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Registros recuperados: 19
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Agricultural Protection Growth in Europe, 1870-1969 AgEcon
Swinnen, Johan F.M..
Dramatic changes took place in agricultural policies in Europe in the 19th and 20th century. In the 1860s European nations agreed on a series of trade agreements which spread free trade across the continent. In the 1960s European nations concluded an international agreement which spread heavy government intervention and protection against imports across the continent. This paper offers hypotheses as to the causes of these dramatic changes in agricultural protection.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political economy; Agricultural distortions; High-income countries; Economic development of Europe; F13; N53; O13; Q18; P16.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50296
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Autocracies and Development in a Global Economy: A Tale of Two Elites AgEcon
Akerman, Anders; Larsson, Anna; Naghavi, Alireza.
Current version uploaded April 2013.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Development; Economic Institutions; Political Institutions; Trade; Capital Mobility; Capital Accumulation; Comparative Advantage; Capital Mobility; F10; F20; P14; P16; O10; O24.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115848
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Clean or “Dirty” Energy: Evidence on a Renewable Energy Resource Curse AgEcon
Gennaioli, Caterina; Tavoni, Massimo.
The aim of this paper is to provide an assessment of the potential for resource curse in the renewable energy sector. Taking a political economy approach, we analyze the link between public support schemes for renewable energy and the potential scope for rent seeking and corruption. The insights of a model of political influence by interest groups are tested empirically using a panel data of Italian provinces for the period 1990-2007. We find evidence that a curse exists in the case of wind energy, and specifically that: i) criminal association activity increased more in high-wind provinces and especially after the introduction of a more favourable public policy regime and, ii) the expansion of the wind energy sector has been driven by both the wind level...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corruption; Natural Resources Curse; Wind Energy; Political Economy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D73; O13; P16.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115846
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Constitutional Rules and Agricultural Policy Outcomes AgEcon
Olper, Alessandro; Raimondi, Valentina.
This paper deals with the effect of constitutional rules on agricultural policy outcomes in a panel of observations for more than 70 developing and developed countries in the 1955-2005 period. Testable hypotheses are drawn from recent developments in the comparative politics literature that see political institutions as key elements in shaping public policies. Using differences-in-differences regressions we find a positive effect of a transition into democracy on agricultural protection. However, this average effect masks substantial heterogeneities across different forms of democracy. Indeed, what matters are transitions to proportional (as opposed to majoritarian) democracies, as well as to permanent (as opposed to temporary) democracies. Moreover, while...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Comparative Political Economics; Agricultural Distortions; Constitutional Rules; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; D72; H23; O13; P16.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50304
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Democracy and Agricultural Protection: Parametric and Semi-parametric Matching Estimates AgEcon
Olper, Alessandro; Falkowski, Jan; Swinnen, Johan F.M..
We estimate the effect of democratic transitions on agricultural protection in a sample of 74 developing and developed countries, observed in the 1955-2005 period. We employ both differences-in-differences regressions and semi-parametric matching methods, exploiting the time series and cross-sectional variation in the data. Our semi-parametric matching estimates show that parametric methods might underestimate the true effect of democracy on agricultural protection. We find a strong increase in agricultural protection (reduce in taxation) after a country transition to democracy. Specifically a democratic transition increases agricultural protection by about 9 percent points. However, the effect is asymmetric as the effect of leaving democracy on protection...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Democratic Reforms; Agricultural Distortions; Comparative Political Economics; Agricultural and Food Policy; Political Economy; D72; F13; O13; P16; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49313
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Democracy, Property Rights, Income Equality, and Corruption AgEcon
Dong, Bin; Torgler, Benno.
This paper presents theoretical and empirical evidence on the nexus between corruption and democracy. We establish a political economy model where the effect of democracy on corruption is conditional on income distribution and property rights protection. Our empirical analysis with cross-national panel data provides evidence that is consistent with the theoretical prediction. Moreover, the effect of democratization on corruption depends on the protection of property rights and income equality which shows that corruption is a nonlinear function of these variables. The results indicate that democracy will work better as a control of corruption if the property rights system works and there is a low level of income inequality. On the other hand if property...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corruption; Democracy; Income inequality; Property rights; Political Economy; D73; H11; P16.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99685
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Non-Tariff Measures in Agri-Food Trade: What Does the Data Tell Us? Evidence from a Cluster Analysis on OECD Imports AgEcon
Disdier, Anne-Celia; van Tongeren, Frank W..
Non-tariff measures (NTMs) are playing an increasing role in international trade of agri-food trade. Although well-recognized, this aspect has not been extensively analysed at a disaggregated product level. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the trade incidence of NTMs notified by OECD countries on 777 products and clusters these products according to three trade indicators. While the ‘protection for sale’ literature provides useful explanations, it is not completely satisfying in resolving the puzzle of cross-product differences in the occurrence of NTMs.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Non-tariffs measures; Cluster analysis; Political economy of protection; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; C83; P16; Q17.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51759
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Oil Revenues, Ethnic Fragmentation and Political Transition of Authoritarian Regimes AgEcon
Cologni, Alessandro; Manera, Matteo.
Natural resources are generally associated to negative effects on the political environment of a country. This paper explores the impact that oil revenues have on the establishment of a given political system. Based on previous literature, a political economy perspective is employed. A simple game theoretical approach in order to explain the relationships between oil revenues, political instability (conflicts) and emergence of different political systems is presented. The implementation of particular redistributive fiscal policies together with the possibility that paternalistic or “predatory" autocracies emerge are considered. Under certain circumstances, a process of full democratization is argued not to represent an optimal choice for the oil-rich...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Natural Resources; Rentier States; Conflict and Endogenous Political Regimes; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C72; D74; O13; P16.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123277
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Political Economy of Agricultural Distortions: The Literature to Date AgEcon
Swinnen, Johan F.M..
The 1980s and first half of the 1990s were a very active period in the field of political economy of agricultural protection. While the past decade has witnessed a slowdown in this area, there have been very important developments on political economy in other parts of the economics profession. This paper reviews key new insights and developments in the general political economy literature and draws implications for the study of the political economy of distortions to agricultural incentives.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Political economy; Agricultural distortions; High-income countries; Developing countries; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; N50; O13; P16; P26.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50308
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Reflections AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
This paper examines the causes of Taiwan's exceptional economic performance, focusing on the influence of organizational and policy choices and how Taiwan's example differs from those of more typical less-developed countries. After briefly citing cultural factors as proposed by his late colleague John Fei, Ranis proceeds to explore the issues of organic nationalism, natural resource endowment, access to foreign capital and other political factors that have produced such economic success. The author demonstrates how Taiwan's unique combination of strong organic nationalism, meager natural resources and limited access to foreign capital helped curb the Extended Dutch Disease phenomenon endemic in LDCs. In addition, the government's nonoscillatory, relatively...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic development; LDC; Political economy; Taiwan; Extended Dutch disease; Democracy; International Development; Political Economy; O10; O11; O50; P16.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28422
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Regional Integration in Developing Countries: Some Lessons Based on Case Studies AgEcon
Shams, Rasul.
The main focus of this paper is the question if the success of regional integration organisation in developing countries is, in fact, dependent on factors like similarity of their economic structure, market size or lack of commitment. It is shown that there are also other more important institutional and politico-economical reasons to explain the functioning of such organisations in developing countries. Case studies of ECOWAS and SADC will be used to discuss this question. It is also very often argued that southsouth integration is inferior to north-south integration. This will be discussed considering the case of MERCOSUR as an example.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Regional integration; Economic development; Africa; Latin America; Political economy; International Relations/Trade; F15; O1; P16.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26272
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Special Interests versus the Public Interest in Policy Determination AgEcon
Rausser, Gordon C.; Roland, Gerard.
This paper focuses on recent theoretical developments in political economy and what role they might play in explaining and reforming individual country and global distortions in food and agricultural markets. Four groups of forces are isolated: political governance structures emphasizing the role of democratic mechanisms; the design of polycentric structures for assigned governmental authority for setting policy instruments; market structure and other socioeconomic characteristics; and the role of sector mobility and asset diversification. Each of these forces are distilled and data sources are reviewed that will allow econometric specifications that have both explanatory and policy reform implications.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political economy; Agricultural distortions; Public interest; Vested interests; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; H23; N50; Q18; O13; P16; P26.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50294
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Teaching Agricultural Policy Using Games: The Agripol Game AgEcon
Jongeneel, Roelof A.; Koning, Niek.
We developed the AGRIPOL game as a tool for teaching agricultural policy to economic and non-economic students. AGRIPOL consists of a world with 7 different countries, each one represented by a small group of students. The students have to maximize their country's social welfare by choosing an optimal set of policy instruments. By doing this students learn in an interesting and hands-on way to understand the workings of agricultural policy instruments, the interrelatedness between countries (policy impact spill-overs) and the role of political weights in the policy formation process. A WTO negotiation round is included to let students experience the difficulties and benefits of cooperation.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Economics education; Political economy; Agricultural policy; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; A2; P16; Q18.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24773
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The Drive to Economic Integration in Africa AgEcon
Shams, Rasul.
In Africa there has been an immense effort in the past, continuing into the present, to unite politically and to build numerous economic integration areas. In this paper we discuss the reasons for the existence of this phenomenon in Africa which we call the drive to political and economic integration. Some conventional explanations are discussed. Our own explanation is based on the theory of bureaucracy and the imbalances emerging in the process of development. If Africa is ready for regional economic integration, it has to follow another path to this end: The path of centric integration.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic Integration; Union; Bureaucracy; Centric Integration; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; F15; P16; O18; O55.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26199
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The Political and Economic Determinants of Trade Disputes under the WTO AgEcon
Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Fadiga-Stewart, Leslie A..
Replaced with revised version of paper 02/25/08.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Democratization; System of government; Trade disputes; World Trade Organization (WTO); Economic strata; International Relations/Trade; P16; F13.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19483
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The Positive Political Economy of Instrument Choice in Environmental Policy AgEcon
Keohane, Nathaniel O.; Revesz, Richard L.; Stavins, Robert N..
In the realm of environmental policy instrument choice, there is great divergence between the recommendations of normative economic theory and positive political reality. Four gaps stand out. First, despite the advantages of market-based policy instruments, they have been used to a minor degree, compared with conventional, command-and-control instruments. Second, pollution-control standards have typically been much more stringent for new than for existing sources, despite the inefficiency of this approach. Third, in the few instances in which market-based instruments have been adopted, they have nearly always taken the form of grandfathered tradeable permits, rather than auctioned permits or pollution taxes, despite the advantages in some situations of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy; L51; H11; P16; K32; Q28.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10759
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Trade Imbalances and the Political Economy of a Transitional Fund in the EAC AgEcon
Shams, Rasul.
The EAC is on the verge of establishing a customs union. But this is accompanied by fears that the Customs Union would lead to trade imbalances among the Partner States, which would create serious problems for the proper functioning of the Customs Union itself. To mitigate these problems the establishment of a transitional fund is proposed. Based on a study of the trade effects of the Customs Union it is shown that these fears are unfounded, and the establishment of a transitional fund to address imbalances therefore not necessary. Stakeholders views on the establishment of a transitional fund are also analysed to assess their influence on the integration policy in the EAC. The historical background of the fears of a customs union is described and it is...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic Integration; Africa; Political Economy; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; F15; O55; P16.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26261
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Why are Latin Americans so unhappy about reforms? AgEcon
Panizza, Ugo; Yanez, Monica.
This paper uses opinion surveys to document discontent with the pro-market reforms implemented by most Latin American countries during the 1990s. The paper also explores four possible sets of explanations for this discontent: (i) a general drift of the populace’s political views to the left; (ii) an increase in political activism by those who oppose reforms; (iii) a decline in the people’s trust of political actors; and (iv) the economic crisis. The paper’s principal finding is that the macroeconomic situation plays an important role in explaining the dissatisfaction with the reform process.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Political economy; Reforms; Crisis; Latin America; P16; O54.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37219
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Why Do Countries Form Regions? The Political Economy of Regional Integration AgEcon
Shams, Rasul.
To understand the reasons for the formation of regional economic groupings two basic concepts are introduced: association and dissociation. Moreover, the importance of interest groups and strategic groups is discussed, and security and bargaining power as basic political motivations are evaluated. The paper also analyses some political economy arguments regarding the determinants of the size of economic groupings and the dynamics of their development through different stages. Finally it considers regional groupings as strategical coalitions with a deep impact on the future of the world economy. Um die Ursachen für die Entstehung regionaler ökonomischer Gruppierungen zu verstehen werden zwei grundlegende Konzepte eingeführt: Absonderung und bedingte...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: New Regionalism; Regional Groupings; Interest Groups; Security and Bargaining Power; Strategic Coalitions; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; F; F15; P16.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26214
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