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Registros recuperados: 12
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Animal Health Economics. What Can It Do? What Are the Big Questions? AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
It is argued that while considerable development of animal health economics has occurred in recent decades, it has not yet achieved its potential coverage. It has been mostly applied to livestock, particularly livestock used for commerce, and its application to a range of other animals has been relatively neglected. Extending its coverage also requires widening the type of objectives taken into account in the analysis. Furthermore, the main focus of animal health economics has been on the economics of controlling and managing the occurrence of diseases. The economic role of genetics, the environment, nutrition and the comfort of animals in their health ought to be given greater attention. In the case of zoonoses, the economic analysis should be extended to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Animal health economics; Diseases; Health economics; Information economics; Precautionary principle; Public economics; Zoonoses; Farm Management; Health Economics and Policy; Livestock Production/Industries; Public Economics; I10; Q19.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97472
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Avoiding Environmental Catastrophes: Varieties of Principled Precaution Ecology and Society
Johnson, Alan R; Clemson University; Alanj@Clemson.edu.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Adaptive management; Aldo Leopold; Ambiguity; Blaise Pascal; Daniel Ellsberg; Decision theory; Future generations; Gifford Pinchot; Intelligent tinkering; Precautionary principle; Resilience; Risk; Uncertainty.
Ano: 2012
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Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry: Economic Perspectives AgEcon
van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
Economists are rarely brought into the interdisciplinary research until the biophysical scientists have developed their models, made their measurements or completed their research task. The research economist is then brought in to do what amounts to a consulting task – provide some numbers that indicate impacts on the economy and employment. In this paper, I begin by illustrating cases from forestry where this leads to erroneous and costly policy outcomes. However, the main objective of this paper is to examine the role of genetic engineering in forestry and agriculture. In forestry, planting of genetically-modified (GM) tree species is nearly non-existent, with the exception of hybrid poplar that is used to produce pulp or fuel. However, as explored here,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Precautionary principle; Economics of genetically-modified organisms; Agriculture and forestry; Mountain pine beetle; Agricultural and Food Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O13; O32; Q11; Q18; Q23.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/107480
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Core Issues in the Economics of Biodiversity Conservation AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
Critically reviews the following core issues in the economics of biodiversity conservation: reliance on the stated preferences of individuals as a guide to biodiversity conservation, the relevance of the phylogenetic similarity principle (and other attributes of organisms) for the survival of species; the implications of the Noah’s ark problem for selecting features of biodiversity to be saved and the difficulties raised by criteria based on safe minimum populations of species or on minimum environmental standards; the extent to which the precautionary principle can be rationally used to support the conservation of biodiversity; the impact of market extensions and globalization, as well as market and other institutional failures, on biodiversity loss; the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biodiversity conservation; Economic valuation; Intergenerational equity; Phylogenetic similarity principle; Precautionary principle; Sustainable development.; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q5; Q51; Q56; Q57.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92772
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Das neue Gentechnikgesetz – ein Gentechnikverhinderungsgesetz? Eine umweltökonomische Analyse der haftungsrechtlichen Neuerungen im Gentechnikgesetz AgEcon
Becker, Alexander; Holm-Muller, Karin.
In this article, legal consequences of the new German genetic engineering act are analyzed. In addition environmental economic analysis is presented of those parts of the act that introduce new litigation regulation to farmers. The different kinds of external costs arising from genetic engineering of plants and their allocation to different actors are considered. The paper focuses on the costs resulting from the postulated coexistence of conventional/organic farms and users of biotechnology. Excessive liability of farmers can be avoided, if the producers of genetically modified seeds accept any litigation claims against farmers. Furthermore, negotiations between neighbouring farms can be an option to keep the costs of damage prevention at reasonable levels.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Genetic engineering act; Liability; Coexistence; Market loss; Precautionary principle; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97315
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Food Safety Management in a Global Environment: The Role of Risk Assessment Models AgEcon
Fuentes-Pila, Joaquin; Jimeno, Vicente; Manzano, Amparo; Rodriguez Monroy, Carlos; Mar Fernandez, Maria Del.
Quantitative risk assessment models are playing a minor role in the development of the new EU legal framework for food safety. There is a tendency of the EU institutions to apply the precautionary principle versus the predisposition of the USA institutions to rely on risk analysis. This paper provides a comparison of the role played by quantitative risk assessment models in the development of new policies on food safety in the EU and in the USA, focusing on a study case: the supply chain of shell eggs. We suggest that EU regulatory bodies should reconsider the role that quantitative risk assessment models have to play in order to design more effective food safety management systems.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food safety policy; Food safety assurance; Risk analysis; Risk assessment; Precautionary principle; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7737
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Network Structure, Diversity, and Proactive Resilience Building: a Response to Tompkins and Adger Ecology and Society
Newman, Lenore; Postdoctoral Scholar, Royal Roads University; lenore.newman@royalroads.ca; Dale, Ann; Professor, Science, Technology and Environment Division, Royal Roads University; ann.dale@royalroads.ca.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Response Palavras-chave: Precautionary principle; Resilience; Social capital; Sustainable development.
Ano: 2005
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Of Fish and Fishermen: Shifting Societal Baselines to Reduce Environmental Harm in Fisheries Ecology and Society
Lam, Mimi E; University of British Columbia, Fisheries Centre, Policy and Ecosystem Restoration in Fisheries; University of New Mexico, Department of Biology; mimibethlam@gmail.com.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed article Palavras-chave: Collaborative fisheries governance; Common heritage of mankind principle; Conservation; Disincentives to overcapitalize and overfish; Ecological damage; Environmental ethics; Environmental protection; Fishing harm; Harm principle; Law of nuisance; Marine stewardship; Precautionary principle; Public trust doctrine; Sustainable fisheries.
Ano: 2012
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Precaution: principles and practice in Australian environmental and natural resource management AgEcon
Peterson, Deborah C..
Since the late 1980s, the concept of precaution has been incorporated into numerous international agreements and laws, as well as in domestic statutes and policies in many countries. This paper examines the international emergence of the concept and its application in Australia. Despite rapid growth in adoption of the so-called ‘precautionary principle’, the concept remains highly controversial, and its success in terms of improving environmental and natural resource management has been questioned. A common misconception is that the principle prescribes action. In fact, internationally accepted definitions are about decision-making processes. This paper argues that implementation guidelines are essential to ensure that precautionary decision-making is...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Environment; Natural resource management; Precautionary principle; Uncertainty; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116985
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Science-based Rules of Trade: A Mantra for Some, An Anathema for Others AgEcon
Kerr, William A..
The concept of science-based rules for the establishment of trade barriers was a new development that arose from the Uruguay Round. It is an attempt to de-politicise decision making in the complex areas of human, animal and plant health as well as aspects relating to the environment. In the short time it has been in operation it has become a mantra for some but an anathema to others with an interest in trade policy. It is now at the heart of a major trade dispute between the EU and the United States over trade in the products of biotechnology. The paper discusses the controversies relating to the science-based system and provides suggestions to improve its efficacy.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Independence; Precautionary principle; Science-based; Scientific consensus; SPS; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23883
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The Precautionary Principle Revisited: Its Interpretations and their Conservation Consequences AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
The precautionary principle was included in 1992 in the Rio Declaration on Environmental and Development and is a part of important international agreements and documents, for example, the Convention on Biological Diversity. Yet the interpretation of this principle is not straightforward as a guide for environmental policy – a variety of interpretations are possible. This paper identifies and examines various economic versions of the principle. Furthermore, it shows that different economic versions of the principle can give rise to conflicting policy recommendations for resource conservation. In addition, it demonstrates that applications of the principle do not always favour (natural) resource conservation (for example, biodiversity conservation) although...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biodiversity; Conservation; Climate change; Flexibility; Learning; Precautionary principle; Uncertainty; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q28; Q3; H43.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55339
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The Role of Science in Trade Agreements AgEcon
Colyer, Dale.
Member nations of the World Trade Organization are permitted to develop regulations that might restrict trade if they do so for the purpose of protecting human, animal or plant life or health. The regulations, under both the Sanitary/Phytosanitary and Technical Barriers to Trade agreements, must be based on science, be non-discriminatory and be the least-trade-restrictive alternative. Uncertainty, a lack of adequate scientific evidence and differing interpretations have led to disputes about regulations applied by particular countries. If consultations cannot resolve the issues, dispute settlement panels and an appellate body adjudicate them; in these forums, scientific knowledge, studies and testimony by scientists play key roles.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Dispute settlement; International trade; Precautionary principle; Sanitary/phytosanitary provisions; Technical barriers to trade; World Trade Organization; International Relations/Trade; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23820
Registros recuperados: 12
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