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Alien species alert: Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oyster) ArchiMer
Miossec, Laurence; Le Deuff, Rose-marie; Goulletquer, Philippe.
The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas, Thunberg, 1793) is one of 20 species in the genus Crassostrea. Although native to the Japan/Korea region, C. gigas is a hardy species that has been introduced to a number of countries worldwide, including the US, Canada, the UK, France, Korea, China, New Zealand, Australia, South Africa, and South America, mainly for aquaculture purposes (Mann et al., 1991; Orensanz et al., 2002). As a result, C. gigas has become the leading species in world shellfish culture, with an estimated production of 4.6 million t in 2006 (FAO, 2008). Because C. gigas does not require additional food to sustain its growth, this species is relatively inexpensive and easy to produce. Its capacity to adapt to various environmental conditions and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Transfer; Alien species; Distribution; Introduction; Bivalvia; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oyster.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/rapport-6945.pdf
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Analysis of hemocyte parameters in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, reared in the field — Comparison of hatchery diploids and diploids from natural beds ArchiMer
Gagnaire, Beatrice; Soletchnik, Patrick; Faury, Nicole; Kerdudou, Nolwenn; Le Moine, Olivier; Renault, Tristan.
Internal defence mechanisms of bivalves include the hemocytes which assume several functions. Relationships exist between environmental factors, physiological state of oysters, defence system and pathogens. Hatchery oysters are more and more produced and reared in the field. The characteristics and particularly the defence system of these animals are poorly documented. In this context, two field trials were carried out from May to September 2002 and from April to July 2003 in order to monitor hemocyte parameters of diploid oysters from natural beds and hatchery-produced diploid oysters using flow cytometry. Several hemocyte parameters (cell mortality, granulocyte percentage, phagocytosis, esterase and peroxidase activities) were monitored. For both oyster...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Hatchery; Natural beds; Diploids; Flow cytometry; Peroxidase activity; Esterase activity; Phagocytosis; Hemocytes; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oyster.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-3119.pdf
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Anesthesia in Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Suquet, Marc; De Kermoysan, Goulwen; Araya, Ricardo Gonzalez; Queau, Isabelle; Lebrun, Luc; Le Souchu, Pierrick; Mingant, Christian.
A reliable anaesthesia and sampling protocol for Pacific oysters will enable experiments to be conducted without sacrificing animals and will facilitate successive sampling of individuals for gametogenesis studies. As no such techniques were available for Crassostrea gigas, the present study aimed to define suitable anaesthetic conditions for use with this species. Three groups of ten oysters (mean weight +/- SD, 32.1 +/- 9.0 g) were anaesthetised in 5 L containers. Among different chemicals: benzocaine, eugenol and three different types of magnesium chloride (a laboratory one Flucka (R) - and two designed for agriculture - DEUSA International (R) and Dead SeaWorks (R)) and concentrations tested, one laboratory (concentration: 72 g L-1) and one...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oyster; Gonad sampling; Magnesium chloride; Relaxant; Anaesthesia.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/publication-6352.pdf
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Antiviral immunity in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas: last development and perspective ArchiMer
Renault, Tristan; Faury, Nicole; Barbosa, Valerie; Moreau, Kevin; Haffner, Philippe; Pepin, Jean-francois.
Herpes-like viruses have been reported last decades in various marine mollusc species in association with mortality outbreaks throughout the world (Renault & Novoa 2004). One of these viruses isolated during French outbreaks has been characterised as an unassigned member of the Herpesviridae family and named ostreid herpes virus 1 (OsHV-1) or Pacific oyster herpes virus (Davison et al. 2005). Studying anti-viral non-specific defence mechanisms (innate immunity) is of great interest, because they constitute the only one in molluscs. Therefore, innate immunity has be investigated in the Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas. The main aim of the work was focused on the identification and the characterisation of genes induced by OsHV-1 in the Pacific...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pathoogy; Protein gene; Immunity; Herpesviridae; OsHV 1; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oyster.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/acte-4035.pdf
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Autophagy in Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Moreau, Pierrick; Moreau, Kevin; Morga, Benjamin; Tourbiez, Delphine; Travers, Marie-agnes; Rubinsztein, David; Renault, Tristan.
Mass mortality outbreaks of Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, are reported in different areas around the world affecting seriously the shellfish aquaculture sector. Two pathogens are associated with these mortality outbreaks, ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) and Vibrio aestuarianus. In this contexte, a better knowledge is needed in terms of oyster immunity. For this purpose, as an important degradation pathway autophagy was investigated in the Pacific oysters. An in silico research of genes involved in autophagy using the C. gigas genome allowed identification of homologs of ATG1 and ATG8/LC3(Microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3). Gene expression and protein detection were analysed using real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. ATG1 and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Autophagy; Pacific oyster; Crassostrea gigas; OsHV-1; Vibrio aestuarianus.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00218/32876/31345.pdf
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Autophagy plays an important role in protecting Pacific oysters from OsHV-1 and Vibrio aestuarianus infections ArchiMer
Moreau, Pierrick; Moreau, Kevin; Segarra, Amelie; Tourbiez, Delphine; Travers, Marie-agnes; Rubinsztein, David C.; Renault, Tristan.
Recent mass mortality outbreaks around the world in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, have seriously affected the aquaculture economy. Although the causes for these mortality outbreaks appear complex, infectious agents are involved. Two pathogens are associated with mass mortality outbreaks, the virus ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) and the bacterium Vibrio aestuarianus. Here we describe the interactions between these 2 pathogens and autophagy, a conserved intracellular pathway playing a key role in innate immunity. We show for the first time that autophagy pathway is present and functional in Pacific oysters and plays an important role to protect animals from infections. This study contributes to better understand the innate immune system of Pacific...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Autophagy; Crassostrea gigas; OsHV-1; Pacific oyster; Vibrio aestuarianus; ATG; Autophagy-related; Atg8-PE; Atg8-phosphatidylethenolamine; DNA; Deoxyribonucleic acid; Hpi; Hours postinfection; LC3-II; Cleaved; Lipidated and autophagosome-associated form of LC3; MAP1LC3A; B (LC3A; B); Microtubule-associated proteins 1 light chain 3 alpha.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00269/37989/36072.pdf
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Caractérisation génétique de l’effort reproducteur de l’huître creuse, Crassostrea gigas, dans le cadre des mortalités estivales de juvéniles : Approch QTL ArchiMer
Flahauw, Emilie.
The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, is a major aquacultured species whose production represents an economic interest at worldwide, european and french levels. However, this species undergoes summer mortalities recorded from the beginning of the 20th century and, since 2008, this phenomenon increased and threatens mainly juvenile oysters. Aquaculture production of oysters suffers consequences of mass mortalities, that’s why this phenomenon has been studied for many years. In France, the bacterium Vibrio splendidus and the Ostreid virus Herpes Virus 1 (OsHV-1) are often associated with mass mortality outbreaks of juveniles oysters and it was demonstrated that selected individuals for resistance to summer mortality were able to slow the increasing in viral...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Huître creuse du Pacifique; Crassostrea gigas; Mortalités estivales; Survie; Effort reproducteur; Imagerie par Résonance Magnétique; Histologie; Marqueurs microsatellites; Marqueurs SNP; Cartographie de liaison; Détection de QTL; Pacific oyster; Crassostrea gigas; Summer mortality; Survival; Reproductive effort; Magnetif Resonance Imaging; Histology; Microsatellites; SNPs; Linkage mapping; QTL detection.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00233/34377/33786.pdf
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Chlamydia-like organisms in ctenidia and mantle cells of the Japanese oyster Crassostrea ggias from the French Atlantic coast ArchiMer
Renault, Tristan; Cochennec, Nathalie.
Grossly visible lesions of the ctenidia and occasional mortalities in Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas from the Atlantic French coast were reported in 1992-1993. From August 1992 to March 1993, 235 living oysters were collected to determine the cause of tissue lesions and mortalities. Microscopical examination of fixed, stained sections revealed that 53 2% of these oysters had ctenidia and mantle lesions associated with irregular basophllic and Feulgen positive cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Ultrastructurally, the infectious agent was a chlamydia-like organism. Indirect fluorescent and peroxidase conjugated antibody tests suggested that this agent might share common antigens with the prokaryotic agent Chlamydia psittaci, strain ovis
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mantle; Ctenidia; Chlamydia like organisms; Pacific oyster; Crassostrea gigas.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1995/publication-2896.pdf
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Combination of a pesticide exposure and a bacterial challenge: In vivo effects on immune response of Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) ArchiMer
Gagnaire, Beatrice; Gay, Melanie; Huvet, Arnaud; Daniel, Jean-yves; Saulnier, Denis; Renault, Tristan.
To assess the impact of pollution induced by pesticides on Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, health in France, in vivo effects of combined pesticide exposure and bacterial challenge on cell activities and gene expression in hemocytes were tested using flow cytometry and real-time PCR. As a first step, an in vivo model of experimental contamination was developed. Pacific oysters were exposed to a mixture of eight pesticides (atrazine, glyphosate, alachlor, metolachlor, fosetyl-alumimium, terbuthylazine, diuron and carbaryl) at environmentally relevant concentrations over a 7-day period. Hemocyte parameters (cell mortality, enzyme activities and phagocytosis) were monitored using flow cytometry and gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR (RT-PCR)....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Gene expression; Flow cytometry; Vibrio splendidus; Pathogenesis; Phagocytosis; Hemocyte; Pesticides; Bivalve immunity; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oyster.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-3022.pdf
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Concomitant herpes-like virus infections in hatchery-reared larvae and nursery-cultured spat Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea edulis ArchiMer
Renault, Tristan; Le Deuff, Rose-marie; Chollet, Bruno; Cochennec, Nathalie; Gerard, Andre.
Concomitant sporadic high mortalities were reported in France in May 1994 among batches of hatchery-reared larval Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas and European flat oysters Ostrea edulis in 2 hatcheries, and in June and July 1994 among batches of cultured spat of both species in a shellfish nursery. Histological observation showed the presence of cellular abnormalities in moribund animals. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of herpes-like virus particles in infected larvae and spat of both oyster species. This is the first description of a herpes-like virus infection in larval O.. edulis. Viruses observed in diseased larvae and spat of both species are similar with respect to ultrastructure and morphogenesis, They were detected...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Apoptosis; Virus replication; Concomitant infection; Oyster mortality; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oyster; Ostrea edulis; European flat oyster; Herpes like virus.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2000/publication-820.pdf
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Contribution à l'étude de virus de mollusques marins apparentés aux Iridoviridae et aux Herpesviridae ArchiMer
Le Deuff, Rose-marie.
Among the marine molluscs, Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, is actually the most reared species in the world. Noticeably in France, where it was imported between 1960 and 1970, and replaced Portuguese oyster, Crassostrea angulata. Intensification of breeding and the associated introductions of new species may be hazardous. Indeed, they might be responsible for the appearance and the dissemination of new diseases in bivalve molluscs. In addition to these observations, the quasi monobreeding of C. gigas in France enhances the necessity to develop research concerning the diagnosis of pathologies affecting this species, namely the diagnosis of viral diseases. Several families of viruses have been described within marine bivalves molluscs. The purpose of this...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mollusques bivalves; Crassostrea gigas; Huître japonaise; Pathologie; Iridovirus; Herpèsvirus; Diagnostic; Bivalve molluscs; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oyster; Pathology; Iridovirus; Herpesvirus; Diagnosis.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00107/21792/19367.pdf
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Detailed insights into pan-European population structure and inbreeding in wild and hatchery Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) revealed by genome-wide SNP data ArchiMer
Vendrami, David L. J.; Houston, Ross D.; Gharbi, Karim; Telesca, Luca; Gutierrez, Alejandro P.; Gurney-smith, Helen; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Boudry, Pierre; Hoffman, Joseph I..
Cultivated bivalves are important not only because of their economic value, but also due to their impacts on natural ecosystems. The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is the world's most heavily cultivated shellfish species and has been introduced to all continents except Antarctica for aquaculture. We therefore used a medium-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to investigate the genetic structure of this species in Europe, where it was introduced during the 1960s and has since become a prolific invader of coastal ecosystems across the continent. We analyzed 21,499 polymorphic SNPs in 232 individuals from 23 localities spanning a latitudinal cline from Portugal to Norway and including the source populations of Japan and Canada. We confirmed...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Aquaculture; Crassostrea gigas; Genetic structure; High-density genotyping array; Inbreeding; Pacific oyster; Restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing; Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP).
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00484/59561/62557.pdf
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Determination of stocking density limits for Crassostrea gigas larvae reared in flow-through and recirculating aquaculture systems and interaction between larval density and biofilm formation ArchiMer
Asmani, Katia; Petton, Bruno; Le Grand, Jacqueline; Mounier, Jerome; Robert, Rene; Nicolas, Jean-louis.
The first aim of this study was to determine the stocking density limits for Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas larvae reared in flow-through system (FTS) and recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). The second aim was to examine biofilm formation on the larval tank wall and its interaction with larvae growth. Three larvae concentrations were tested: 50, 150, and 300 mL−1. Chemical parameters and larvae performance were measured. The biofilm was observed by scanning electron microscopy, and its bacterial composition was investigated by pyrosequencing analysis of part of the 16S rRNA gene. The highest growth (13 µm day–1), survival (87%) and metamorphosis (50%) rates were observed in FTS at 50 larvae mL–1, while lower and similar performances occurred at...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pacific oyster; Larval culture; High stocking density; Biofilm; Filamentous bacteria.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00395/50611/51324.pdf
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Development of four EST-SSR multiplex PCRs in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and their validation in parentage assignment ArchiMer
Li, Ronghua; Li, Qi; Cornette, Florence; Degremont, Lionel; Lapegue, Sylvie.
We report four highly informative multiplex PCRs developed from twelve previously described ESTSSRs in Crassostrea gigas. We evaluated and validated these multiplex PCRs in twelve full-sib families. The average allelic richness and the polymorphism information content (PIC) were 11.1 and 0.811 respectively. The combined power of exclusion was greater than 99.99% using all four multiplex assays. A hundred and forty three tests of segregation ratios revealed 11 significant departures from expected Mendelian ratios. The frequency of null alleles was estimated as 4.9% of all the alleles segregating based on a within-family analysis of Mendelian segregation patterns. Parentage analysis of real offspring demonstrated that 97% of all offspring were unambiguously...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pacific oyster; Crassostrea gigas; Microsatellite; EST; Multiplex PCR; Parentage assignment.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00013/12419/9999.pdf
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Diploid and triploid Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg), reared at two heights above sediment in Marennes-Oleron Basin, France: Difference in mortality, sexual maturation and hemocyte parameters ArchiMer
Gagnaire, Beatrice; Soletchnik, Patrick; Madec, Patrick; Geairon, Philippe; Le Moine, Olivier; Renault, Tristan.
Summer mortality is an important economic concern for the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, industry all over the world and particularly in France. Outbreaks appear when oysters are in gonadal maturation. Bivalve defence mechanisms against pathogen invasion are assumed by circulating cells, the hemocytes. A field experiment was conducted in the Marennes-Oleron Basin (Charente-Maritime, France) in order to monitor hemocyte parameters, gametogenesis and mortality rates among C. gigas during 7 months from March to September 2002. Diploid (from natural bed and from hatchery) and triploid oysters were placed at 15 cm or 70 cm above sediment at Marennes-Oleron Basin. Triploid animals were included because they are considered as sterile animals. Mortality rates...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Sexual maturation; Summer mortality; Triploids; Diploids; Flow cytometry; Hemocyte activities; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oyster.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2006/publication-2923.pdf
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Disturbance induced decoupling between host genetics and composition of the associated microbiome ArchiMer
Wegner, Karl Mathias; Volkenborn, Nils; Peter, Hannes; Eiler, Alexander.
Background Studies of oyster microbiomes have revealed that a limited number of microbes, including pathogens, can dominate microbial communities in host tissues such as gills and gut. Much of the bacterial diversity however remains underexplored and unexplained, although environmental conditions and host genetics have been implicated. We used 454 next generation 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of individually tagged PCR reactions to explore the diversity of bacterial communities in gill tissue of the invasive Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas stemming from genetically differentiated beds under ambient outdoor conditions and after a multifaceted disturbance treatment imposing stress on the host. Results While the gill associated microbial communities in...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Microbiota; Population structure; Stress; Pathogen; Biological invasion; Pacific oyster; Crassostrea gigas; Vibrio; Mycoplasma.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00171/28202/26430.pdf
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Effects of 16 pure hydrocarbons and two oils on haemocyte and haemolymphatic parameters in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) ArchiMer
Bado Nilles, A; Gagnaire, Beatrice; Thomas-guyon, Helene; Le Floch, S; Renault, Tristan.
The in vitro effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on haemocyte and haemolymphatic parameters of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were tested using field concentrations (10(-7) and 10(-9) mg mL(-1)) observed in the Marennes-Oleron Basin (Charente-Maritime, France) and high concentrations (10(-3) and 10(-5) mg mL(-1)) observed during oil spills. As a first step, the effects of pollutants, after a 24 h contamination period, were monitored on individual and pooled haemolymph samples and similar results were observed for both sample types. In a second step, haemolymphs from 45 oysters were withdrawn and pooled. Eighteen pollutants were tested in vitro after a 4 and 24 h contamination period and 10 of them showed significant modulations of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Toxicity; PAHs; Pacific oyster; Spectrophotometry; Flow cytometry; Haemocyte activity.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-4696.pdf
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Effects of temperature and salinity on haemocyte activities of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) ArchiMer
Gagnaire, Beatrice; Frouin, Heloise; Moreau, Kevin; Thomas Guyon, Helene; Renault, Tristan.
The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, is extensively cultivated and represents an important economic activity. Oysters are reared in estuarine areas, subjected to various biotic and abiotic factors. One of the limiting factors in aquaculture is mortality outbreaks, which may limit oyster production, and the causes of these outbreaks are not completely understood. In this context, the effects of temperature and salinity on Pacific oyster, C. gigas, haemocytes, were studied. Haemocytes are the invertebrate blood cells and thus have been shown to be involved in defence mechanisms. Flow cytometry was used for monitoring several haemocyte parameters. An increase of temperature induced an increase of haemocyte mortality, in both in vitro and in vivo...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Cellular activity; Flow cytometry; Salinity; Temperature; Haemocyte; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oyster.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2006/publication-934.pdf
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Effects of temperature on herpes-like virus detection among hatchery-reared larval Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Le Deuff, Rose-marie; Renault, Tristan; Gerard, Andre.
This paper describes effects of temperature on herpes-like virus detection in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas larvae held at different temperatures. Intranuclear, intracytoplasmic and extracellular viral particles were observed in velum and mantle connective tissues of oyster larvae reared at 25-26°C. In larvae held at 22-23OC, although nuclear lesions were observed, the presence of viral particles was not detected. Results were obtained for oyster larvae with 4 different parental origins. Herpesvirus infection was found in 3 of the 4 groups of oyster larvae held In the same conditions at the higher temperature.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Temperature; Mortality; Larval culture; Crassotrea gigas; Pacific oyster; Herpesvirus.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1996/publication-2900.pdf
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Effet de traitements thermiques sur la résistance du naissain d’huître creuse au phénomène de mortalité massive - THERMARES ArchiMer
Pernet, Fabrice; Petton, Bruno; Tamayo, David.
L’objectif de cette étude vise à déterminer l’effet de basses températures (10°C et 13°C) pendant des durées variables (0 et 80 jours) sur la survie du naissain d’huîtres creuses préalablement infecté suite à une exposition en rade de Brest pendant 5 ou 8 jours. Le naissain d’huître creuse préalablement infecté par OsHV-1 µvar par exposition en milieu naturel pendant 5 d ou 8 d, puis transféré à basse température (10°C ou 13°C) pendant 5 à 80 d, présente des mortalités plus faibles et plus tardives que les animaux témoins en laboratoire. La réduction des mortalités observée dans le naissain exposé à basse température coïncide avec une diminution progressive des concentrations d’ADN appartenant à OsHV-1 dans les tissus, au point de devenir non-détecté ou...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Huître creuse; Naissain; Mortalité massive; OsHV-1 μvar; Température; Pacific oyster; Mass mortality; OsHV-1 μvar; Spat; Temperature.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00210/32135/30592.pdf
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