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Registros recuperados: 25
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A REGIONAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS OF THE WELFARE IMPACT OF CASH TRANSFERS: AN ANALYSIS OF PROGRESA IN MEXICO AgEcon
Coady, David P.; Harris, Rebecca Lee.
Using a regionally disaggregated computable general equilibrium model, we analyze the differential welfare impacts of a cash transfer program targeted at rural areas. The direct effect of the transfers decreases regional income differentials, but the indirect effects depend on how the program is financed. Financing the program with a more efficient tax system is also less regressive and has favorable urban impacts. The less efficient instruments result in relatively higher incomes in all rural regions, but are more regressive. The increasing share of urban poverty highlights the shortcomings of rural targeting and raises the issue of horizontal equity.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: General equilibrium; Targeted transfers; Regional impacts; Tax incidence; Food Security and Poverty; D3; D58; D60; H2; O10; O54; R13.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16303
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Assessing Domestic Demand for Organic and ‘Locally Grown' Produce on An ‘Organic Island': Dominica's Dilemma AgEcon
Boys, Kathryn A.; Willis, David B.; George, Seraphine; Hammig, Michael D..
The economy of Dominica faces a unique set of challenges. As with many other Caribbean nations, Dominica has historically been dependent upon agriculture. Over the past several hundred years, the island's economy has been largely supported through the concentrated mono-cropping of a variety of export-oriented crops including coffee, limes, vanilla, and bananas (FAVACA, 2008). Today, approximately 45% of Dominica's labor force is employed in the agricultural sector (FAVACA, 2008). While neighboring countries have economically benefited from tourism, due to its lack of white sand beaches, Dominica is not a typical tourist destination. Taking advantage of its landscape, rainforests, and diversity of natural wildlife, in an effort to diversify its economy...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Contingent valuation; Willingness to pay; Caribbean; Organic; Locally grown; Food; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Development; Marketing; O13; O54; Q01; Q13; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103903
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Bioenergy and the Rise of Sugarcane-Based Ethanol in Brazil AgEcon
Martines-Filho, Joao Gomes; Burnquist, Heloisa Lee; Vian, Carlos Eduardo de Freitas.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q42; O54; 013.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94416
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Business cycles in Mexico and the United States: Do they share common movements? AgEcon
Herrera Hernandez, Jorge.
In this document I apply a recently developed econometric technique to prove the existence of common movements between time series. Said methodology is used to test and measure the existence of common cycles between the economies of Mexico and the United States for the 1993-2001 period. It is found that both economies share a common trend and a common cycle. Also, given the existence of one common cycle between these economies, it is found that transitory shocks affecting Mexico’s GDP are more important than when a conventional trend-cycle decomposition methodology is applied. Finally, it is shown that there are efficiency gains in forecasting by considering the common cycle restriction in a bivariate vector error correction model that includes the Mexican...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Time series models; U.S. GDP; Mexican GDP; C32; O51; O54.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43546
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Business cycles in Mexico and the United States: Do they share common movements? AgEcon
Herrera Hernandez, Jorge.
In this document I apply a recently developed econometric technique to prove the existence of common movements between time series. Said methodology is used to test and measure the existence of common cycles between the economies of Mexico and the United States for the 1993-2001 period. It is found that both economies share a common trend and a common cycle. Also, given the existence of one common cycle between these economies, it is found that transitory shocks affecting Mexico’s GDP are more important than when a conventional trend-cycle decomposition methodology is applied. Finally, it is shown that there are efficiency gains in forecasting by considering the common cycle restriction in a bivariate vector error correction model that includes the Mexican...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Time series models; U.S. GDP; Mexican GDP; C32; O51; O54.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43550
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Colombia's Discharge Fee Program: Incentives for Polluters of Regulators? AgEcon
Blackman, Allen.
Colombia's discharge fee system for water effluents is often held up as a model of a well-functioning, economic-incentive pollution control program in a developing country. Yet few objective, up-to-date evaluations of the program have appeared. Based on a variety of primary and secondary evaluative data, this paper finds that that the program has been beset by a number of serious problems including limited implementation in many regions, widespread noncompliance by municipal sewage authorities, and a confused relationship between discharge fees and discharge standards. Nevertheless, in several watersheds, pollution loads dropped significantly after the program was introduced. While proponents claim the incentives that discharge fees created for polluters...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environment; Economic incentive; Market based instrument; Discharge fees; Water pollution; Latin America; Colombia; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q53; Q56; Q58; O13; O54.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10869
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Conservation Payments under Risk: A Stochastic Dominance Approach AgEcon
Benitez, Pablo C.; Kuosmanen, Timo; Olschewski, Roland; van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
Updated version of REPA Working Paper 2004-05.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agroforest systems; Conservation payments; Land allocation; Portfolio diversification; Risk; Stochastic dominance; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C73; O54; Q23; Q57; R14.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37024
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Cross-Border Environmental Management and the Informal Sector: The Ciudad Juarez Brickmakers' Project AgEcon
Blackman, Allen; Bannister, Geoffrey J..
The considerable difficulties associated with cross-border environmental management are compounded when polluters are unlicensed micro-enterprises such as auto repair shops and traditional brick kilns; such "informal sector" firms are virtually impossible to regulate in the conventional manner. This paper describes an example of an innovative and promising approach to the problem: the Cd. Juarez Brickmakers' Project, a private-sector-led, binational initiative aimed at abating highly polluting emissions from Cd. Juarez's approximately 350 informal brick kilns. We draw three lessons from the Project's history. First, private-sector-led cross-border initiatives can work -- indeed they may be more effective than public sector initiatives -- but they require...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: US-Mexican border; Informal sector; Environment; Brickmaking; Environmental Economics and Policy; O17; O54; L61; Q25; Q28.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10600
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Does Scarcity Exacerbate the Tragedy of the Commons? Evidence from Fishers’ Experimental Responses AgEcon
Maldonado, Jorge Higinio; Moreno-Sanchez, Rocio del Pilar.
Economic Experimental Games (EEGs), focused to analyze dilemmas associated with the use of common pool resources, have shown that individuals make extraction decisions that deviate from the suboptimal Nash equilibrium. However, few studies have analyzed whether these deviations towards the social optimum are affected as the stock of resource changes. Performing EEG with local fishermen, we test the hypothesis that the behavior of participants differs under a situation of abundance versus one of scarcity. Our findings show that under a situation of scarcity, players over-extract a given resource, and thus make decisions above the Nash equilibrium; in doing so, they obtain less profit, mine the others-regarding interest, and exacerbate the tragedy of the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Tragedy of the commons intensified; Economic experimental games; Resource abundance; Resource scarcity; Dynamic effects; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Land Economics/Use; Public Economics; D01; D02; D03; O13; O54; Q01; Q22; C93; C72; C73; C23.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91170
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Estimating the Amenity Costs of Global Warming in Brazil: Getting the Most from Available Data AgEcon
Timmins, Christopher.
This paper develops a theoretically consistent technique for valuing non-marketed local attributes using compensating income differentials in the absence of housing market data. The individual’s indirect utility function is identified with aggregate data describing equilibrium location decisions, and this function is used in place of the unidentified equation describing how housing prices are determined. The model is used to value climate amenities in Brazil, where such data problems are prevalent. Similar problems arise in other developing countries, particularly when one looks outside of the largest cities.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Wage-hedonics; Discrete-choice analysis; Climate amenity; Global warming; Environmental Economics and Policy; R1; C35; O54.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28491
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Growth Diagnostics and a Multisector Ramsey Model: The Case of Brazil AgEcon
Vinyes, Cristina; Roe, Terry L..
Disenchantment with the Washington Consensus has led to an emphasis on growth diagnostics. In the case of Brazil, the literature suggests three main factors impeding growth: low domestic savings, a shortage of skilled workers, and lack of investment in the country’s transportation infrastructure. The unique contribution of this study is to show the inter-temporal implications of relaxing these constraints. We fit a multi-sector Ramsey model to Brazilian data, validate its fit to times data, and provide empirical insights into the economy’s structural transformation to long-run equilibrium. Then, the sensitivity of these results to relaxing each of these three constraints is investigated in a manner that yields the same long-run level of well- being....
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Economic growth; Ramsey; Growth diagnostics; International Development; O11; O41; O54; D58.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56502
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Muddling Through while Environmental Regulatory Capacity Evolves: What Role for Voluntary Agreements? AgEcon
Blackman, Allen; Sisto, Nicholas.
The city of Leon, Guanajuato, is Mexico's leather goods capital and a notorious environmental hotspot. Over the past two decades, four high-profile voluntary agreements aimed at controlling pollution from Leon's tanneries have yielded few concrete results. To understand why, this paper reconstructs the history of these initiatives, along with that of local environmental regulatory capacity. Juxtaposing these two timelines suggests that the voluntary pollution control agreements were both motivated by-and undermined by-gaps in the legal, institutional, physical, and civic infrastructures needed to make regulation effective. Our analysis offers a concrete definition of environmental regulatory capacity, provides insights into how it evolves, and demonstrates...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environment; Voluntary agreement; Regulatory capacity; Latin America; Mexico; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q53; Q56; Q58; O13; O54.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10570
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New Evidence on Long-Run Output Convergence Among Latin American Countries AgEcon
Holmes, Mark J..
This study assesses long-run real per capita output convergence among selected Latin American countries. The empirical investigation, however, is based on an alternative approach. Strong convergence is determined on the basis of the first largest principal component, based on income differences with respect to a chosen base country, being stationary. The qualitative outcome of the test is invariant to the choice of base country and, compared to alternative multivariate tests for long-run convergence, this methodology places less demands on limited data sets. Using annual data for the period 1960-2000, strong convergence is confirmed for the Central American Common Market. However, an amended version of the test confirms weaker long-run convergence in the...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Output convergence; Latin America; Common trends; F15; O19; O40; O54.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37134
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Political Violence and Farm Household Efficiency in Colombia AgEcon
Gonzalez, Maria A.; Lopez, Rigoberto A..
This paper estimates farm household levels of technical efficiency and their determinants in Colombia, with particular reference to political violence (i.e., guerilla fronts, assassinations, kidnappings, and displaced population). An input-oriented stochastic frontier is estimated simultaneously with a technical inefficiency model that incorporates violence at the local level, using survey data from 822 farm households. The findings show that household productivity is lower in areas of high political violence, particularly with high incidence of guerrilla fronts and kidnappings. Should political violence be eliminated, the average Farrell's technical efficiency index of farm households in the sample would increase by an average of 6.4%, favoring households...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Distance function; Farm efficiency; Colombia; Violencia; Consumer/Household Economics; Q74; O13; O54; D24.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19528
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Pollution Control in the Informal Sector: The Ciudad Juarez Brickmakers' Project AgEcon
Blackman, Allen; Bannister, Geoffrey J..
Low-technology unlicensed micro-enterprises known as "informal" firms are a significant source of pollution in developing countries that are virtually impossible to regulate in the conventional manner. This paper describes an example of an innovative and promising approach to the problem: the Ciudad Juarez Brickmakers' Project, a private-sector-led initiative aimed at abating highly polluting emissions from Ciudad Juarez, Mexico's approximately 300 informal brick kilns. We draw four lessons from the Project's history. First, private-sector-led initiatives can work -- indeed they may be more effective than public-sector-initiatives -- but they require strong public sector support. Second, necessary conditions for effective environmental management in the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Informal sector; Air pollution; Mexico; Brickmaking; Community pressure; Environmental Economics and Policy; O17; O22; O33; O54; Q25; L61.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10478
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Regulation of the Electricity Industry in Bolivia: Its Impact on Access to the Poor, Prices and Quality AgEcon
Bojanic, Antonio; Krakowski, Michael.
This paper takes stock with the results of utility privatization in Bolivia. This paper deals with the process of structural reforms in this country and the specific results that have to date been accomplished in the electricity industry. It is mostly interested in exploring whether the reformation of this industry contributed to lessen poverty levels and whether in light of the obtained results, a reversal or a continuation of the reform process should take place. The paper shows that coverage of electricity users has grown faster in urban areas ever since the establishment of regulation. Although it is not argued that regulation has caused the increase in electricity consumers, the data does show that a comparatively faster urban growth rate of users...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Regulation; Poverty Reduction; Bolivia; Food Security and Poverty; Public Economics; L51; O20; O54.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26201
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Scrap Tires in Ciudad Juarez and El Paso: Ranking the Risks AgEcon
Blackman, Allen; Palma, Alejandra.
According to conventional wisdom, rapidly growing stocks of scrap tires on the U.S.-Mexico border pose a variety of health and environmental risks. This article assesses these risks in Paso del Norte, the border's second-largest metropolis comprised principally of Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, and El Paso, Texas. We find that air pollution from tire pile fires poses the greatest threat. Scrap tires in Paso del Norte do not contribute significantly to the propagation of mosquito-borne diseases or to shortages of space in solid waste disposal sites. The burning of scrap tires at industrial facilities is minimal and might not have significant adverse environmental impacts even if it were more common.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Scrap tires; U.S.-Mexico border; Environment; Health; Risk assessment; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; O54.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10583
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The 1990s in Latin America: Another Decade of Persistent Inequality, but with Somewhat Lower Poverty AgEcon
Szekely, Miguel.
This paper processes 76 household surveys from 17 Latin American countries to document changes in poverty and inequality during the 1990s, and performs an analysis of the effect of economic reforms on inequality and poverty by using an expanded data base of 94 surveys spanning the 1977-2000 period. We show that there is no country in Latin America where inequality declined during the 1990s. Poverty declined in 10 or 11 out of the 17 countries for which household surveys are available to us, depending on the poverty measured used. Persistently high inequality inhibited further poverty reduction. One important factor contributing to the persistently high inequality level is financial liberalization. Trade liberalization and slight inequality-reducing effect.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Inequality; Poverty; Latin America; Food Security and Poverty; D31; O12; O54.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43997
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The Benefits and Costs of Informal Sector Pollution Control: Mexican Brick Kilns AgEcon
Blackman, Allen; Newbold, Stephen C.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Cook, Joseph H..
In developing countries, urban clusters of manufacturers which are "informal"-small-scale, unlicensed and virtually unregulated-can have severe environmental impacts. Yet pollution control efforts have traditionally focused on large industrial sources, in part because the problem is not well understood. This paper presents a benefit-cost analysis of four practical strategies for reducing emissions from traditional brick kilns in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. To our knowledge, it is the first such analysis of informal sources. We find very significant net benefits for three of the four control strategies. These results suggest that informal polluters should be a high priority for environmental regulators.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Benefit-cost analysis; Informal sector; Air pollution; US-Mexico Border; Brick kiln; Environmental Economics and Policy; O13; O17; O54; Q25; Q28.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10532
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The Bolivian Decentralization Process and the Role of Municipal Associations AgEcon
Seemann, Miriam.
This discussion paper looks at the Bolivian decentralization model. The objective of Bolivian decentralization is to consolidate the process of popular participation, and to promote regional economic development by means of a more equitable distribution of national income and improved administration of public resources. The legal framework of Bolivian decentralization is established by two principled laws; firstly, the LPP, defines decentralization on the municipal level and represents a new dimension of governmental reform, creating an important link between the state and civil society. Second, the Law of Administrative decentralization (LAD-adm) organizes the structure of the executive power in each Department so as to underpin administrative...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Decentralization; Poverty Reduction; Bolivia; Political Economy; H70; O20; O54.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26356
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