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A mussel tissue certified reference material for multiple phycotoxins. Part 1: design and preparation ArchiMer
Mccarron, Pearse; Emteborg, Hakan; Nulty, Ciara; Rundberget, Thomas; Loader, Jared I.; Teipel, Katharina; Miles, Christopher O.; Quilliam, Michael A.; Hess, Philipp.
The development of multi-analyte methods for lipophilic shellfish toxins based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry permits rapid screening and analysis of samples for a wide variety of toxins in a single run. Validated methods and appropriate certified reference materials (CRMs) are required to ensure accuracy of results. CRMs are essential for accurate instrument calibration, for assessing the complete analytical method from sample extraction to data analysis and for verifying trueness. However, CRMs have hitherto only been available for single toxin groups. Production of a CRM containing six major toxin groups was achieved through an international collaboration. Preparation of this material, CRM-FDMT1, drew on information from earlier studies as...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: CRM-FDMT1; Certified reference material; Shellfish toxins; Phycotoxins; Accuracy; Precision; Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00037/14826/12237.pdf
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Algal toxin profiles in Nigerian coastal waters (Gulf of Guinea) using passive sampling and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry ArchiMer
Zendong, Suzie Zita; Kadiri, Medina; Herrenknecht, Christine; Nezan, Elisabeth; Mazzeo, Antonia; Hess, Philipp.
Algal toxins may accumulate in fish and shellfish and thus cause poisoning in consumers of seafood. Such toxins and the algae producing them are regularly surveyed in many countries, including Europe, North America, Japan and others. However, very little is known regards the occurrence of such algae and their toxins in most African countries. This paper reports on a survey of phytoplankton and algal toxins in Nigerian coastal waters. Seawater samples were obtained from four sites for phytoplankton identification, on three occasions between the middle of October 2014 and the end of February 2015 (Bar Beach and Lekki in Lagos State, Port Harcourt in Rivers State and Uyo in Akwa Ibom State). The phytoplankton community was generally dominated by diatoms and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Dinoflagellates; Dinophysis; Phycotoxins; Untargeted analysis; Phytoplankton.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00314/42521/41893.pdf
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Écophysiologie des dinoflagellés du genre Azadinium, production toxinique et transfert trophique vers les mollusques bivalves ArchiMer
Jauffrais, Thierry.
This study has been conducted in order to develop the analysis of AZAs and to produce AZAs from A. spinosum culture. It also aimed at studying the effect of environmental and nutritional factors on growth and toxin production. The study also demonstrated a link between A. spinosum and the accumulation of AZAs in shellfish, followed by the clarification of the processes of accumulation, detoxification and biotransformation of AZAs into mussels. A quantitative analysis of AZAs in A. spinosum cultures was developed, and the formation and structure of the AZA methylated analogues was explained and minimised. This work also demonstrated the feasibility of a sustainable production of AZAs from A. spinosum culture and highlighted the main factors influencing...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Azadinium spinosum; Mytilus edulis; Azaspiracides; Phycotoxines; Dinoflagellés; Écophysiologie; CL-SM/SM; Azadinium spinosum; Mytilus edulis; Azaspiracids; Phycotoxins; Dinoflagellate; Ecophysiology; LC-MS/MS.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00111/22217/19891.pdf
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La surveillance des phycotoxines dans les coquillages du milieu marin. Le réseau REPHY : objectifs, stratégies, et principaux résultats ArchiMer
Belin, Catherine.
The surveillance of phycotoxins in marine shellfish. The REPHY network: objectives, strategies and primary results One of the objectives of REPHY (network for phytoplankton and phycotoxin surveillance) is to monitor toxin-producing micro-algae species in the marine environment that are likely to accumulate in seafood products, and to screen for these toxins in shellfish. This surveillance is undertaken in the framework of the European regulations. Three groups of toxins are thus monitored and are associated with three genera of toxic phytoplankton: (i) Dinophysis, a producer of the okadaic acid (with diarrhoeic effects) and pectenotoxin families of toxins; in the same group of so-called “lipophilic toxins”, two other families of regulated toxins are...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Santé; Surveillance; Phytoplancton; Phycotoxines; Coquillages; Milieu marin; Health; Surveillance; Phytoplankton; Phycotoxins; Shellfish; Marine environment.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00449/56089/57623.pdf
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Manual for using REPHYTOX Data. Information to improve the understanding of REPHYTOX data files available to scientists and the public ArchiMer
Ifremer, ODE/VIGIES, REPHY-REPHYTOX national coordination & Quadrige administration unit.
REPHYTOX (Monitoring Network for Phycotoxins in marine organisms) is a network implemented by Ifremer. The data acquired by REPHYTOX have been banked since 1987 in the Quadrige database. This manual is intended for users of REPHYTOX data, which are made available on the internet from SEANOE. The Quadrige database is a component of the French Water Information System and its mission is to manage and exploit data from numerous coastal monitoring networks. SEANOE (Sea scientific open data publication) is a publisher of scientific data in the field of marine sciences. The REPHYTOX dataset available in SEANOE makes available all REPHYTOX data for the French metropolis, for years prior to the current year, in the form of fixed files, with an annual update. The...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: REPHYTOX; Data; Quadrige; SEANOE; DOI; Phycotoxins; DSP; PSP; ASP; Palytoxins; Shellfish; Coastal waters.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00409/52019/52677.pdf
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Modélisation de la détoxication de mollusques bivalves contenant des phycotoxines paralysantes ou diarrhéiques ArchiMer
Gueguen, Marielle.
The purpose of this study is to implement models to describe detoxification kinetics of Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas and Blue mussels Mytilus edulis containing paralytic and diarrheic phycotoxins respectively. First, experimental trials made it possible to complement data from the literature regarding the understanding of processes involved in mollusc detoxification. In particular, they pointed out a difference in the mollusc capacity to degrade cellwalls of phycotoxin-producing dinoflagellates, according to their en cystement capacities. It was observed that paralytic phycotoxins reached the various oyster tissues whereas diarrheic toxins were mainly sequestred in the digestive gland of mussels. The latter seem to be retained by lysosomes localized...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Modélisation; Mytilus edulis; Crassostrea gigas; Phycotoxines; Détoxication; Acide okadaïque; Toxines paralysantes; Modelling; Mytilus edulis; Crassostrea gigas; Phycotoxins; Detoxification; Okadaix acid; Paralytic toxin.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00003/11473/8032.pdf
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Paralytic phycotoxin uptake by scallops (Pecten maximus) ArchiMer
Lassus, Patrick; Bardouil, Michele; Ledoux, Martial; Murail, Ingrid; Bohec, Madeleine; Truquet, Philippe; Frémy, Jean-marc; Rohmer, Véronique.
It is difficult to apply sanitary standards for mollusc contamination by paralytic shellfish poisoning to animals not consumed whole. This problem is illustrated by the 1990 embargo on a Japanese shipment of frozen scallop muscle and gonad: the sanitary threshold applied to digestive gland (in Japan) does not guarantee that muscle and especially gonad are toxin-free. Accordingly, we performed experimental contaminations of scallops (Pecten maximus) from Port-en-Bessin (Normandy, France) using a toxic Japanese strain of Alexandrium tamarense. During the contamination/decontamination experiment on different tissues (digestive gland, muscle, gonad), extracts were obtained using cold acetic acid 0.1 N to maintain the perfect integrity of the toxin profile....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Alexandrium tamarense; Phycotoxines; Bioaccumulation; Profils toxiniques; Pecten maximus; Patinopecten yessoensis; Alexandrium tamarense; Phycotoxins; Bioaccumulation; Toxin profiles; Patinopecten yessoensis; Pecten maximus.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00189/30075/28563.pdf
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REPHY (Réseau de Surveillance du Phytoplancton et des Phycotoxines). Méthodes de détection des phycotoxines diarrhéïques (DSP) et paralysantes (PSP). Méthodes biologiques sur souris ArchiMer
Belin, Catherine; Marcaillou-le Baut, Claire; Amzil, Zouher; Ledoux, Martial.
This document describes and harmonizes detection methods of diarrheic (DSP) and paralytic (PSP) phycotoxins, for the laboratories of the Direction of Coastal Environment of IFREMER, which work in the framework of the French Phytoplankton and Phycotoxins Monitoring Network. These toxins, produced by a few phytoplankton species which regularly occur in sea water, accumulate in shellfish, which become toxic. Analysis is performed on an extract of digestive gland (DSP), or of total flesh (PSP), of shellfish. The described methods are meuse-tests, which are, at the present time, the only methods available to be used in the framework of a monitoring network. The method for diarrheic toxins is not standardized, with a threshold adapted for monitoring purposes. At...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Phycotoxines; Méthode de détection des toxines; Test-souris; Toxines diarrhéïques; DSP; Toxines paralysantes; PSP; Surveillance; Phycotoxins; Toxin detection method; Mouse-test; Diarrheic toxins; DSP; Paralytic toxins; PSP; Monitoring.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00429/54106/55438.pdf
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Surveillance des phycotoxines dans les coquillages ArchiMer
Nicolas, Marina; Belin, Catherine; Favre, Pauline; Rudloff, Laurence.
This paper presents the French national system for monitoring three groups of marine biotoxins regulated in shellfish, implemented firstly in marine production areas by the REPHY REPHYTOX network of IFREMER and secondly at distribution level through the network of laboratories accredited by the Directorate General for Food within the framework of official controls. The European regulations, the nature of the shellfish toxins, and analytical methods used are presented. The sampling procedures and strategy, as well as the results obtained by each of the two systems mentioned, are presented and discussed.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Phycotoxines; Coquillages; Toxines lipophiles; ASP; PSP; Surveillance; Phycotoxins; Shellfish; Lipophilic toxins; ASP; PSP; Surveillance.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00393/50407/51123.pdf
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Surveillance des risques biologiques liés à la consommation de coquillages en France ArchiMer
Vaillant, Véronique; Jourdan-da Silva, Nathalie; Quilici, Marie-laure; Couturier, Elisabeth; Le Guyader, Soizick; Delmas, Gilles; Le Saux, Jean-claude.
Shellfish filter large volumes of water to meet their nutritional requirements and thus ingest phytoplankton, but also concentrate microorganisms naturally present in water (vibrios, phycotoxins) or of fecal origin (enteric viruses, enterobacteria, protozoan). The analysis of data from systems contributing to the surveillance of foodborne illnesses associated with shellfish consumption and from published outbreak investigations shows that, in France, foodborne illnesses associated with shellfish consumption are mainly of viral origin, mostly due to norovirus followed by hepatitis A virus. The risk linked to phycotoxins appears low and the one related to enterobacteria and vibrios very low. The mandatory notification (MN) of foodborne outbreaks remains the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Toxi-infections alimentaires; Coquillages; Phycotoxines; Risques biologiques; Surveillance épidémiologique; Déclaration obligatoire; France; Foodborne illnesses; Shellfish; Phycotoxins; Biological risks; Epidemiological surveillance; Mandatory notification; France.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00092/20362/18023.pdf
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The Gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers reduces anal tone when injected in the anal sphincter of healthy adults Biol. Res.
GARRIDO,ROGELIO; LAGOS,NÉSTOR; LATTES,KARINNA; GARCÍA,CARLOS; AZOLAS,RODRIGO; BOCIC,GUNTHER; CUNEO,ALDO; CHIONG,HECTOR; JENSEN,CRISTIAN; HENRÍQUEZ,ANA; FERNÁNDEZ,CRISTIAN.
The primary clinical symptom of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning is acute paralytic illness produced by paralyzing toxins. Paralytic shellfish poison is formed by a mixture of phycotoxins and their toxicity is due to its reversible binding to a receptor site on the voltage-gated sodium channel on excitable cells, thus blocking neuronal transmission. We studied the effect of the gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers by local infiltration in the anal internal sphincter of healthy voluntary adults in order to reduce anal tone. The toxin was injected after prior clinical evaluation, anoscopy and anorectal manometry. Post injection clinical examination, electromyography and anorectal manometry were performed. Resting and voluntary contraction pressures were measured and the...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Gonyautoxin 2/3; Phycotoxins; PSP toxins; Anal sphincter; Anal fissure.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602004000300005
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Vigilance, veille et surveillance des risques alimentaires phycotoxiniques ArchiMer
Grastilleur, Charlotte; Arnich, Nathalie; Belin, Catherine.
Official routine monitoring of phycotoxins and toxinproducing algae is regularly implemented in the marine environment through phytoplankton identification in water samples, as well as by official analysis in shellfish in order to verify compliance with the maximum limits set in regulation (EC) no.853/2004. These activities are conducted by the official REPHY network, coordinated by IFREMER (French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea). As for other food safety hazards, the issue of emerging and non-regulated hazards needs to be fully addressed in addition to the ongoing above-mentioned surveillance efforts. This issue was submitted to ANSES (French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety) in the surveillance framework...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Phytoplancton; Phycotoxines; Biotoxines marines; Alexandrium; Dinophysis; Pseudo-nitzschia; ASP; DSP; PSP; Surveillance des aliments; Veille alimentaire; Sécurité sanitaire des aliments; Coquillages; Phytoplankton; Phycotoxins; Marine biotoxins; Alexandrium; Dinophysis; Pseudo-nitzschia; ASP; DSP; PSP; Food monitoring; Food surveillance; Food safety; Shellfish.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00393/50471/51206.pdf
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