, nutrient management, and buffer strips. To be eligible to sell credits, farmers must first comply with baseline requirements. The EPA defines a baseline as the pollutant control requirements that apply to a seller in the absence of trading. EPA guidance recommends that the baseline for nonpoint sources be management practices that are consistent with the water quality goal. A...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Nonpoint pollution; Emissions trading; Management practices; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49258
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Ecological and Social Dynamics in Simple Models of Ecosystem Management Ecology and Society
Carpenter, Stephen R; University of Wisconsin-Madison; srcarpen@wisc.edu; Brock, William; University of Wisconsin; brock@macc.wisc.edu; Hanson, Paul; University of Wisconsin; pchanson@facstaff.wisc.edu.
Simulation models were developed to explore and illustrate dynamics of socioecological systems. The ecosystem is a lake subject to phosphorus pollution. Phosphorus flows from agriculture to upland soils, to surface waters, where it cycles between water and sediments. The ecosystem is multistable, and moves among domains of attraction depending on the history of pollutant inputs. The alternative states yield different economic benefits. Agents form expectations about ecosystem dynamics, markets, and/or the actions of managers, and choose levels of pollutant inputs accordingly. Agents have heterogeneous beliefs and/or access to information. Their aggregate behavior determines the total rate of pollutant input. As the ecosystem changes, agents update their...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Adaptive agent models; Adaptive management; Bounded rationality; Ecological economics; Ecosystem oscillations; Integrated models; Lake eutrophication; Nonpoint pollution; Phosphorus cycles; Simulation models; Social-natural systems..
Ano: 1999
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Economic Effects of Environmental Taxation on Chemical Fertilizers AgEcon
Kim, Chang-Gil; Stoecker, Arthur L..
This paper analyzes the economic effects of environmental taxes on chemical fertilizer in producing rice. A charge of 10 percent tax on nitrogen fertilizer leads to a reduction in fertilizer use of 1.5 percent without changing rice yield, but the farm income is reduced by 0.6 percent. The tax rate of 100 percent leads to a reduction of 14.6 percent in fertilizer use, a 0.4 percent reduction in rice yield, and a 3.6 percent reduction in farm income. A significant feature of eco-taxes imposed on chemical fertilizers is their revenue potential, which could contribute to increasing government budgets for finance pollution control programs, such as education and R&D. This study provides an insight into the application of market-based instrument to achieve...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Polluter-pays-principle; Nonpoint pollution; Environmental tax; Nitrogen fertilizer; Negative externalities; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; Q52.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25501
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MARKET-BASED SOLUTIONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS: DISCUSSION AgEcon
Woodward, Richard T..
There is rapidly growing interest in the use of market-based (MB) instruments in environmental policy. The papers in this session discuss three relatively new areas for such policies: groundwater contamination, nonpoint source surface-water pollution and carbon sequestration. The papers point out the potential for MB policies in these areas, but significant challenges remain. This comment highlights challenges related to five issues: monitoring and enforcement, trading ratios, baselines, transaction costs, and risk and uncertainty. All these issues must be addressed before MB policies can take the full step from economic theory to regulatory reality.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Global warming; Carbon sequestration; Groundwater contamination; Nonpoint pollution; Effluent trading; Tradable emissions permits; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q28; Q25.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15501
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Nonpoint pollution policy evaluation under ambiguity AgEcon
Doole, Graeme J.; Pannell, David J..
Environmental policy evaluation is characterised by a paucity of information. Bounded sets may be more appropriate for representing this ambiguity than traditional probability distributions. A formal calibration method for regional policy models, positive mathematical programming, is thus extended to incorporate parameter definition using bounded sets through the novel method of robust non-linear programming. The resulting procedure identifies strong bounds on the range of abatement costs accruing to environmental policy and improves the relevance and value of modelling studies through not limiting conclusions to realisations of specific point estimates or probability distributions. Moreover, it may easily be solved using standard mathematical-programming...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Interval analysis; Nonpoint pollution; Robust optimisation..
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48036
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UNCERTAINTY AND THE REGULATION OF NITRATE POLLUTION FROM AGRICULTURE AgEcon
Abrahams, Nii Adote; Shortle, James S..
A simulation of U.S. corn production compares four environmental policies for controlling agricultural nitrate pollution. Public uncertainty about key economic parameters are considered. Results indicate that policy choice is sensitive to commodity programs and the public information structure. Agricultural research benefits are also sensitive to agricultural environmental policy choices.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental policy; Nonpoint pollution; Uncertainty; Value of information; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21027
Registros recuperados: 10
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