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Registros recuperados: 72
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A back-door brain drain AgEcon
Stark, Oded; Byra, Lukasz.
In this paper we study the impact of the international migration of unskilled workers on skill formation and the average skill level in the home country. We analyze what appears to be the least threatening scenario from the point of view of its effect on the supply of skills at home: namely, migration exclusively by unskilled workers. Somewhat surprisingly, we find that even without the departure of skilled workers, the home country suffers reduced aggregate skill formation. Although as a response to a higher wage rate per unit of human capital in the new equilibrium skilled workers choose to accumulate more human capital than before the opening up to migration of unskilled workers, the number and share of skilled workers in the home country’s workforce...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Migration of unskilled workers; Human capital formation; Depletion of human capital; Labor and Human Capital; F22; J24; O15.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122433
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A Development Visions Approach of Designing Rural Strategies AgEcon
Rusali, Mirela.
The paper aims to present possible development visions for the rural areas in a candidate country to access the EU. The proposed objective is to provide a decision-making tool useful in strategic planning process, by designing models of integrated rural development, applicable at country or regional levels. The scenarios method was used to conceive alternatives for rural development and design scenario matrices, focusing on the institutional and socio-economic modules of analysis. The paper proposes a trend scenario, based on the potentials and constraints identified in the analysis phase, and 3 goal scenarios, based on distinctly different sets of goals or development visions. The expected outcome consists in development of the potential for economic...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural development; Economic diversification; Community/Rural/Urban Development; O18; O15.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24617
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Adjusting Household Structure: School Enrollment Impacts of Child Fostering in Burkina Faso AgEcon
Akresh, Richard.
Researchers claim that children growing up away from their biological parents may be at a disadvantage and have lower human capital investment. This paper measures the impact of child fostering on school enrollment and uses household and child fixed effects regressions to address the endogeneity of fostering. Data collection by the author involved tracking and interviewing the sending and receiving household participating in of foster children with their non-fostered biological siblings. Foster children are equally likely as their host siblings to be enrolled after fostering and are 3.6 percent more likely to be enrolled than their biological siblings. Relative to children from non-fostering households, host siblings, biological siblings, and foster...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Human capital investment; Child fostering; Household structure; Labor and Human Capital; J12; I20; O15; D10.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28521
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Assessing the Impact of the Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (B/C CRSP) Graduate Degree Training AgEcon
Jamora, Nelissa; Bernsten, Richard H.; Maredia, Mywish K..
The study evaluated the impacts of the graduate degree training (GDT) component of the B/C CRSP. In their enhanced capacity, trainees have been playing important roles in strengthening teaching and research capacity in bean and cowpea sectors, both in the U.S. and in host countries. The study recommends the continued commitment and increased financial support to GDT.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Impact assessment; B/C CRSP; Training; Graduate degree; Beans; Cowpeas; Crop Production/Industries; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; Q16; I23; O15; O19.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6918
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Child Labor AgEcon
Udry, Christopher R..
Child labor exists because it is the best response people can find in intolerable circumstances. Poverty and child labor are mutually reinforcing: because their parents are poor, children must work and not attend school, and then grow up poor. Child labor has two important special features. First, when financial markets are imperfect, the separation in time between the immediate benefits and long-delayed costs of sending children to work lead to too much child labor. Second, the costs and benefits of child labor are borne by different people. Targeted subsidies for school attendance are very effective in reducing child labor because they successfully address both of these problems.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Child labor; Human capital; Household economics; Labor and Human Capital; J24; O15.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28393
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China's Income Distribution over Time: Reasons for Rising Inequality AgEcon
Wu, Ximing; Perloff, Jeffrey M..
We use a new method to estimate China's income distributions using publicly available interval summary statistics from China's largest national household survey. We examine rural, urban, and overall income distributions for each year from 1985-2001. By estimating the entire distributions, we can show how the distributions change directly as well as examine trends in traditional welfare indices such as the Gini. We find that inequality has increased substantially in both rural and urban areas. Using an inter-temporal decomposition of aggregate inequality, we determine that increases in inequality within the rural and urban sectors and the growing gap in rural and urban incomes have been equally responsible for the growth in overall inequality over the last...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics; O15; O18; O53.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25036
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Costly Posturing: Relative Status, Ceremonies and Early Child Development AgEcon
Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaobo.
Though social spending facilitates risk‐pooling in the impoverished regions, too many resources devoted to social occasions may impose negative externalities and hinder efforts to alleviate poverty for households living close to subsistence. Conducting three waves census‐type panel survey in rural western China with well‐defined reference groups and detailed information on social occasions, gift exchanges, nutrients intake and health outcomes, we find that the squeeze effect originated from lavish ceremonies is associated with lower height‐for‐age zscore, higher probability of stunting and underweight in early child development. The lasting impact suggests that “catch up” is limited. The squeeze is stronger for the fetal period and towards the lower tail...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Relative Status; Squeeze Effect; Nutrients Intake; Stunting; Underweight; Gender; Agribusiness; D13; I32; O15.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115517
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Country Patterns of Behavior on Broader Dimensions of Human Development AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav; Stewart, Frances; Samman, Emma.
This paper adopts a more expansive definition of Human Development than that encompassed by the Human Development Index in order to explore diverse country patterns of behavior in relation to these broadened dimensions. We proceed by first identifying the dimensions to be investigated and subsequently present the methodology adopted for clarifying country behavior with respect to these dimensions. Countries are shown to differ substantially in terms of their choices among the independent dimensions of well-being which may or may not be constrained by history or culture. We then group countries by level of per capita income, experience with internal conflict, region of the world, oil, wealth, distance from the equator, distance from the sea, in the search...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Human Development; Quality of Life; Happiness; Capabilities; Country Behavior; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; I31; O15; O57.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6877
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Does Increase in Women's Income Relative to Men's Income Increase Food calorie Intake in Poor Households? Evidence from Nigeria AgEcon
Aromolaran, Adebayo B..
This paper addresses an important but not widely investigated question of how calorie consumption in African low income households would respond to intra-household redistribution of income from men to women. Specifically, I use survey data on a sample of 480 households from semi-rural areas of south-western Nigeria to analyze the response of per capita calorie intake to changes in women’s share of household income, after controlling for per capita income and demographic characteristics at individual, household and community levels. I also examine the effect of marginal increases in household income on per-capita calorie intake conditional on the income distribution factor, women’s share of income. My results suggest that redistributing household income...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Nigeria; Intra-Household Redistribution of Income; Women’s Income Share Elasticity; Calorie Consumption; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; D13; I12; O15; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51374
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Does Social Capital Create Trust? Evidence from a Community of Entrepreneurs AgEcon
Sabatini, Fabio.
Which kind of social capital fosters the diffusion of development-oriented trust? This paper carries out an empirical investigation into the causal relationships connecting four types of social capital (i.e. bonding, bridging, linking, and corporate), and different forms of trust (knowledge-based trust, social trust, trust towards public services and political institutions), in a community of entrepreneurs located in the Italian industrial district of the Tuscia. Our results suggest that the main factors fostering the diffusion of social trust among entrepreneurs are the perception that the local community is a safe place, and the establishment of corporate ties through professional associations. Trust in people is positively and significantly correlated...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Trust; Social capital; Safety; Professional associations; Entrepreneurship; Corporate ties; Group and Interpersonal Processes; Social Perception and Cognition; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; J24; O15; Z13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52340
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Does Social Capital Mitigate Precariousness? AgEcon
Sabatini, Fabio.
There is a surprising gap in the economic literature on social capital. First, we lack studies addressing the effects of social capital on those facets of development that can contribute in making growth more sustainable in the long run, like, for example, human development and social cohesion. Second, it is still unclear what type of networks may exert a positive effect on the different dimensions of development. In particular, the literature has not yet provided a rigorous assessment of the role of strong family ties, that are generally referred to as a form of bonding social capital causing backwardness. This paper carries out an empirical investigation into the relationship between the three types of social capital so far identified by the literature...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Social capital; Human development; Labour market; Precariousness; Italy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Labor and Human Capital; Risk and Uncertainty; J24; O15; Z13.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6358
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Economic Growth, Comparative Advantage, and Gender Differences in Schooling Outcomes: Evidence from the Birthweight Differences of Chinese Twins AgEcon
Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Zhang, Junsen.
Data from two surveys of twins in China are used to contribute to an improved understanding of the role of economic development in affecting gender differences in the trends in, levels of, and returns to schooling observed in China and in many developing countries in recent decades. In particular, we explore the hypothesis that these phenomena reflect differences in comparative advantage with respect to skill and brawn between men and women in the context of changes in incomes, returns to skill, and/or nutritional improvements that are the result of economic development and growth.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Schooling; Gender; Twins; China; Health Economics and Policy; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Productivity Analysis; J24; J16; I15; I25; O15.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121672
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Effects of Non-farm Employments on Poverty among Small Households in Developed Villages of Bangladesh: A Case of Comilla Sadar Upazila AgEcon
Malek, Mohammad Abdul; Usami, Koichi.
The study aims at estimating comprehensive effects of non-farm employments (NFEs) on poverty based on an intensive field survey conducted in 2008 on about 175 small landholding households in developed four villages of Comilla Sadar Upazila. We analyze participating factors of small household workers in NFEs and their effects on household production (farming and non-farm activities) and consumption (both food and non-food). For estimating consumption effects (poverty), we focus on food adequacy, income poverty and education poverty (as a part of human poverty). At each level of estimation, we depend on appropriate econometric regressions. Results find the significant positive role of overall NFEs on household NFAs rather faming. Remittance incomes do not...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Non-farm employments; Household economy; Production; Consumption; Income poverty; Education poverty; Bangladesh; Consumer/Household Economics; Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; J43; O15; Q12; Q17; R15.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52811
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Effects of rural non-farm employment on economic vulnerability and income distribution of small farms in Croatia AgEcon
Mollers, Judith; Buchenrieder, Gertrud.
Replaced with revised version of paper 10/06/09.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural non-farm employment; Rural poverty; Croatia; Income distribution; Agribusiness; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Q12; P25; O15; O18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52863
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Emigration and Wages: The EU Enlargement Experiment AgEcon
Elsner, Benjamin.
This paper studies the impact of a large emigration wave on real wages in the source country. Following EU enlargement in 2004, a large share of the workforce of the Central and Eastern Europe emigrated to Western Europe. Using data from Lithuania for the calibration of a factor demand model I show that emigration had a significant short-run impact on real wages in the source country. In particular, emigration led to a change in the wage distribution between young and old workers. The wages of young workers increased by 6%, whereas the wages of old workers decreased by around 1%. On the contrary, I find no effect on the wage distribution between workers of different education levels.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Emigration; EU Enlargement; European Integration; Wage Distribution; Labor and Human Capital; F22; J31; O15; R23.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119098
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Employment Growth and Income Inequality: Accounting for Spatial and Sectoral Differences AgEcon
Pede, Valerien O.; Florax, Raymond J.G.M.; Partridge, Mark D..
This paper revisits the inequality-growth relationship accounting for sectoral differences and focusing on US counties. For 8 two-digit industries of the NAICS classification, we estimated a conditional growth model where employment growth depends on regional income inequality and a number of control variables. Spatial econometrics techniques are used to account for spatial dependence. Results indicate that there is no association between employment growth and family income inequality for the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting sector and the Real Estate, Rental and Leasing sector. However, income inequality consistently shows a negative impact on employment growth in the construction sector, and results are mixed for other sectors such as:...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Employment growth; Inequality; Spatial dependence; Community/Rural/Urban Development; R0; R11; O15; D30.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49460
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Essays on Regional Differences in Time Preferences and Attachment to Place AgEcon
Yi, Dale.
Data from a national telephone survey of working-aged adults in the continental US is combined with US Census 2000 data to explore the determinants of attachment to place and time preferences for jobs, natural amenities, and financial assets. Five regions in the US were delineated so that regional differences in the determinants of the dependent variables of interest could be parsed out. The regions are the Great Plains, Borderlands, Appalachia, the Plantation Belt, and the rest of the continental US. The first essay that explores time preferences for jobs, natural amenities, and money. Each was embedded with a ten percent rate of return. In aggregate, the nation as a whole demonstrated that the discount rate for jobs, natural amenities, and financial...
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation Palavras-chave: Great Plains; Migration; Time preference; Survey; Community attachment; Social capital; Natural amenity; Economic development; Community; Census; Zip code; Policy; Native American; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; R11; R23; R53; R58; Q51; Q52; O13; O15.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56009
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Female Household-Headship in Rural Bangladesh: Incidence, Determinants and Impact on Children's Schooling AgEcon
Joshi, Shareen.
This paper uses data from Matlab, Bangladesh to examine the characteristics of female-headed households and estimate the impact of female-headship on children’'s schooling. Female householdheads in Matlab fall into two broad groups: widows and married women, most of whom are wives of migrants. These women differ from each other not only in their current socio-economic circumstances, but also in their backgrounds and circumstances prior to getting married. To identify the effects of female-headship on children’'s outcomes, I use a two-stage least squares strategy that controls for the possible endogeneity of both types of female-headship. Results indicate that children residing in households headed by married women have stronger schooling attainments than...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Female-headed Households; Widowhood; Migration; Schooling; Labor and Human Capital; J12; J13; J16; I21; O15.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28424
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Female Schooling, Non-Market Productivity, and Labor Market Participation in Nigeria AgEcon
Aromolaran, Adebayo B..
Economists have argued that increasing female schooling positively influences the labor supply of married women by inducing a faster rise in market productivity relative to non-market productivity. I use the Nigerian Labor Force Survey to investigate how own and husband’s schooling affect women’s labor market participation. I find that additional years of postsecondary education increases wage market participation probability by as much as 15.2%. A marginal increase in primary schooling has no effect on probability of wage employment, but could enhance participation rates in self-employment by about 5.40%. These effects are likely to be stronger when a woman is married to a more educated spouse. The results suggest that primary education is more productive...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Nigeria; Female schooling; Women’s labor market participation; Non-market productivity; Labor and Human Capital; I21; J22; J24; O15.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28451
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Fertility in Developing Countries AgEcon
Schultz, T. Paul.
The associations between fertility and outcomes in the family and society have been treated as causal, but this is inaccurate if fertility is a choice coordinated by families with other life-cycle decisions, including labour supply of mothers and children, child human capital, and savings. Estimating how exogenous changes in fertility that are uncorrelated with preferences or constraints affect others depends on our specifying a valid instrumental variable for fertility. Twins have served as such an instrument and confirm that the cross-effects of fertility estimated on the basis of this instrument are smaller in absolute value than their associations.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Fertility Determination; Malthus; Household Demands; Fertility Effects; Labor and Human Capital; D13; J13; N30; O15.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10119
Registros recuperados: 72
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