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Registros recuperados: 21
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An Analysis on the Disparity of the Private Investment on Human Capital between Urban and Rural Residents in Guangxi AgEcon
Wu, Ding-wei; Tan, Jian-xin.
The constant growth of human capital is the essential force of Economic growth. The deep research on private investment in urban and rural human capital in Guangxi is necessary for developing economy and narrowing urban-rural gap. Through the analysis on the historic statistics, it is found that there were disparities total quantity and investment structure of private investment in human capital of urban and rural residents. By using the ELES model, the marginal investment trend, investment demand, elastic income, own-price elasticity and mutual-price elasticity of private investment in human capital of urban and rural residents are analyzed. It is pointed out that income is the key factor that affects the private investment in human capital of urban and...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Private investment in human capital; ELES Model; Marginal investment tend; Price elasticity; China; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118224
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Analyzing the Impact of Food Safety Information on Food Demand in China AgEcon
He, Dehua; Chidmi, Benaissa; Zhou, Deyi.
This study analyzed the impact of food safety information on food demand in urban China. The LA/AIDS model was estimated by using national province level food consumption data and quantities of articles about food safety event on public media from 2000 to 2008. The results of the study show that urban Chinese consumer food demand was influenced by food safety information from daily newspapers and GM labeling policy. This paper also indicates food price elasticities, expenditure elasticities by categories and the effect of food safety information.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food safety; Food demand; Linear Approximated Almost Ideal Demand System( LA/AIDS); Genetically modified( GM); Food consumption; Price elasticity; Expenditure elasticity; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; D12; Q11.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103618
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Ausmaß und Determinanten von Preisrigiditäten im deutschen Lebensmitteleinzelhandel - Eine emprische Analyse mit Scannerdaten AgEcon
Weber, Sascha A..
Although the dissertation is in German, on demand a bilateral discussion can be done in English language.
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation Palavras-chave: Retailing; Price rigidity; Menu costs; Psychological pricing; Seemingly-unrelated-regression; Price elasticity; Store types; Agribusiness; Demand and Price Analysis; Industrial Organization; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94613
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Demand and price volatility: rational habits in international gasoline demand AgEcon
Scott, K. Rebecca.
The combination of habits and a forward outlook suggests that consumers will be sensitive not just to prices but to price dynamics. In particular, rational habits models suggest 1. that price volatility and uncertainty will reduce demand for a habit-forming good and 2. that such volatility will dampen demand’s responsiveness to price. These two implications can be tested by augmenting a traditional partial-adjustment or error-correction model of demand. I apply this augmented model to data on gasoline consumption, as rational habits provide a succinct representation for the investment and behavioral decisions that determine gasoline usage. The trade-o¤s among 2SLS, system GMM, and pooled mean group (PMG) estimators are considered, and my preferred PMG...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Gasoline demand; Rational habits; Price elasticity; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; H30; Q40; Q41; Q50; R40.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122891
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Demand and price volatility: rational habits in international gasoline demand AgEcon
Scott, K. Rebecca.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Gasoline demand; Rational habits; Price elasticity; Environmental Economics and Policy; Public Economics; H30; Q40; Q41; Q50; R40.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121931
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Demand for gasoline is more price-inelastic than commonly thought AgEcon
Havranek, Tomas; Irsova, Zuzana; Janda, Karel.
Demand for gasoline is more price-inelastic than commonly thought Abstract: One of the most frequently examined statistical relationships in energy economics has been the price elasticity of gasoline demand. We conduct a quantitative survey of the estimates of elasticity reported for various countries around the world. Our meta- analysis indicates that the literature suffers from publication selection bias: insignificant or positive estimates of the price elasticity are rarely reported, although implausibly large negative estimates are reported regularly. In consequence, the aver- age published estimates of both short- and long-run elasticities are exaggerated twofold. Using mixed effects multilevel meta-regression, we show that after correction for...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Gasoline demand; Price elasticity; Meta-analysis; Publication selection bias; Political Economy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120416
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DETERMINANTS OF THE DEMAND FOR ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL FRESH MILK IN GERMANY– AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS AgEcon
Schrock, Rebecca.
An increasing number of studies deals with consumer decisions regarding organic food, but only a few provide quantitative estimates of price and income elasticities. This paper contributes to the existing literature by providing own-price elasticity estimates as well as an analysis of the sociodemographic determinants of demand for organic milk. The analysis is based on the GfK Consumer Scan Scanner panel dataset on food purchases of German households covering a sample period of four years from 2004 to 2007. A two-step estimation procedure is applied. First, a probit regression examines which household characteristics affect the probability to buy organic milk. Second, a fixed-effects panel regression determines factors that have an impact on the quantity...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Organic milk; Household Panel; Probit Analysis; Fixed-Effects-Panel Analysis; Price elasticity; Private-labels; Germany; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; C23; C24; C25; D12; M31; Q11.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116387
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Do Consumers React to the Shape of Supply? Water Demand under Heterogeneous Price Structures AgEcon
Olmstead, Sheila M.; Hanemann, W. Michael; Stavins, Robert N..
Urban water pricing provides an opportunity to examine whether consumers react to the shape of supply functions. We carry out an empirical analysis of the influence of price and price structure on residential water demand, using the most price-diverse, detailed, household-level water demand data yet available for this purpose. We adapt the Hausman model of labor supply under progressive income taxation to estimate water demand under non-linear prices. Ours is the first analysis to address both the simultaneous determination of marginal price and water demand under block pricing and the possibility of endogenous price structures in the cross section. In order to examine the possibility that consumers facing block prices are more price-responsive, all else...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Non-linear pricing; Water demand; Price elasticity; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D12; Q21; Q25; Q28; L95.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10672
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Effects of Country of Origin Labeling in the U.S. Meat Industry with Imperfectly Competitive Processors AgEcon
Chung, Chanjin; Zhang, Tong; Peel, Derrell S..
The study examines the impacts of implementing mandatory country of origin labeling (COOL) on producer and consumer welfare in the U.S. meat industry. The equilibrium displacement model developed in this study includes twenty-nine equations representing retail-, processing-, and farm-level equilibrium conditions for the beef, pork, and chicken industries. Unlike previous studies, the model allows trade between domestic- and foreign-origin products and considers the imperfectly competitive market structure of meat processers. Empirical results show that without a significant increase in domestic meat demand, producers are not expected to benefit from the mandatory COOL implementation. Results of a sensitivity analysis indicate that consumers tend to bear...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Checkoff; Country of origin labeling; Imperfect competition; Price elasticity; Marketing.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59255
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Estimating Demand Elasticities of Meat Demand in Slovakia AgEcon
Hupkova, Daniela; Bielik, Peter.
This article focuses on assessing consumer beliefs, attitude and behaviour towards meat. The aim is to obtain estimates of price and income elasticity of meat demand in Slovakia. This report analyses pork, poultry and beef meat consumption in Slovakia according to the individual households’ social categories. The Household Budget Survey of the Slovak Statistical Office was used for period 1993-2007. The data consists of yearly observations of beef, pork and poultry consumption, average annual consumer prices of beef, pork and poultry meat and net income per capita. Knowing the values of demand elasticities for food is widely used to correct policy formation and analysing trade patterns all over the world, but especially in developing countries where food...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Meat consumption; Price elasticity; Income elasticity; Individual households’ categories; Fixed effect; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58030
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International Evidence on Food Consumption Patterns: An Update Using 2005 International Comparison Program Data AgEcon
Muhammad, Andrew; Meade, Birgit Gisela Saager.
In a 2003 report, International Evidence on Food Consumption Patterns, ERS economists estimated income and price elasticities of demand for broad consumption categories and food categories across 114 countries using 1996 International Comparison Program (ICP) data. This report updates that analysis with an estimated two-stage demand system across 144 countries using 2005 ICP data. Advances in ICP data collection since 1996 led to better results and more accurate income and price elasticity estimates. Low-income countries spend a greater portion of their budget on necessities, such as food, while richer countries spend a greater proportion of their income on luxuries, such as recreation. Low-value staples, such as cereals, account for a larger share of the...
Tipo: Technical Report Palavras-chave: ICP 2005; High-value food products; Consumption patterns; Marginal share; Income elasticity; Price elasticity; ERS; USDA; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120252
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MARKETING ASPECTS OF CONSUMPTION OF HUNGARIAN PORK MEAT AgEcon
Karpati, Laszlo; Torda, Kitti.
The most important aim of authors’ study is to get to know the Hungarian pork consumption in our days. Our aim is set to estimate pork meat consumption and purchasing habits of consumers who are living in Eastern part of Hungary. The pork section is influenced negatively by several factors nowadays, which have a clear effect on the pork consumption and cause its declination. During the research work a questionnaire survey was made in 2007 and 2008. 1089 persons in different locations of Eastern Hungary were altogether asked. The data were evaluated by statistic hypothesis testing. Based on the evaluation a clear picture was got about the consumers’ purchasing and consuming habits, and their ideas, opinions about the Hungarian pork as a food and as an item...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Pork meat; Consumption; Attitude; Shopping habits; Price elasticity; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Marketing.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53578
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Neue empirische Befunde zur Preissetzung und zum Verbraucherverhalten im Lebensmitteleinzelhandel AgEcon
Herrmann, Roland; Moser, Anke; Werner, Elke.
There are two objectives of this article: (i) It is discussed theoretically how the dynamics of pricing decisions of multiproduct retailers can be explained. (ii) It is analyzed empirically by use of scanner data how prices are actually set and how consumers react at the point of sale to price changes and promotional activities by retailers. The empirical evidence focuses on breakfast products in general and jam and breakfast cereals in particular. Main results are the following: 1. Theory of optimal pricing by multiproduct firms suggests that direct and cross price elasticities of demand and marginal costs determine the profit-maximizing price at one point of time. Good reasons do exist additionally for multiproduct retailers to vary prices...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Food retailing; Scanner data; Price policy; Food demand; Store-level; Price elasticity; Multiproduct firms; Jam; Breakfast cereals; Agribusiness; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98115
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Price elasticity of water allocations demand in the Goulburn–Murray Irrigation District AgEcon
Wheeler, Sarah Ann; Bjornlund, Henning; Shanahan, Martin; Zuo, Alec.
Bid prices for the demand and supply of water allocations between 2001 and 2007, and average monthly prices paid for water allocations from 1997 to 2007 in the Goulburn– Murray Irrigation District are analysed to estimate price elasticities. Based on bid prices, the price elasticity of demand for water allocations appears highly elastic, with elasticities strongly influenced by the season and drought. The price elasticity of supply for water allocations is also elastic, albeit less elastic than demand. Using actual prices paid, water demand is negatively related to price and is inelastic, and appears to be most influenced by demand the previous month, drought and seasonality factors.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Water allocations demand; Water allocations supply; Price elasticity; Water markets; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117737
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Region-level yield and area price elasticities for Chilean wheat incorporating climate variables Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
González,Sergio; Foster,William.
Wheat yields have increased in Chile in the last thirty years due in part to incentives, increased input use and improved varieties. Region-specific price elasticities of perhectare yields and planted hectares are estimated using region-level data for the period 1975-2007. Price-yield and price-hectare elasticities are similar, although slightly lower than those obtained by Morales and Foster (2002) in all regions, ranging between 0.33 and 0.73 for yields and between 0 and 0.43 for hectares. Values of price elasticity for total production range between 0.38 and 1.12. For two of the regions studied, climate variables were available and their inclusion results in a reduction in of the elasticity of total production with respect to price. The results suggest...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Wheat; Climate variables; Price elasticity.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202010000300004
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The Effect of Ethanol Production on Agricultural Production in the State of Alabama AgEcon
Kebede, Ellene; Duffy, Patricia A.; Zabawa, Robert.
This research assessed the economic effect of corn-based fuel ethanol production on agriculture and the state economy in Alabama. The results showed that in the short run a 15 million gallon per year plant will be profitable. This will have farm income and a multiplier affect in the rest of the state economy.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Ethanol; Corn producers; Farm income; Price elasticity; Economic impact; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/35415
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The Price-Elasticity of Stumpage Sales from Federal Forests AgEcon
Ando, Amy Whritenour.
This paper explores the influence of the behavior of the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management on effective public policy toward the national forests. It shows that fluctuations in stumpage sales from such forests have been large. Furthermore, those fluctuations could well have a significant impact on the price elasticity of harvest even with large stocks of uncut volume under contract. System analysis of harvest and sale patterns in nine regions during the period 1951-1992 shows that stumpage sales displayed little correlation with prices during the period; the positive price elasticity of harvest seems to have been induced largely by the behavior of logging firms. However, it finds a positive link between National Forest budgets and annual sales....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Stumpage; Harvest; Sales; National Forests; Budget; Price elasticity; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q23; Q28.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10456
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The responsiveness of Australian farm performance to changes in irrigation water use and trade AgEcon
Bell, Rosalyn; Gali, Jyothi; Gretton, Paul; Redmond, Ineke.
The flexibility of farms to respond to changing economic or environmental conditions has received attention in recent years, particularly in the context of changes in the availability and pricing of irrigation water. This study uses a new unit record data set of Australian farms and a generalised profit-function framework to assess the links between farm performance and water use practices, involvement in water trading and other farm characteristics. Amongst other findings, the study provides experimental estimates of the responsiveness of the demand for irrigation water to price changes and the impact of farmers either buying or selling water on farm profits, after controlling for other factors.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm performance; Irrigation; Water trade; Price elasticity; Farm Management.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9454
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THE RESPONSIVENESS OF U.S. RICE ACREAGE TO PRICE AND PRODUCTION COSTS AgEcon
Salassi, Michael E..
Ordinary least squares and seemingly unrelated regression procedures were used to analyze the impacts of changes in rice prices and production costs on U.S. rice planted acreage. National and regional response models were estimated over the 1970-92 period. Supply-inducing prices of rice were estimated as a function of effective rice support prices and seasonal average market prices. Expected production costs per acre were estimated using lagged actual total variable cash production expenses per acre adjusted by the previous 3-year average annual change in variable expenses. Estimated short-run price and production cost elasticities were found to be inelastic at the national level. However, the magnitude of the production cost elasticities were found to be...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Rice; Acreage response function; Price elasticity; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15284
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THE WINE MARKET IN JAPAN: MARKET COMPETITION AMONG EXPORTING COUNTRIES AND THE STRATEGY OF US WINE AgEcon
Arahata, Katsumi.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the structure of wine consumption in the Japanese market, focusing on the consumption in households. Considering various tendencies of Japanese eating and drinking habits nowadays related to wine consumption, the model was built and empirically estimated. The data to be investigated was household's data from the past twenty-seven years of official statistics. It was found that Japanese households show high income elasticity for wine demand. The strategy to prioritize department store distribution was demonstrated to be effective due to the fact that wine consumption in the high income class is steadily high, while the sensitivity to income and compatibility of foods is higher in middle income classes. However, the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Wine consumption; Compatibility of foods with wine; Price elasticity; Income elasticity; Influence of recession; International Relations/Trade; Q110; Q130.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20296
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