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Registros recuperados: 25
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Agricultural Development in Traditional Asian Economies: Observations Prompted by a Livestock Study in Vietnam AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
China began its economic reforms in 1979 and Vietnam followed in 1986. Since then both countries have experienced rapid economic growth, falling poverty rates and significant rises in per capita income. At the same time, substantial restructuring of their economies has occurred, a feature of which has been a decline in the relative contribution of agriculture to total employment and output. These changes are outlined. Significant changes have also occurred in the agricultural sectors of China and Vietnam and these are reviewed. In both countries, the livestock sector has grown in relative importance. Households are the main contributors to agricultural production but their individual holdings of land are small and households keeping livestock mostly only...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural development; Asia; China; Economic transition; Farm employment; Land reforms; Land rights; Livestock; Non-farm employment; Structural change; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Development; Livestock Production/Industries; Q10; Q15; Q18; O2.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90629
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AMERICAN POLICY AND THE EVOLVING BROADBAND INTERNET NETWORK AgEcon
Stenberg, Peter L..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Internet Policy; Rural Economy; Distance Education; Telemedicine; Telecommunication History; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; R5; N7; O2.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100799
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Analysing Regional Sustainability Through a Systemic Approach: The Lombardy Case Study AgEcon
Caratti, Pietro; Ferraguto, Ludovico.
The intrinsic complexity of the sustainability concept challenges research towards more sophisticated ways to model and assess the dimensions underlying it. However, currently adopted modelling techniques and indicators frameworks are not able to give an integrated assessment through the different components of sustainability, providing incomplete visuals of the reality that they aim to catch. This paper tries to assess how the INSURE methodology can provide a contribution in the analysis of sustainability through indicator frameworks, describing its application to the Lombardy region (Italy). Developed on the course of a 6th European Framework Program – financed project to measure sustainability in the European regions, the methodology provides two...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sustainable Development; Regional Economics; Econometric and Input Output Models; Development Planning and Policy; Regional Analyses; Q01; R; R15; O2; O18.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37670
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Brazilian Agricultural Productivity and Policy AgEcon
Rada, Nicholas E.; Buccola, Steven T..
Replaced with revised version of poster 07/29/11.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Brazilian agriculture; Embrapa; Input distance function; Stochastic frontier; Total factor productivity; Technical change; Efficiency; International Development; Productivity Analysis; O2; O3.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103326
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Climate Change Adaptation, Development, and International Financial Support: Lessons from EU Pre-Accession and Solidarity Funds AgEcon
Przyluski, Valentin; Hallegatte, Stephane.
Funding adaptation requires adequate governance and there are different ways to organise and channel the funds to where it is most efficient and most necessary. This paper investigates this issue and studies the practical implementation of a development under conditionality, namely adaptation-development, and its requirement in terms of financing architecture. To contribute to this research, it looks at similar problems that have been met in the past, namely the European funding programs for Eastern Europe countries that were candidates to adhesion, and European internal structural and cohesion funds. These funding examples provide a pertinent analogy for the adaptation problem, and most issues in adaptation finance have also been met in these funds...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic Development; Climate Change Adaptation; Foreign Aid; European Union; Pre-acccession and Solidarity Funds; Environmental Economics and Policy; E61; F35; O19; O2; Q54; Q56.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98095
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Common Ground Between Free-Traders and Environmentalists AgEcon
Karp, Larry S.; Sacheti, Sandeep; Zhao, Jinhua.
We use a North-South model with property right differences and resource dynamics to study the effects of trade on resource use and welfare. Autarky is likely to Pareto-dominate free trade in the long run when the environment is quite fragile, and the result is reversed when the environment is quite resilient. Trade may cause an environmentally poor country to drag down" its richer trading partner; in this case, both countries degrade their stocks when these would be preserved under autarky. Alternatively, trade may enable the environmentally richer country to pull up" its partner; in this case both countries preserve their stocks when these would be degraded under autarky. These results rationalize the positions of environmentalists and free-traders. The...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy; D5; F1; O2; Q2.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25042
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Correlation between levels of dissolved O2 and polyphenols during winemaking of red wines made from different grape cultivars and geographical origin. Repositório Alice
GUERRA, C. C.; SBEGHEN, F.; ZANUS, M. C..
Red wines are significantly different regardind quality and aging potential, being their chemical profile main cause of these differences.
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Polifenol; O2; Vinho tinto; Vinificação; Enologia; Vinho.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/544075
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Devolution and Accountability Effects in the Public Provision of Water Services in Indonesia AgEcon
Meirelles, Patricia; Rodriguez, Catherine.
This paper separately evaluates how devolution and accountability, two distinct aspects of the decentralization reforms implemented in Indonesia in the year 2001, influenced the public provision of water services. Using household level data it is found that the devolution of responsibility does not necessarily affect the provision of public services. Our findings show that the quality of publicly provided water decreased only in cities in which devolution was accompanied by a change in accountability. Robustness checks suggest that these results are driven by changes in the accountability framework rather than trends in the health services.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Indonesia; Decentralization; Accountability; Devolution; Water; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O2; I18; H2; H54.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/107395
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Disaster Risk, Social Vulnerability and Economic Development AgEcon
Ward, Patrick S.; Shively, Gerald E..
We examine the extent to which economic development reduces both a country's disaster risk and its social vulnerability to climate-related disasters. Global climate change is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, such as droughts, floods, and various types of storms. Moreover, the effects of these extreme weather events are expected to be borne disproportionately in areas of the world already challenged by underdevelopment. We find that the ability of economic development to reduce disaster risk depends on a country's income level; additional income becomes less effective in reducing disaster risk as countries become wealthier. We find that, conditional on a disaster occurring, higher incomes generally reduce a...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Natural disasters; Climate change; Economic development; Vulnerability; International Development; Political Economy; I3; Q5; O2.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102984
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Economics, Area Studies and Human Development AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
This paper suggests that area studies and economics have a better chance to be married successfully if we shift our attention from the exclusive emphasis on economic growth towards improvements in human development, especially the much broadened version of that concept. Different areas are shown to differ substantially in terms of the choices they make among the various independent dimensions of well-being and the various indicators within each dimension. The particular characteristics of each area play an important role in determining the choices societies make and the extent to which they are constrained by their initial conditions.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economics; Human Development; Area Studies; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy; O1; O2; O5.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52333
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Food Pricing Policy and Rural Poverty: Insights from Maize in Kenya AgEcon
Mghenyi, Elliot W.; Jayne, Thomas S..
This study estimates the effects on poverty resulting from maize price changes associated with the operations of the maize marketing board in Kenya. We consider both supply and demand responses and the accompanying adjustments in rural labor markets in estimating a second order approximation to equilibrium income changes. We then use stochastic dominance techniques to generate poverty rankings between the distribution of income with the effects of the government marketing operations and the distribution of counterfactual incomes. This approach effectively addresses concerns regarding the sensitivity of poverty estimates to the type of poverty measure used. Results indicate that the price-elevating effects of government maize marketing operations have...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Kenya; Income transfers; Maize policy; Crop Production/Industries; Food Security and Poverty; C22; O2; Q13; Q18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25466
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Food Security and Efficacy of the Intervention Mechanism in India AgEcon
Prahadeeswaran, M.; Ramasamy, C.; Selvaraj, K.N..
Rice and wheat are the two major foodgrains in India and their level of production determines the country self-sufficient. Forecasts on cereals supply range from 250 to over 300 million tones in the country by the year 2020. Mere availability of foodgrains is not a sufficient condition to ensure food security but also necessary that the poor have sufficient means to purchase food. Poor economic access leads to food security and it has been checked by the government mechanism through the operation of Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) and foodgrains are distributed at subsidized prices to the people living Below Poverty Line (BPL). It is a safety net to more than 330 million poor and those nutritionally at risk and an important delivery channel with...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food Security; Targeted Public Distribution System; Fair Price Shops; Minimum Support Price; Monte Carlo Technique; Food Security and Poverty; J21; H4; H5; O2; Q18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25465
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Idle Chatter or Learning? Evidence from Rural Tanzania of Social Learning about Clinicians and the Health System AgEcon
Adelman, Sarah W.; Essam, Timothy M.; Leonard, Kenneth L..
We examine data from rural Arusha region in Tanzania in which households are asked to recall the illness episodes of randomly chosen other households in their village. We analyze the probability that a household would be able to recall another illness episode as a function of the characteristics of the illness, the location and type of health care chosen and the outcome experienced. Households are more likely to recall severe illnesses and illnesses for which good quality care is important, illnesses that resulted in visits to hospitals or when the patient was not cured. In addition, households are more likely to recall illnesses that resulted in a visit to a facility where the average tenure of clinicians is less than two years old. The results are...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Learning; Health care; Trust; Social networks; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Health Economics and Policy; I1; O1; O2.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42884
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Infrastructure in developing countries: An overview of some economic issues AgEcon
Dethier, Jean-Jacques; Moore, Alexander.
This paper surveys the main issues and controversies in the economic literature on infrastructure in developing countries. Section I reviews the evidence on the role of infrastructure in promoting economic growth. It is argued that, although infrastructure may be more important for growth than other types of capital, the exact size and form of its effect is less clear than is often assumed. Section II looks at the issue of infrastructure “needs”, estimates of which are pervasive in both the academic and policy literature. It is argued that the preoccupation with such estimates is largely misplaced. More crucial is to develop systems of infrastructure enabling competition through an appropriate market structure. Therefore, section III reviews the economic...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Infrastructure; Developing Countries; Economic Growth; Regulation; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; L9; L16; O16; O2.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123305
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Malaria and National Income: Examining a Two Way Causal Relationship AgEcon
Datta, Saurabh; Reimer, Jeffrey J..
Simple plots of data show that malaria has a negative correlation with national income per capita, whether looking across countries at a point in time, or looking at a single country over time. Some countries have been able to move from an equilibrium characterized by low income and high malaria, to a new equilibrium with higher income and lower rates of malaria. This study develops and estimates a simultaneous equations model to explain these changes. We distinguish three potential causal chains: (a) the ability for decreases in malaria to increase income, (b) the ability for increases in income to reduce malaria (reverse causality), and (c) external factors that may lead to both higher income and lower malaria (incidental association). We find that...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Antipoverty; GDP; Health; Economic growth; Malaria; Simultaneous equations; Health Economics and Policy; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; I1; I3; O1; O2.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61179
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Professionalism, Latent Professionalism and Organizational Demands for Health Care Quality in a Developing Country AgEcon
Leonard, Kenneth L.; Masatu, Melkiory C..
Medicine is a professional pursuit, and even in developing countries professionalism should lead at least some practitioners to care for their patients despite the absence of direct incentives to do so. Even if practitioners do not behave as professionals, what is the extent of latent professionalism, in which socialization in the profession conditions health workers to respond to a demand for professionalism even if they do not normally act as professionals? How many health care workers in developing countries act as professionals all the time and what will happen if health services turn toward remuneration schemes in which health workers are paid by the output or outcome? We examine the behavior of 80 practitioners from Arusha region of Tanzania for...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Incentives; Quality; Health care; Professionalism; Tanzania; Health Economics and Policy; I1; O1; O2.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42883
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Qualidade de melões (Cucumis melo L. var. cantalupensis Naud.), híbrido Torreon, produzidos em hidroponia e armazenados em embalagens de polietileno Ciência Rural
Brackmann,Auri; Eisermann,Ana Cristina; Giehl,Ricardo Fabiano Hettwer; Fagan,Evandro Binotto; Medeiros,Sandro Luis Petter; Steffens,Cristiano André.
Este experimento teve por objetivos avaliar a permeabilidade de filmes de polietileno de diferentes espessuras e densidades ao O2 e ao CO2, a composição gasosa (O2, CO2 e etileno) formada no interior das embalagens e a qualidade físico-química de melões (Cucumis melo L. var. cantalupensis Naud.), híbrido Torreon, produzidos no sistema hidropônico "Nutrient Film Technique" (NFT) e armazenados em embalagens de polietileno. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: (1) armazenamento refrigerado (sem uso de filme); (2) polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD) de 40µm; (3) PEBD de 60µm; (4) PEBD de 90µm; (5) polietileno de média densidade (PEMD) de 40µm; (6) PEMD de 60µm. Os frutos permaneceram armazenados durante 25 dias a 3,8±0,2°C e por mais dois dias a 20°C. Os filmes...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Atmosfera modificada; O2; CO2; Etileno; Permeabilidade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782006000400016
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Science-Policy Communication for Improved Water Resources Management: Contributions of the Nostrum-DSS Project AgEcon
Depietri, Yaella; Giupponi, Carlo.
The Nostrum-DSS EU funded Co-ordination Action (CA) aims at contributing to the achievement of improved governance and planning in the field of sustainable water management within the Mediterranean Basin by establishing a network between the science, policy, and civil society spheres and through the development and dissemination of Best Practices Guidelines (BPGs) for the design and implementation of DSSs for IWRM in the Mediterranean Area. Decision Support Systems (DSS) have a great theoretical potential as tools for the identification of optimal water resource management regimes in the Mediterranean basin, thus helping policy makers (PMs) to bring the principles of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) into practice. However, such tools are only...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Science-Policy Interface; Policy Making; Water Resources Management; Mediterranean Region; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q2; H7; O2; R5.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6374
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Seasoning a Monopsonic Processor for Collective Action amongst Pepper Producers in Costa Rica AgEcon
Saenz-Segura, Fernando J.F.; Schipper, Robert A.; D'Haese, Marijke F.C..
The small-scale pepper producers in the El Roble settlement Costa Rica face a monopsonistic market. Only one processing firm is buying the fresh pepper bunches. The processor has all bargaining power to decide on the price paid to the farmers and the quality selection criteria. The rejection rates are high, which is why farmers decided to market their pepper collectively. They started organizing the selection and transport of pepper and entered into group contracts with the firm. We use a non-linear integer simulation model to predict the price level and contractual form (individual or group contracts) which maximises the income of the firm and farmers under three conditions, namely, monopsony (firm holds all bargaining power), monopoly (producers hold all...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Collective action; Contracts; Institutional development; Costa Rica; Pepper; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries; O2; Q13; D4; D7.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25789
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The Effects of Government Maize Marketing Policies on Maize Market Prices in Kenya AgEcon
Jayne, Thomas S.; Myers, Robert J.; Nyoro, James K..
The Government of Kenya pursues maize marketing policy objectives through the National Cereals and Produce Board (NCPB) which procures and sells maize at administratively determined prices, and stores maize as a contingency against future shortages. A private sector marketing channel competes with the NCPB and prices in this channel are set by supply and demand forces. This paper estimates the effects of NCPB activities on the historical path of private sector maize market prices in Kenya between 1989 and 2004. Results provide important insights into the historical effects of the NCPB, and will provide useful input into deliberations on the appropriate role for the NCPB in the future. It was not possible to use a fully structural econometric model to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Kenya; Income transfers; Maize policy; Price stabilization; VAR; International Development; C22; O2; Q13; Q18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25555
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