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Registros recuperados: 21
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A Tale of Two Countries: Emissions Scenarios for China and India AgEcon
Massetti, Emanuele.
The aim of the paper is to present evidence that China and India are, and will remain, two very different actors in international negotiations to control global warming. We base our conclusions on historical data and on scenarios until 2050. The Business-as-Usual scenario (BaU) is compared to four Emissions Tax scenarios to draw insights on major transformations in energy use and in energy supply and to assess the possible contribution of China and India to a future international climate architecture. We study whether or not the Copenhagen intensity targets require more action than the BaU scenario and we assess whether the emissions reductions induced by the four tax scenarios are compatible with the G8 and MEF pledge to reduce global emissions by 50% in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change; China; India; Energy Efficiency; Energy and Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q32; Q43; Q54; Q43; O53; P52.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101378
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BLUNT TO SHARPENED RAZOR: INCREMENTAL REFORM AND DISTORTIONS IN THE PRODUCT AND CAPITAL MARKETS IN CHINA AgEcon
Zhang, Xiaobo; Tan, Kong-Yam.
A key objective of China's reform program was to reduce distortions in the economic system and enhance growth. However, when implemented in incremental and partial ways, local governments or individuals have chance to capture rents inherent in the reform process. Young (2000) warned that the rent-seeking behavior might lead to increasing market fragmentation. Empirical studies have since shown that this did not happen in the product markets. In this paper we argue that as rents from the product markets were squeezed out during the reform process, rent-seeking behavior shifted to the factor markets, especially the capital and land markets. The reform process now needs to be deepened to ensure that the factor markets also become more integrated and efficient.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Reform; China; Rent Seeking; Factor and Product Market; Transition; International Development; D33; D61; D63; O11; O53; P23.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60183
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China's Income Distribution over Time: Reasons for Rising Inequality AgEcon
Wu, Ximing; Perloff, Jeffrey M..
We use a new method to estimate China's income distributions using publicly available interval summary statistics from China's largest national household survey. We examine rural, urban, and overall income distributions for each year from 1985-2001. By estimating the entire distributions, we can show how the distributions change directly as well as examine trends in traditional welfare indices such as the Gini. We find that inequality has increased substantially in both rural and urban areas. Using an inter-temporal decomposition of aggregate inequality, we determine that increases in inequality within the rural and urban sectors and the growing gap in rural and urban incomes have been equally responsible for the growth in overall inequality over the last...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics; O15; O18; O53.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25036
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Climate Change: National and Local Policy Opportunities in China AgEcon
Teng, Fei; Gu, Alun.
Climate Change poses a wide range of potentially very severe threats in China. This aggravates the existing vulnerability of China and is one of the big challenges faced by the Chinese government. Adaptation programmes and projects are being developed and implemented at national and local level. As China is engaged in heavy investment in infrastructure development as a consequence of the rapid process of development and urbanization, mainstreaming adaptation into such development process is a priority for China. China has also made positive contributions to reducing greenhouse gas emissions through participations in the CDM under the Kyoto Protocol framework. Although mitigation is not a priority at national or local level, it has been integrated into...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change; Local Policy; National Policy; Mitigation; Local Pollution; Environmental Economics and Policy; H7; Q54; Q56; O53.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9091
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Copenhagen and Beyond: Reflections on China’s Stance and Responses AgEcon
Zhang, ZhongXiang.
China had been singled out by Western politicians and media for dragging its feet on international climate negotiations at Copenhagen, the accusations previously always targeted on the U.S. To put such a criticism into perspective, this paper provides some reflections on China’s stance and reactions at Copenhagen. While China’s reactions are generally well rooted because of realities at home, some reactions could have been handled more effectively for a better image of China. The paper also addresses the reliability of China’s statistics on energy and GDP, the issue crucial to the reliability of China’s carbon intensity commitments. The paper discusses flaws in current international climate negotiations and closes with my suggestion that international...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Copenhagen Climate Negotiations; Emissions Reductions; Carbon Intensity Target; Binding Emissions Caps; Statistics on Energy and GDP; Coal and Energy Consumption; China; USA; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q41; Q43; Q48; Q52; Q54; Q58; O53.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92836
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Demographic Determinants of Savings: Estimating and Interpreting the Aggregate Association in Asia AgEcon
Schultz, T. Paul.
Life cycle savings is proposed as one explanation for much of the increase in savings and economic growth in Asia. The association between the age composition of a nation’s population and its savings rate, observed within 16 Asian countries from 1952 to 1992, is reestimated here to be less than a quarter the size reported in a seminal study, which assumed lagged savings is exogenous. Specification tests as well as common sense imply, moreover, that lagged savings is likely to be endogenous, and when estimated accordingly there remains no significant dependence of savings on the age composition, measured in several ways. Research should consider lifetime savings as a substitute for children, and model the causes for the decline in fertility which changes...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Life cycle savings; Aging; Asian growth; Demographic transition; Financial Economics; D91; J11; O11; O53.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28409
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Determinants of direct foreign investment: Evidence from Jordan AgEcon
Khrawish, Husni Ali; Siam, Walid Zakaria.
In order to show the effect of direct foreign investment flows on the economy of Jordan, this study comes to examine the economic and financial risks on FDI on the macro level over the period (1997- 2007). This study applies a version of the model developed by Chan and Gemayel (2004) by using Multiple Linear Regression Model. The analysis revealed that there exists significant and positive relationship between foreign direct investment flows into the economy of Jordan and economic and financial variables. The study claims for further FDI promotion through incentives to attract new investments. These factors are: providing targeted fiscal incentives, such as tax concessions, cash grants, and specific subsidies; improving domestic infrastructure; promoting...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Direct foreign investment; Economic and financial risks; Export of goods and services and exchange rate stability.; Financial Economics; International Development; F21; O53.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95943
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Dynamic Comparative Advantage: Implications for China AgEcon
Lim, Steven; Feng, Gary.
Over the last two decades the structure of the Chinese economy has transformed rapidly. The transformation has had a significant impact on other economies, particularly as Chinese exports maintain their global ascendance. The economic threats and opportunities posed by China will continue to change over time. Yet very little research has been conducted on the economic forces that spur the transformation of China’s economic structure. We present a model of the forces underpinning China’s evolving economy, investigating the determinants of China’s progression through key economic stages, including the initial transition from agriculture to manufacturing. To highlight the speed of structural transformation we analyze data from 1985-2003. Our forecasts suggest...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Flying Geese model; Comparative advantage; China; International Relations/Trade; O41; O53; P27.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50273
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FOOD SECURITY, POVERTY, AND ECONOMIC POLICY IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA AgEcon
Lofgren, Hans; Richards, Alan.
In MENA, household food insecurity, which is closely related to poverty and undernourishment, is most severe in rural areas and concentrated within Iraq, Sudan, and Yemen. 25% of the MENA population may be poor and 7% undernourished. The key to increased national and household-level food security is pro-poor growth, driven by export-oriented, labor-intensive sectors. Agricultural sector policies should be subordinate to the pro-poor growth goal and not to the goal of food self-sufficiency. Such a strategy requires conflict resolution; macroeconomic stability; physical and human capital accumulation; reliance on markets and the private sector, and diffusion of ecologically friendly farming practices.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Middle East and North Africa; Food security; Poverty; Agriculture; Development strategy; Food Security and Poverty; O13; O53; Q18.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16274
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Groundwater Entrepreneurs in China: Selling Water to Meet the Demand for Water AgEcon
Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Jinxia; Huang, Jikun; Rozelle, Scott.
The overall goal of our paper is to better understand the development of groundwater markets in northern China. In particular, we focus on the factors that determine the development of groundwater markets in our attempt to explain their 'breadth' and 'depth.' Based on a survey of 24 randomly sampled villages and 50 randomly sampled tubewells in two provinces (Hebei and Henan Province) in 2001 and a field survey of 68 randomly sampled villages in 4 provinces (Hebei, Henan, Shanxi, and Shaanxi) of northern China in 2004, our results show that groundwater markets in northern China have emerged and are developing rapidly. Our results show that groundwater markets in northern China are informal and localized. The markets have developed in a way in which they...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Groundwater markets; Emergence; Characteristics; Determinants; Northern China; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O53; Q15; Q25.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25605
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India's Reform of External Sector Policies and Future Multilateral Trade Negotiations AgEcon
Srinivasan, T.N..
I evaluate India's transition from an inward-oriented development strategy to greater participation in the world economy. While tariff rates have decreased significantly over the past decade, India is still one of the more autarkic countries. Despite improvement over the past in export performance, India continues to lag behind its South- and East Asian neighbors. Second, official debt flows have been largely replaced by foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio investment in the 1990s. India's ability to attract FDI would be greatly enhanced by further reforms. I argue that India's participation in a future round of multilateral trade negotiations would benefit India. I outline the further reforms most needed: reform of labour and bankruptcy laws,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: India; Antidumping; Developing countries; Economic reform; Export performance; Foreign direct investment; Intellectual property rights; Multilateral trade negotiations; Quantitative restrictions; Real exchange rate; Tariff and non-tariff barriers; World Trade Organization; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; F15; F21; F35; H54; K31; O34; O38; O53; P11.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28428
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Inflationary Effect of Oil-Price Shocks in an Imperfect Market: A Partial Transmission Input-output Analysis AgEcon
Wu, Libo; Li, Jing; Zhang, ZhongXiang.
This paper aims to examine the impacts of oil-price shocks on China’s price levels. To that end, we develop a partial transmission input-output model that captures the uniqueness of the Chinese market. We hypothesize and simulate price control, market factors and technology substitution - the three main factors that restrict the functioning of a price pass-through mechanism during oil-price shocks. Using the models of both China and the U.S., we separate the impact of price control from those of other factors leading to China’s price stickiness under oil-price shocks. The results show a sharp contrast between China and the U.S., with price control in China significantly preventing oil-price shocks from spreading into its domestic inflation, especially in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Oil-price Shocks; Price Transmission; Price Control; Input-output Analysis; Inflation; Industrial Structure; China; The United States; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q43; Q41; Q48; O13; O53; P22; E31.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102507
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Insuring Rural China's Health? An Empirical Analysis of China's New Cooperative Medical System AgEcon
Zhang, Linxiu; Wang, H. Holly; Rozelle, Scott; Yan, Yuanyuan.
Although health is an important factor in economic development, millions of China's rural residents have no medical coverage. Nearly 10 percent of those that were sick in rural China consciously did not seek medical care, mostly because of financial constraints. More than 25% of rural residents are dissatisfied with their village's health system. In response to this deteriorating situation, a new cooperative medical system (NCMS) was initialized in rural China in 2003 by the government. However, after two years of trials, there has been no household-based, economic analysis of the program. This paper provides one of the first. Although where introduced, most rural residents voluntarily participate, there are many problems with the program. First, at least...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural Health; Insurance; Targeting; Design Problems; China; Health Economics and Policy; I11; O15; O53.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25586
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Is There Surplus Labor in Rural India? AgEcon
Foster, Andrew D.; Rosenzweig, Mark R..
We show empirically using panel data at the plot and farm level and based on a model incorporating supervision costs, risk, credit-market imperfections and scale-economies associated with mechanization that small-scale farming is inefficient in India. Larger farms are more profitable per acre, more mechanized, less constrained in input use after bad shocks, and employ less per-acre labor than small farms. Based on our structural estimates of the effects of farm size on labor use and the distribution of Indian landholdings, we estimate that over 20% of the Indian agricultural labor force is surplus if minimum farm scale is 20 acres.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agriculture; India; Scale; Profits; Labor; Tractors; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Crop Production/Industries; International Development; Land Economics/Use; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Risk and Uncertainty; O13; O16; O53.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95273
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Producing and Procuring Horticultural Crops with Chinese Characteristics: Why Small Farmers Are Thriving and Supermarkets Are Absent in Rural China AgEcon
Wang, Honglin; Dong, Xiaoxia; Huang, Jikun; Rozelle, Scott; Reardon, Thomas.
The supermarket revolution has arrived in China and is spreading as fast as or faster than anywhere in the world. As the demand for vegetables, fruit, nuts and other high valued products have risen, urban retailers are finding new venues seized on niche and today have over $55 billion in sales, more than a third of the urban food market. However, the experience of many developing countries suggests that there could be serious distributional impacts of the rising of supermarkets. There is concern among policy makers and academics that poor, small farmers might be excluded from market. The main goal of our paper is to understand what types of farmers have been able to participate in the horticultural revolution, how they interact with markets and how...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Horticulture; Modern Supply Chains; Farmer Impacts; Poverty; China; Crop Production/Industries; O33; O53; Q13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25762
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SOME DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES FOR INDUSTRIAL SECTOR IN UZBEKISTAN AgEcon
Burkhanov, Aktam.
This paper discusses theoretical aspects of development strategies for industrial companies of Uzbekistan. The author concludes that support of the applied scientific researches and innovations by the government is the key factor in moving the industrial production of Uzbekistan on higher technological level.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Development strategies of industrial enterprises; Innovational type of growth; Industrial sector of Uzbekistan.; Production Economics; O14; O53.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92360
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THE IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES ON GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION: SIMULATIONS WITH A DYNAMIC MODEL FOR EGYPT AgEcon
El-Said, Moataz; Lofgren, Hans; Robinson, Sherman.
Addressing longer-term issues of economic development in Egypt, the paper employs a dynamically recursive computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to assess the outcomes associated with two types of development approaches over the period 1998-2012. One is a targeted sector development approach, and the second is a more broad-based development approach. Under the first development approach technological advancement is separately targeted to three sectors: agriculture, food processing, and textiles. Each sectoral choice is intended to represent alternative development strategies which we label (i) agricultural-demand- led industrialization (ADLI); (ii) food-processing-based (FOOD); and (iii) textile-based industrialization (TEXTILE). Under the second...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Atkinson inequality index; CGE; Egypt; Growth; Income distribution; SAM; Theil index; International Development; C68; D31; D33; D58; O47; O53.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16311
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THE PROBLEM OF TAXING FARMERS IN CHINA AgEcon
Tao, Ran; Lin, Justin Yifu; Liu, Mingxing; Zhang, Qi.
Replaced with revised version of paper 08/25/03.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural Finance; H22; O53.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25886
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Vietnam’s New Environmental Tax Law: What Will it Cost? Who Will Pay? AgEcon
Coxhead, Ian A.; Van Chan, Nguyen.
We examine the effects of a proposed environmental tax in a small open developing economy, using an applied general equilibrium model linked to a household survey database. The burden of the tax, applied primarily to fossil fuels, is passed forward by non-traded industries and backward by industries selling into the world market. It causes efficiency and competitiveness losses equivalent to those of a real exchange rate appreciation, and since export industries are in general highly labor-intensive, is regressive and thus poverty-increasing. The budget-neutral use of increased tax revenues to raise spending on anti-poverty programs can offset most of the losses of poor households, but does not create new jobs. The extent of overall losses and their...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon tax; Environmental tax; Poverty; Labor market; General equilibrium; Vietnam; Environmental Economics and Policy; D58; H23; O53; Q52.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116704
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Village Inequality in Western China AgEcon
Xing, Li; Fan, Shenggen; Luo, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Xiaobo.
Increased regional inequality has been a major concern in many emerging economies like China, India, Vietnam and Thailand. However, even a large inequality is observed within the lagging regions. The objective of this paper is to look into what are the sources of within region inequality using the community surveys and a census type of households in Western China. This snapshot view of inequality within and between rural villages in western China is based on a census-type household survey in three administrative villages and a sampling survey of 286 natural villages in the poor province of Guizhou in 2004. In contrast to coastal regions, nonfarm income is distributed unevenly in this inland western region. This acco unts for the largest share of overall...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural Development; Poverty; Inequality; Public investment; H54; O47; O53; R11; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25390
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