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Registros recuperados: 27
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A REGIONAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS OF THE WELFARE IMPACT OF CASH TRANSFERS: AN ANALYSIS OF PROGRESA IN MEXICO AgEcon
Coady, David P.; Harris, Rebecca Lee.
Using a regionally disaggregated computable general equilibrium model, we analyze the differential welfare impacts of a cash transfer program targeted at rural areas. The direct effect of the transfers decreases regional income differentials, but the indirect effects depend on how the program is financed. Financing the program with a more efficient tax system is also less regressive and has favorable urban impacts. The less efficient instruments result in relatively higher incomes in all rural regions, but are more regressive. The increasing share of urban poverty highlights the shortcomings of rural targeting and raises the issue of horizontal equity.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: General equilibrium; Targeted transfers; Regional impacts; Tax incidence; Food Security and Poverty; D3; D58; D60; H2; O10; O54; R13.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16303
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Agricultural Policy Indicators AgEcon
Josling, Timothy E.; Valdes, Alberto.
This paper outlines a methodological approach for use by FAO to collect, analyze and monitor agricultural policy indicators (API) for developing countries. The aim is to establish a consistent and comparable set of policy indicators, allowing analysts to examine whether agriculture in particular countries is being stimulated or retarded by the set of policies employed. The API should also be useful in the context of quantitative models of policy impacts and market projections. Ideally, the indicators should function as building blocks for the more comprehensive policy measurement. This paper is presented in four parts. Part I gives an overview of the rationale for monitoring, the relationship between policy monitoring, quantitative modeling and evaluation,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; Trade and development; Policy indicators; Domestic support; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q11; Q17; Q18; O10; O19.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23789
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Autocracies and Development in a Global Economy: A Tale of Two Elites AgEcon
Akerman, Anders; Larsson, Anna; Naghavi, Alireza.
Current version uploaded April 2013.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Development; Economic Institutions; Political Institutions; Trade; Capital Mobility; Capital Accumulation; Comparative Advantage; Capital Mobility; F10; F20; P14; P16; O10; O24.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115848
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Consequences of Data Error in Aggregate Indicators: Evidence from the Human Development Index AgEcon
Wolff, Hendrik; Chong, Howard; Auffhammer, Maximilian.
This paper examines the consequences of data error in data series used to construct aggregate indicators. Using the most popular indicator of country level economic development, the Human Development Index (HDI), we identify three separate sources of data error. We propose a simple statistical framework to investigate how data error may bias rank assignments and identify two striking consequences for the HDI. First, using the cutoff values used by the United Nations to assign a country as 'low', 'medium', or 'high' developed, we find that currently up to 45% of developing countries are misclassified. Moreover, by replicating prior development/macroeconomic studies, we find that key estimated parameters such as Gini coefficients and speed of convergence...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Measurement Error; International Comparative Statistics; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; O10; C82.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6502
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Development Accounting with Intermediate Goods AgEcon
Grobovsek, Jan.
Do intermediate goods help explain relative and aggregate productivity differences across countries? Three observations suggest they do: (i) intermediates are relatively expensive in poor countries; (ii) goods industries demand intermediates more intensively than service industries; (iii) goods industries are more prominent intermediate suppliers in poor countries. I build a standard multisector growth model accommodating these features to show that inefficient intermediate production strongly depresses aggregate productivity and increases the price ratio of final goods to services. Applying the model to data for middle and high income countries, I find that poorer countries are only modestly less efficient at producing goods than services, but...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Development Accounting; Productivity; Intermediate Goods; Production Economics; O10; O41; O47.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119112
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Does Corporate Social Responsibility Affect the Performance of Firms? AgEcon
Poddi, Laura; Vergalli, Sergio.
Over the last two decades in OECD countries increasingly more firms are certifying as Socially Responsible (CSR is the acronym for Corporate Social Responsibility). This kind of certification is assigned by private companies that guarantee that a certain firm’s behaviour is environmentally and sociologically correct. Some papers (including Preston and O’Bannon, 1997; Waddock and Graves, 1997; McWilliams and Sieger, 2001; Ullman, 1985) tried to establish if there exists a link between Social Responsibility certification and the performance of firms. Their results were ambiguous and did not show any common connection. This ambiguity depends mainly on the static nature of their analyses and on the problem of whether performance is affected more by...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corporate Social Responsibility; Growth; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; M14; C23; O10.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52531
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Does Land Abundance Explain African Institutions? AgEcon
Fenske, James.
I show how abundant land and scarce labor shaped African institutions before colonial rule. I present a model in which exogenous suitability of the land for agriculture and endogenously evolving population determine the existence of land rights, slavery, and polygyny. I then use cross-sectional data on pre-colonial African societies to demonstrate that, consistent with the model, the existence of land rights, slavery, and polygyny occurred in those parts of Africa that were the most suitable for agriculture, and in which population density was greatest. Next, I use the model to explain institutions among the Egba of southwestern Nigeria from 1830 to 1914. While many Egba institutions were typical of a land-abundant environment, they sold land and had...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Africa; Institutions; Land rights; Slavery; Polygyny; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Farm Management; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; Land Economics/Use; Political Economy; N57; O10.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55707
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Economic Reform and Openness in China: China's Development Policies in the Last 30 Years AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
This article adopts the point of view that China’s development policies can only be appreciated if they are considered by applying perspectives from institutional economics. This requires attention to be given to the historical, political and cultural context in which its economic development has occurred. Therefore, this article gives attention to the political events leading up to China’s decision in 1978 to begin its economic reforms and the way in which Deng Xiaoping crafted its new development path. It also discusses the subsequent extension of Deng’s development policies by more recent leaders of the Chinese Communist Party. Indicators of China’s economic progress (including its increasing economic openness) since 1978 are given, and its emerging...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: China; Developmental states; Economic development; Economic reforms; Institutional economics; Market socialism; International Development; Political Economy; P00; P20; P26; P27; P30; O10; O20..
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90624
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Energy, Environment and the Sustainability of Economic Development in China AgEcon
Fang, Xingming; Hu, Xiaoping; Wang, H. Holly.
Whether the high economic growth of China is sustainable is the matter of interest to the public, government and academic circle of China and meanwhile it catches the attention of the world because the development of China has been exerting increasing impact on the world economy. Since the high economic growth of China has been promoted by heavy and chemical industry (HCI) to a great extent, which resulted in high consumption of energy resource, high consumption of mineral resources and high emission of pollutants (the “triple highness”), the sustainability of high economic growth of China depends on a sustainable growth road for China’s HCI and effective control on the “triple highness”. We find that the contributing factors of the “triple highness” are...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Economic growth; Energy; Resource; Pollution; International Development; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O10; O11.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6274
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Energy-Based Economic Development: Mapping the Developing Country Context AgEcon
Carley, Sanya; Desai, Sameeksha; Bazilian, Morgan.
Energy-based economic development (EBED) can provide economic, social and environmental benefits related to national economic development and sustainable growth activities. As both policy and research interests in responsible mechanisms for economic development grow, EBED benefits are becoming increasingly attractive to planners in both developed and developing countries. The incentives, trade-offs, and payoffs for developing countries, however, are not well documented. To help address that gap, this paper identifies the general scope and role of EBED in a developing economy context, and outlines opportunities and challenges for decision-makers.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Economic Development; Energy; Developing Countries; Sustainable Development; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O10; O13; O21; Q48.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123278
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Healthcare Choices, Information and Health Outcomes AgEcon
Adhvaryu, Achyuta; Nyshadham, Anant.
Self-selection into healthcare options on the basis of severity likely biases estimates of the effects of healthcare choice on health outcomes. Using an instrumental variables strategy which exploits exogenous variation in the cost of formal-sector care, we show that using such care to treat acute sickness decreases the incidence of fever and malaria in young children in Tanzania. Compared to the instrumental variables estimates, ordinary least squares estimates significantly understate the effects of formal-sector healthcare use on health outcomes. Improved information and more timely treatment, rather than greater access to medicines, seem to be the primary mechanisms for this effect.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Healthcare; Information; Child health; Tanzania; Health Economics and Policy; International Development; I10; I18; O10; O12.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/107257
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Human Development Index: Are Developing Countries Misclassified? (former title: "Consequences of Data Error in Aggregate Indicators: Evidence from the Human Development Index) AgEcon
Wolff, Hendrik; Chong, Howard; Auffhammer, Maximilian.
This paper examines the consequences of data error in data series used to construct aggregate indicators. Using the most popular indicator of country level economic development, the Human Development Index (HDI), we identify three separate sources of data error. We propose a simple statistical framework to investigate how data error may bias rank assignments and identify two striking consequences for the HDI. First, using the cutoff values used by the United Nations to assign a country as ‘low’, ‘medium’, or ‘high’ developed, we find that currently up to 45% of developing countries are misclassified. Moreover, by replicating prior development/macroeconomic studies, we find that key estimated parameters such as Gini coefficients and speed of convergence...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Measurement Error; International Comparative Statistics; International Development; O10; C82.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49763
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Impact of Income on Calorie and Nutrient Intakes: A Cross-Country Analysis AgEcon
Salois, Matthew J.; Tiffin, J. Richard; Balcombe, Kelvin George.
The relationship between income and nutrient intake is explored. Nonparametric, panel, and quantile regressions are used. Engle curves for calories, fat, and protein are approximately linear in logs with carbohydrate intakes exhibiting diminishing elasticities as incomes increase. Elasticities range from 0.10 to 0.25, with fat having the highest elasticities. Countries in higher quantiles have lower elasticities than those in lower quantiles. Results predict significant cumulative increases in calorie consumption which are increasingly composed of fats. Though policies aimed at poverty alleviation and economic growth may assuage hunger and malnutrition, they may also exacerbate problems associated with obesity.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Calorie and nutrient consumption; Food and nutrition policy; Income elasticities; Nonparametric; Panel; Quantile regression.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C11; C14; C21; C23; O10; O47; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103647
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Labor Surplus Economies AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
The labor surplus economy model has as its basic premise the inability of unskilled agricultural labor markets to clear in countries with high man/land ratios. In such situations, the marginal product of labor is likely to fall below a bargaining wage, related to the average rather than the marginal product. The reallocation of such disguisedly unemployed workers by means of “balanced” intersectoral growth ultimately permits the entire economy to operate on neo-classical principles. Finally, the paper introduces open economy dimensions, indicates the existence of other labor surplus sub-sectors and briefly responds to neo-classical critiques on both theoretical and empirical grounds.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Development theory; Labor markets; Labor and Human Capital; O10; O12; O17.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28480
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Microeconomics of Technology Adoption AgEcon
Foster, Andrew D.; Rosenzweig, Mark R..
There is an emerging consensus among macro-economists that differences in technology across countries accounts for the major differences in per-capita GDP and the wages of workers with similar skills across countries. Accounting for differences in technology levels across countries thus can go a long way towards understanding global inequality. One mechanism by which poorer countries can catch up with richer countries is through technological diffusion, the adoption by low-income countries of the advanced technologies produced in high-income countries. In this survey, we examine recent micro studies that focus on understanding the adoption process. If technological diffusion is a major channel by which poor countries can develop, it must be the case that...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Technology adoption review; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Farm Management; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O10; O13; O33.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56760
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Reflections AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
This paper examines the causes of Taiwan's exceptional economic performance, focusing on the influence of organizational and policy choices and how Taiwan's example differs from those of more typical less-developed countries. After briefly citing cultural factors as proposed by his late colleague John Fei, Ranis proceeds to explore the issues of organic nationalism, natural resource endowment, access to foreign capital and other political factors that have produced such economic success. The author demonstrates how Taiwan's unique combination of strong organic nationalism, meager natural resources and limited access to foreign capital helped curb the Extended Dutch Disease phenomenon endemic in LDCs. In addition, the government's nonoscillatory, relatively...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic development; LDC; Political economy; Taiwan; Extended Dutch disease; Democracy; International Development; Political Economy; O10; O11; O50; P16.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28422
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Role of innovation in growth of countries AgEcon
Tejinder, Sara.
The paper discusses the role of innovative capability in growth of a country by arguing that in the long run, a nation’s higher order competitive advantage can be built only with innovation. The paper also identifies eight determinants of innovation capability of a country. The discussion of these eight determinants should be useful for policy makers in countries attempting to promote economic growth by improving the productivity of the firms in their countries.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Innovation; Economic growth; Productivity of the firms; Innovative firms; Innovation capability of a country.; International Development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O10; 021; 031; 038.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94611
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Rural Development and Poverty Reduction: Is Agriculture Still Key? AgEcon
Anriquez, Gustavo; Stamoulis, Kostas G..
This paper examines the relationship between rurality and poverty, and the role the agricultural sector can play in rural development, poverty reduction, and overall development. The historical views regarding the role of the primary sector in development are presented, and then using original data, the paper argues that there was an historical misjudgment against the primary sector that served as a foundation for anti-agricultural bias in public policy until the late 80’s. Finally, this paper explains how under certain conditions territorial/regional development strategies may prosper, but in other conditions, particularly in the least-developed countries rural space, agriculture is still necessarily the starting point for rural development.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Rural development; Agricultural growth; Poverty reduction; Production linkages; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Q10; O10; O13.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/112591
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Social Responsibility as a Driver for Local Sustainable Development AgEcon
Costantino, Elena; Marchello, Maria Paola; Mezzano, Cecilia.
The increased interconnection among local and global players induced by globalization, as well as the need for a complete application of the “subsidiarity principle”, calls for a re-thinking of the “corporate social responsibility” concept. This new concept broadens the perspective of the single company interacting with its own stakeholders in relation to specific social and environmental impacts, to a network of organizations, with different aims and natures, collaborating on relevant sustainability issues. In this paper, the authors will provide a definition of “Territorial Social Responsibility”, sustaining the multi-stakeholder approach as a driver toward local sustainable development. Firstly, theoretical approaches to sustainable development at the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Local Sustainable Development; Territorial Social Responsibility; Participation; Local Governance; Accountability; Sustainability Reporting; Multi-Stakeholder Approach; Networks; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; M14; O10.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94791
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Technology and Human Development AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
Human development, in combination with technology, yields economic growth which, in turn, is necessary to generate further advances in human development. This paper focuses on the first channel above and finds the relationship significant. Secondly, the paper tries to investigate what affects technology change, as represented by TFP. We examine the influence of openness, FDI, patents and R&D in a 22 country sample and also contrast Asian and Latin American experience.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Technology; Human Development; International Development; F00; F16; J24; O10; O15; O30; O31; O32.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118649
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