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Registros recuperados: 25
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Adsorption of norovirus and ostreid herpesvirus type 1 to polymer membranes for the development of passive samplers ArchiMer
Hubert, Francoise; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan; Le Guyader, Soizick.
Aims This study was performed to develop passive sampling methodology for the detection of two viruses in seawater in the area of shellfish production, The Norovirus (NoV), a human pathogen implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks linked to oyster consumption and the ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1) a virus associated with mass mortalities of Pacific oysters. Methods and Results Commercially membranes were tested for their capacity to adsorb virus: Zetapor, gauze, nylon, low density polyethylene (LDPE) and Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF). Laboratory exposures of membranes to contaminated water samples (stool, sewage, seawater) were performed. Our data shown that the amount of NoV GII genome per membrane measured with qRT-PCR increased with the time of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Norovirus; OsHV-1; Pacific oysters; Passive samplers; Seawater; Sewage.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00365/47646/47670.pdf
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Aneuploidy and its relationship with growth in different populations of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas, Thunberg) ArchiMer
Boudry, Pierre; Leitao, Alexandra; Mccombie, Helen; Thiriot-quievreux, Catherine.
Cytogenetic abnormalities arising both in mitosis and meiosis are known to be common in bivalves. Here we review result obtained from the observations of somatic aneuploidy in different populations of the commercially important Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. The oysters studied were either (1) produced in IFREMER hatcheries between 1986 and 1999, (some of these were part of the EU funded programme GENEPHYS); or (2) collected from wild populations along the French Atlantic coast. Chromosome numbers were scored from 30 mitotic metaphases in gill tissue per individual studied. Aneuploid cells (2n - X) were observed in all the 13 populations studied. A highly significant negative correlation was observed between the level of aneuploidy and growth, i.e....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Growth; Genetic; Aneuploidy; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oysters.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2000/acte-3446.pdf
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Crassostrea gigas mortality in France: the usual suspect, a herpes virus, may not be the killer in this polymicrobial opportunistic disease ArchiMer
Petton, Bruno; Bruto, Maxime; James, Adele; Labreuche, Yannick; Alunno-bruscia, Marianne; Le Roux, Frederique.
Successive disease outbreaks in oyster (Crassostrea gigas) beds in France have resulted in dramatic losses in production, and subsequent decline in the oyster-farming industry. Deaths of juvenile oysters have been associated with the presence of a herpes virus (OsHV-1 µvar) and bacterial populations of the genus Vibrio. Although the pathogenicity of OsHV-1 µvar, as well as several strains of Vibrio has been demonstrated by experimental infections, our understanding of the complexity of infections occurring in the natural environment remains limited. In the present study, we use specific-pathogen-free (SPF) oysters infected in an estuarine environment to study the diversity and dynamics of cultured microbial populations during disease expression. We observe...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pacific oysters; Summer mortality; Herpes virus; Vibrio pathogenicity; Experimental infection.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00271/38220/36377.pdf
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Déterminisme du recrutement larvaire de l’huître creuse (Crassostrea gigas) dans la lagune de Thau. ArchiMer
Lagarde, Franck; Fiandrino, Annie; Richard, Marion; Bernard, Ismael; Mortreux, Serge; Ubertini, Martin; Chiantella, Claude; Boj, Marie; Meddah, Slem; Leurion, Axel; Soriano, Solenn; Fuhrmann, Marine; Le Gall, Patrik; Chiera, Caroline; Berteaux, Tom; Guillou, Jean-louis; Roque D'Orbcastel, Emmanuelle; Perignon, Adeline; Bonnet, Delphine; Roques, Cecile; Bec, Beatrice; Cochet, Helene; Gervasoni, Erika; Miron, Gilles; Pouvreau, Stephane.
Since spat mortality events that were firstly detected in 2008, Mediterranean shellfish industry seeks to exploit the Pacific oyster spat from lagoon natural recruitment. The CRCM, Cepralmar and Ifremer developed accordingly a research project named PRONAMED Phase 1 and 2 - 2010-2014, in order to define the economic potential of spatfall and improve knowledge of the reproductive cycle of Crassostrea gigas in this specific environmental context. The results of the past three year‘s study (2012, 2013, 2014) showed that broodstock have the ability to provide larvae after sexual maturation and spawning. A coincidence was noted between moon phase (new and full moon) and spawnings with an amplifying effect of storms on the intensity of spawning (Ubertini et al....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Lagune; Recrutement; Naissain; Huître creuse; Ecologie larvaire; Cycle de reproduction; Captage naturel.; Lagoon; Recruitment; Spat; Pacific oysters; Larval ecology; Reproduction Cycle; Natural spat collection..
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00279/39054/37620.pdf
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Ecologie alimentaire de l'huitre Crassostrea gigas : dynamiques des compositions isotopiques naturelles ArchiMer
Malet, Nathalie.
Trophic transfers of particulate organic matter sources to the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas were investigated in the oyster farming bay of Marennes-Oléron for two years. Stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen were used to trace the origin and fate of primary production and organic matter inputs into the bay, and to depict trophic transfers to oysters that were experimentally reared according to traditional methods. Characterizing particulate organic matter sources available for oysters utilized a combination of hydrobiological parameters and stable isotope ratios. Processes of food incorporation by oysters were described for five organs such as gills, digestive gland, mantle, muscle and gonads, and were interpreted taking into account...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Microphytobenthos; Phytoplankton; Organs; Trophic discrimination; Tissue turnovers; Particulate organic matter; Marennes Oléron Bay; Pertuis Charentais; Stable isotopes; Pacific oysters; Crassostrea gigas; Microphytobenthos; Phytoplancton; Hydrologie; Organes; Enrichissement trophique; Renouvellement tissulaire; Matière organique particulaire; Bassin de Marennes Oléron; Pertuis Charentais; Isotopes stables; Crassostrea gigas; Huître creuse.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2005/these-2089.pdf
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Effect of age and environment on the summer mortality in cupped oyster Crassostrea gigas during the first two years ArchiMer
Degremont, Lionel; Boudry, Pierre; Soletchnik, Patrick; Bedier, Edouard; Ropert, Michel; Samain, Jean-francois.
Three successive generations were produced between 2001 and 2003 to assess to what extent genetic variability exists for this trait in juvenile oysters Crassostrea gigas. For each generation, two groups were selected for their high ("R" for resistant) and low ("S" for susceptible) survival. Significant differences of mortality were observed during the first year in Rivière d'Auray (RA) (Brittany-France). However, low and similar mortality were observed for both groups, with no significant difference between groups in the first and second generation in this site, where the first summer is the critical sensitive period with a clear age effect. In Baie des Veys (BDV) (Normandie-France), where mortalities usually mainly affect adults, mortality between...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Genetic variability; Genetic; Summer mortality; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oysters.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2005/acte-3442.pdf
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Effect of environmental and nutritive conditionings on defense mechanisms of oyster Crassostrea gigas during an annual cycle ArchiMer
Delaporte, Maryse; Moal, Jeanne; Soudant, Philippe; Lambert, Christophe; Pouvreau, Stephane; Enriquez, Martha; Degremont, Lionel; Soletchnik, Patrick; Gagnaire, Beatrice; Ropert, Michel.
In the frame of MOREST project, a common biological material, resulting of a mixture of different families produced in experimental hatchery, was reared in two different environmental fields : Normandy and Charente. Concomitantly, a pool was conditioned at the Ifremer Argenton hatchery with three different algae levels : 4%, 8% and 12% of algal dry weight per oyster dry weight. During the experiments, five immune parameters were studied in parallel with survival rate and reproductive status (stages and intensity). Site location, seasonal variations and experimental diet level clearly influenced oyster immune parameters. Haemocyte counts were higher for oysters reared in Normandy than those reared in Charente and in hatchery. Granulocyte percentage was...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Defense mechanisms; Nutrition; Seasonal variations; Physiology; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oysters.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2003/acte-3500.pdf
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Environmental stress in the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas during gametogenesis : role of herbicides? ArchiMer
Burgeot, Thierry; Quirion, Sophie; Quiniou, Francoise; Knoery, Joel; Soletchnik, Patrick; Gagnaire, Beatrice; Renault, Tristan; Osada, M.; Geret, F.; Communal, P. Y.; Jadas-hecart, A.; Gagne, F..
In the Atlantic French coast, significant mortalities were observed in oyster communities during gametogenesis. These deaths possibly result from the cumulative effects of various stressors such as seasonal temperature variations, pesticide application and the release of contaminants from the resuspension of sediments. A field survey, based on aquaculture conditions at 15 and 70 cm from the sediment bed with genetically-resistant (R) and -sensitive (S) lines, showed a stress condition. Significant weight loss was observed during May 14th through June 10th for both R and S lines. On one hand, the levels of the egg yolk vitellin in females were decreased at May 14th for both R and S lines. On the other hand, a significant increase in vitellin production was...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mortalities; Herbicides; Sediment; Biomarkers; Gametogenesis; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oysters.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2005/acte-3384.pdf
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"First class oysters" : progress and constgraints in genetic improvement of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) ArchiMer
Boudry, Pierre.
The most significant genetic improvement for the production of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) up until now has been obtained through the production of triploids, particularly since the development of tetraploids in the mid 90s. Alternatively, quantitative genetics studies suggest that significant gains could be obtained in traits of aquacultural interest. However, the limited extent of hatchery propagation (compared with natural recruitment) in some countries and/or technical difficulties and biological characteristics of this species have retarded the development of selective breeding programs for C. gigas. Individual selection can however be performed easily in such a highly fecund species, though it often leads to small effective population sizes...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Selective breeding; Genetic; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oysters.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/acte-3462.pdf
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Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or rDNA genes (5S and 18-5.8-28S) as a tool for chromosomal tagging and to assess the occurrence of somatic and sperm aneuploidy in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Benabdelmouna, Abdellah; Nadolna, Katarzyna; Ledu, Christophe.
Aneuploidy (or alteration of chromosome number) has been frequently described in diploid, triploid and tetraploid C. gigas. In diploid Pacific oysters, aneuploidy affects 1 to 3 chromosomes in up to 35% of the somatic cells and is positively correlated with inferior growth of the animal and thus could be associated with significant economic loss in this major aquaculture species. In polyploid Pacific oysters, aneuploidy was shown to be more heavily frequent and is linked to reversion to lower ploidy levels and is at the origin of aberrant gametes formation. In this context, identification of individual chromosomes involved in aneuploidy events both in somatic and germinal cells would be an important step towards the study of the exact occurrence of this...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Chromosome; Aneuploidy; Genetic; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oysters.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/acte-3502.pdf
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Gametogenesis, reproductive investment, and spawning behavior of the Pacific giant oyster Crassostrea gigas: evidence of an environment-dependent strategy ArchiMer
Enriquez-diaz, M.; Pouvreau, Stephane; Chavez-villalba, J.; Le Pennec, M..
The progress of gametogenesis was studied in oysters Crassostrea gigas having the same origin (Tremblade), but cultured during 1 year in two distinctive French marine areas, the Baie des Veys and Marennes-Ol,ron. We assessed seasonal changes in the reproduction cycle on the basis of stereological techniques to estimate reproductive investment and measurement of gonad evolution area by quantitative histology. From a qualitative point of view, both oyster groups presented typical reproductive stages, but showed differential timing, in particular during the sequence of spawning and duration of the re-absorption stage. Oysters in Baie des Veys had a single partial spawning in August and a re-absorption stage that extended until winter. Oysters in...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Stereology; Reproductive investment; Pacific oysters; Image analysis; Gametogenesis; Crassostrea gigas.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/publication-7300.pdf
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Genetic effect of domestication selective pressures on Pacific oyster at larval stage ArchiMer
Taris, Nicolas; Sauvage, Christopher; Ernande, Bruno; Boudry, Pierre.
Among bivalve species, the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, is the most economically important bivalve production over the world. Today, C. gigas is subject to an important production effort that leads to an intensive artificial selection. Larval stage is relatively unknown, specifically in a domestication context. Genetic consequence of artificial selection is still at a preliminary study. We aimed to tackle the consequence of inconscient domestication on the variance reproductive success focusing on larval stage, keystone of the life cycle. We studied two kinds of specific selective processes that common hatchery rearing practices exert : the effect of discarding the smallest larvae on genetic diversity and the artificial environment rearing effect via...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Selection; Genetic correlations; Genetic variability; Genetic; Domestication selective; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oysters.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2005/acte-3441.pdf
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Genetic variability and selective breeding for traits of aquacultural interest in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) (slides) ArchiMer
Boudry, Pierre; Degremont, Lionel; Taris, Nicolas; Mccombie, Helen; Haffray, Pierrick; Ernande, Bruno.
To date, the most significant genetic improvement for the production of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) has been obtained through the breeding of triploids, especially since the development of tetraploids. Quantitative genetics studies suggest that significant gains, for disease resistance or for other traits of aquacultural interest, could be obtained in diploids using this approach. However, the limited extent of hatchery-propagation (versus natural recruitment) and/or various technical difficulties and biological characteristics of the species have retarded the development of selective breeding programs. Recently, in the U.S.A., Australia and New Zealand, countries where hatcheries are a major source of C. gigas juveniles, family-based selective...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Microsatellite markers; Selective breeding; Genetic; Genetic variability; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oysters.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2004/acte-3449.pdf
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Genetical basis of the plasticity of resource allocation in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) ArchiMer
Ernande, Bruno; Haure, Joel; Degremont, Lionel; Bedier, Edouard; Boudry, Pierre.
Phenotypic and genetic correlations between fitness-related life-history traits - such as survival, growth and reproductive allocation - have to be considered to better understand selective processes, both in the wild and in breeding programs. Quantitative genetic experiments, based on nested half-sib mating designs, were perfomed in the Pacific oyster C. gigas (1) to estimate genetic variance and the response to selection and (2) to document phenotypic and genetic trade-offs between life history traits. Physiological trade-offs, i.e. plastcity of resource allocation, were shown to vary among genotypes. Genetic polymorphism was primarily observed for the the plasticity of reproductive effort. In addition, the degree of plasticity in reproductive effort...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Genetic polymorphism; Genetic; Plasticity; Genetical basis; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oysters.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2002/acte-3443.pdf
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Herpesviruses associated with mortalities among Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, in France-Comparative study ArchiMer
Renault, Tristan; Le Deuff, Rose-marie; Cochennec, Nathalie; Maffart, Patricia.
Sporadic mortalities were reported in june and july of 1992 and 1993 among batches of hatchery-reared larval Pacifie oyster, Crassastrea gigas, and at the beginning of July and in August of 1993 among five batches of 3-7 month old young spats, C. gigas. Observations with transmission electron microscope showed the presence of herpes-like virus particles in infected larvae and young spats. The viruses observed in diseased larvae and affected young spat oysters were very similar. Elevated temperature and crowding may increase susceptibility of oysters to these herpes-like virus infections.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Spat; Larvae; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oysters; Mortality; Herpes like virus; Naissain; Larve; Crassostrea gigas; Huître japonaise; Mortalités; Herpès like virus.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1994/publication-2898.pdf
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Impact of atrazine on somatic aneuploidy in cupped oysters, Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Bouilly, Karine; Leitao, Alexandra; Mccombie, Helen; Chaves, R.; Guedes Pinto, H; Boudry, Pierre; Lapegue, Sylvie.
In the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas hypodiploid aneuploid cells with 2n=19, 18 or 17 chromosomes have regularly been reported. There is a negative correlation between somatic aneuploidy and growth rate in oysters (Leitão et al., 2001a) as well as evidence for a genetic basis (Leitão et al., 2001b). Furthermore, non-random chromosome loss has been demonstrated in aneuploid karyotypes of C. gigas using the G-banding technique (Leitão et al., 2001c). This poster summarises different studies used to investigate the effects of the herbicide atrazine on the level of aneuploidy in this species
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Genetic; Aneuploidy; Toxicology; Impact; Atrazine; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oysters.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2004/acte-3489.pdf
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Impact of intensive larval rearing practices in oyster hatcheries : selective processes and loss of genetic variability (slides) ArchiMer
Taris, Nicolas; Sauvage, Christopher; Boudry, Pierre.
Oysters, like many marine bivalves, are characterized by very high fecundity and low survival rate at early stages of life. Rearing conditions in hatcheries (i.e. density, feeding, temperature...) are different from those observed in the wild. Additionally, slow growing larvae are culled by sieving. As previous studies have shown that genetic variability exists for several early development traits, we aimed to assess if common hatchery rearing practices exert specific selective processes at the larval stage. In order to avoid possible bias and to increase the number of families studied, we used a mixed-family approach with subsequent parentage analysis using a recently developed set of three multiplexed microsatellite markers. We studied the variance in...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Hatcheries; Selection; Genetic drift; Genetic; Crassotrea gigas; Pacific oysters.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2004/acte-3483.pdf
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Microsatellite markers as a tool to study reproductive success in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg), under controlled hatchery conditions ArchiMer
Boudry, Pierre; Collet, Bertrand; Cornette, Florence; Hervouet, Veronique; Bonhomme, Francois.
Oysters, like many marine species have a very high fecundity. Previous studies have shown that populations, from both hatcheries and the natural environment, have very low Ne/N ratios. These observations reveal high variation in reproductive success. In order to study individual reproductive success under controlled conditions, we used microsatellite markers to quantify parental contributions in in vitro crosses (5 males and 5 females) of Crassostrea gigas, the Pacific oyster. High polymorphism of the microsatellites (more that 50 alleles per locus) eased the parentage identifications. The results of a cross allowing gametic competition were compared with the results from a second cross where the gametes of the same parents were kept separate for each...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Genetic; Hatchery; Microsatellite markers; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oysters.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2000/acte-3457.pdf
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Microsatellite-based parentage analysis of factorial crosses in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae and spat ArchiMer
Taris, Nicolas; Sauvage, Christopher; Ernande, Bruno; Boudry, Pierre.
Several studies have suggested that significant genetic variability might exist for some early developmental traits in the Pacific oyster, C. gigas. However, most studies have examined only limited numbers of families. More critically, these families were rarely replicated, leading to possible bias due to heterogeneous larval rearing conditions among families. To overcome these potential problems, we used a mixed-family approach with subsequent parentage analysis. A recently developed set of three multiplexed microsatellite markers was used to determine parentage in a complete factorial cross between 12 males and 4 females. Larvae were reared at two different temperatures (20 and 26°C) to provide a contrast resembling wild versus hatchery conditions....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Selection; Genetic variability; Microsatellites; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oysters.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2005/acte-3440.pdf
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Pollution et taux d'aneuploïdie chez l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas: étude expérimentale sur une population en milieu contrôlé ArchiMer
Bouilly, Karine.
Aneuploidy has previously been reported in wild and cultivated Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, and it has been shown to be negatively correlated with growth. This is especially important since high variability of growth rate is one of the major problems in the aquacultural production of this species. The existence of an environmental factor (such as atrazine contamination) with an effect on aneuploidy level was first investigated through the study of a population of Crassostrea gigas subjected to different concentrations of atrazine. The treatments applied represent peak values found in the environment (0,01 mg/l) plus a value ten times higher (0,1 mg/l). Our results have shown that although atrazine did not have an effect on the mortality of adult...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Huître creuse; Crassostrea gigas; Aneuploïdie; Facteur environnemental; Atrazine; Aneuploidy; Pacific oysters; Crassostrea gigas; Environmental factor; Atrazine.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00428/53932/55060.pdf
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