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A Model of Labeling with Horizontal Differentiation and Cost Variability AgEcon
Saak, Alexander E..
We study optimal disclosure of variety by a multi-product firm with random costs. In our model there are two varieties that are horizontally differentiated and differ in overall quality, but buyers cannot distinguish between them without labels. The equilibrium prices for labeled varieties are increasing functions of the absolute value of the cost differential and do not reveal which variety is cheaper to produce. Nondisclosure is most common when there is moderate uncertainty about the relative input cost, not too much idiosyncrasy in consumer valuations, and not too much difference in quality across varieties. Although mandatory disclosure of variety benefits consumers, it decreases expected welfare when relative input cost variability is large and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Industrial Organization; Marketing; Information; Labeling; Quality disclosure; Product differentiation.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103540
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Allowing for Group Effects When Estimating Import Demand for Source and Product Differentiated Goods AgEcon
Muhammad, Andrew.
In this study an import demand model (differential production model) is presented that is used in estimating the demand for source and product differentiated goods simultaneously. Unlike the traditional import demand models, this model can account for changes in relative group expenditures. Expenditure estimates differed when comparing the differential production model and Rotterdam model results. Results showed that if group revenue shares are relatively fixed, then the bias in expenditure estimates due to omitting group effects will be small when using traditional demand models such as the AIDS or Rotterdam models. As relative group shares significantly change and diverge the bias increases, particularly for imports representing a larger share of group...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Import demand; AIDS model; Rotterdam model; Product differentiation; Source differentiation; Demand and Price Analysis; International Relations/Trade; F17; Q17; Q11..
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6364
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Can Quality Revitalize the Alaskan Salmon Industry? AgEcon
Babcock, Bruce A.; Weninger, Quinn.
Declining salmon prices, due primarily to expansion of farmed salmon production, have reduced revenues for Alaska's wild salmon fisheries by roughly 62 percent over the past 10 years. One possibility for reversing this trend is to differentiate wild and farmed salmon in consumer markets through quality improvements and marketing. We use a simple conceptual model to highlight the challenges that Alaska's wild salmon industry must overcome before the industry is likely to see significant revenue gains from increased quality. Our tentative conclusion is that product differentiation could increase profits for wild salmon. However, implementation may require significant departures from traditional production and management practices and possibly an amendment to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Product differentiation; Salmon; Quality assurance; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18469
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Channel Management and differentiation strategies: A case study from the market for fresh produce AgEcon
Sodano, Valeria; Hingley, Martin.
The paper analyses the current differentiation strategies in the market for fresh produce. First a short review of the literature on channel structure and product differentiation is presented, in order to identify, on a theoretical grounding the incentives for differentiation strategies. Second, a case study is drawn of a UK channel intermediary organisation carrying out differentiation policies in the fresh produce category (on behalf of UK multiple retailer customers’) supplied by a dedicated Italian grower. Results show that in the fresh produce industry there is room for product differentiation, but with contradictory welfare effects.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Fresh produce; Product differentiation; Channel structure and management; Agribusiness; Marketing.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7869
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Common Labels and Market Mechanisms AgEcon
Boizot-Szantai, Christine; Lecocq, Sebastien; Marette, Stephan.
In this article, the impact of common labels is investigated with both theoretical and empirical approaches. Recent statistics regarding the egg market in France suggest that retailer brands largely adopt common labels. A simple theoretical framework enables us to determine the conditions under which producers and/or retailers with different product qualities decide to post a common label on their products. In particular, a situation of multiple equilibria (one where the label is used by the high-quality seller only and one where it is used by the low-quality seller only) is exhibited when the cost of the label is relatively large. The demand is then estimated for different segments of the French egg market, including producer/retailer brands with/without...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Competition; Demand estimation; Labels; Product differentiation; Marketing.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18588
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Consumer Preference and Willingness to Pay for an Officially Certified Quality Label: Implications for Traditional Food Producers Agricultura Técnica
Padilla,Carlos; Villalobos,Pablo; Spiller,Achim; Henry,Guy.
A study was carried out in Chile in order to evaluate consumer preference and willingness to pay for a certified quality label on traditional food products, employing a conjoint analysis method. A total of 234 individuals were interviewed in two Chilean cities, Santiago and Talca. A homemade blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius) marmalade and three product attributes with their respective levels were chosen (price, quality label and jar appearance). Nine hypothetical product concepts were generated applying an orthogonal design. Respondents were asked to rank the product concepts according to their preferences. The results obtained through the conjoint model suggest that an “officially certified quality label” is the most important attribute influencing consumer...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Quality attributes; Certified quality label; Product differentiation; Conjoint analysis.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-28072007000300009
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Demand Under Product Differentiation: An Empirical Analysis of the US Wine Market AgEcon
Davis, Tim; Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.; Iranzo, Susana.
Oversupply has posed a number of problems for the Australian wine industry in recent times. When disaggregated from the industry level, however, the problem can be better described as a range of attribute-specific disequilibria. To date, solutions to this problem have predominantly revolved around reducing output through crop thinning or vine pulling. This paper proposes a different approach by suggesting that disequilibria may be reduced by gaining a better understanding of the demand for Australian wine. A discrete choice model of product differentiation is used to estimate the demand for wine in the United States, Australia's second largest export market. Implications of the analysis are explored.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Oversupply; Demand for wine; Product differentiation; Nested logit; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10390
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DETERMINING BILATERAL TRADE PATTERNS USING A DYNAMIC GRAVITY EQUATION AgEcon
Kim, MinKyoung; Cho, Guedae; Koo, Won W..
Using a dynamic gravity equation, we show that the national product differentiation model explains food and agricultural trade more properly, while the product differentiation model is more appropriate to explain large-scale manufacturing trade. In this context, our result is not consistent with the one found by Head and Ries (2001) in the short-run. The intuitive explanation for this result is that inward foreign direct investment can occur through either merger or acquisition in the short-run. Second, the pattern of bilateral trade could quickly adjust to changes in relative income between countries. Furthermore, we illustrate the positive impacts of world income growth on bilateral trade, which is in sharp contrast with the conventional analysis....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Dynamic gravity equation; National product differentiation; Product differentiation; World income growth; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23538
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DINÂMICA DA CADEIA AGROINDUSTRIAL DO CAFÉ (COFFEA ARABICA L.) BRASILEIRO APÓS A DESREGULAMENTAÇÃO AgEcon
Ponciano, Niraldo Jose; Ney, Marlon Gomes; Mata, Henrique Tome Da Costa; Rocha, Jose Paccelli.
Objetivou-se analisar a estrutura e a dinâmica da cadeia agroindustrial do café brasileiro após a desregulamentação e seus ajustamentos para atender as exigências do mercado. Estimou-se estrutura e valores da cadeia por meio dos custos e da produção. Dados e informações foram levantados na internet e em trabalhos precursores. Os resultados mostraram que o café continua sendo um dos produtos mais importantes do agronegócio brasileiro. Com a desregulamentação, houve instabilidade nos preços e os ajustamentos tanto dos preços quanto das imperfeições dos agentes da cadeia ocorreram de forma lenta. Por outro lado, o mercado imprimiu certa dinâmica em toda a cadeia agroindustrial do café. Criaram-se novos nichos de mercado, com ênfase na diferenciação do...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Café; Cadeia agroindustrial; Comercialização; Diferenciação do produto; Exportação; Coffee; Agroindustrial chain; Marketing; Product differentiation; Export; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113969
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Do Local Production, Organic Certification, Nutritional Claims, and Product Branding Pay in Consumer Food Choices? AgEcon
Batte, Marvin T.; Hu, Wuyang; Woods, Timothy A.; Stan, Ernst.
This research furthers the assessment of consumer demand for locally produced foods, while also considering a host of other food attributes that may interact to influence consumer utility. Using stated preference data from a choice-based conjoint analysis survey instrument, we estimate willingness-to-pay for processed food products (blackberry jam) that are differentiated with respect to their branding, the location of their production, certification as organically produced, branding as a product of a small family farming association, and carrying a State Proud certification. Although price is the most important single attribute influencing consumer choice for our sample, consumers also were willing to pay more for food products produced in their state or...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Conjoint analysis; Choice experiment; Locally produced food; Organic foods; Product differentiation; Produce marketing; State Proud programs; Willingness-to-pay; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Marketing; Q11; Q13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61026
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El índice CONEAT como medida de productividad y valor de la tierra. AgEcon
Lanfranco, Bruno A.; Sapriza, Gonzalo.
El objetivo de la presente investigación es cuantificar el impacto del índice de productividad CONEAT sobre los precios pagados por los inmuebles rurales en el Uruguay. El índice CONEAT intenta expresar la relación entre la capacidad de producción de un predio, medida en términos de carne y lana, y las unidades de suelo que lo componen. La ventaja de su uso radica en su fácil comprensión por parte de los agentes. La principal crítica es que utiliza exclusivamente parámetros de producción ganadera que hacen cuestionable su uso cuando se comparan inmuebles con otras aptitudes productivas. Sin embargo, aun se lo utiliza frecuentemente para tasar inmuebles rurales o comparar productividad entre inmuebles. Para estimar el valor monetario implícito que los...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Hedonic prices; Product differentiation; Land productivity; Demand and Price Analysis; Land Economics/Use; C21; Q24.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121684
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EMERGING FORMS OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS AgEcon
Barone, Michael J.; Decarlo, Thomas E..
Traditional recommendations for building sustainable competitive advantages revolve around differentiating a product from the competition along attributes that are important and relevant to customers. However, strategic approaches based on such notions do not represent viable options for companies competing in commodity markets characterized by a lack of physical product differentiation. The objective of this paper is to conduct a literature review with the aim of identifying alternative approaches to creating competitive advantage that can be used even under conditions in which no differences in actual quality exist across products. This review of the literature uncovered three non-traditional strategies that provide a basis for perceptually...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural producers; Commodity markets; Competitive advantage; Marketing; Product differentiation; Marketing; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18690
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Environmental Labeling and Technology Adoption in the Presence of Strategic Interactions AgEcon
Konishi, Yoshifumi.
This manuscript analyzes the effect of binary ecolabeling on the strategic competition of Cournot duopolists in environmental technology and the output market. Under binary labeling, firms' abatement technologies are not directly observable by consumers but are certified if they satisfy preset ecological standards. Given this asymmetry, I set up the regulator's problem as one of choosing a technology standard, or "cutoff," in emissions per unit of output, below which all abatement efficiency levels are certified. The regulatory authority faces a trade-off in choosing the socially optimal cutoff: The regulator would like to raise the standard to reduce emissions but needs to lower it in order to induce technology adoption. There are three important...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Ecolabeling; Emissions; Product differentiation; Technology adoption; Environmental Economics and Policy; Industrial Organization; D43; L13; Q53; Q58.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9949
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ESTIMATING MARKET POWER AND PRICING CONDUCT IN A PRODUCT-DIFFERENTIATED OLIGOPOLY: THE CASE OF THE DOMESTIC SPAGHETTI SAUCE INDUSTRY AgEcon
Vickner, Steven S.; Davies, Stephen P..
This paper develops a simultaneous-equations panel data econometric model to obtain point estimates of market power and pricing conduct in a representative product-differentiated, oligopolistic food market. The importance of this class of markets is recognized given its prevalence in the food and fiber system, especially for final consumer food products. The $1.3 billion domestic spaghetti sauce industry is featured. Although the results indicate firms exert limited market power, a portion of this power is derived from tacit price collusion. A higher degree of price collusion was found among brands within a market segment than between segments.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Market power; Oligopoly; Pricing conduct; Product differentiation; Marketing.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15137
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Evaluating Traditional Share-Price and Residual Demand Measures of Market Power in the Catsup Industry AgEcon
Haller, Lawrence E.; Cotterill, Ronald W..
In this paper we specify a price determination model which can test both the traditional positive interbrand price – share hypothesis and the negative intrabrand relationship predicted by residual demand analysis. We evaluate this relationship empirically using three-dimensional panel data from the catsup industry. We find support for both hypothesized relationships, and conclude that market power exists in this industry. Further, we conclude that the results depend critically on the characteristics of the data set to be analyzed.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Market power; Residual demand; Product differentiation; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25193
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FIRMS’ RESPONSES TO NUTRITIONAL POLICIES AgEcon
Duvaleix-Treguer, Sabine; Hammoudi, Hakim; Rouached, Lamia; Soler, Louis-Georges.
The aim of this paper is to examine the effects of nutritional policies on the behavior of firms, particularly in terms of food quality and prices, and to assess the potential impacts of such policies from a public health point of view. We determine how new products that are nutritionally improved can emerge in a market where incumbent firms offer competing unhealthy products. We also highlight a non-intentional effect of such policies: if consumer heterogeneity is high, then an information policy may simultaneously provide health benefits to the population as a whole but worsen the health of consumers that are less aware of nutritional effects. For a given level of nutritional tax, we determine the optimal threshold that firms must meet to avoid taxation....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Nutrition policy; Product differentiation; Firms’ strategies; Taxation; Quality standards; Public health; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; L15; I18; H23.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116399
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GENERIC COMMODITY PROMOTION AND PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION AgEcon
Crespi, John M..
This paper considers whether generic promotion lowers the differentiation among competing brands as claimed in the 1997 Supreme Court case (Wileman et al. v. Glickman). Commodity promotion is modeled as a multi-stage game where products are vertically differentiated. Analytical results show that if the benefits of generic advertising from increased demand are outweighed by the costs from lower product differentiation then high-quality producers will not benefit from generic promotion but producers of lower-quality goods may.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Generic advertising; Product differentiation; Spatial model; Marketing.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21488
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GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS AND PROPERTY RIGHTS: PROTECTING VALUE-ADDED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS PARTICIPATION AgEcon
Babcock, Bruce A.; Clemens, Roxanne.
Since 1992, the European Union has protected high-quality agricultural products based on geographical origin using designations of geographical indications (GIs). U.S. producers and processors can obtain a type of trademark called a certification mark, which provides similar protections to that of GIs but protects products only within the United States. In the current round of the World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations, the European Union and other countries are seeking to expand protection through GIs. If they achieve the full range of protection they are seeking, many U.S. producers and processors could no longer use many product names currently treated as generic (e.g., feta cheese). This article describes and contrasts three systems of protecting...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Certification marks; Geographical indication; High-value agricultural products; Niche markets; Price premiums; Product differentiation; Property rights protection; Protection of Designations of Origin; Protection of Geographical Indication; Trademarks; Marketing; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18715
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Greenhouse Tomatoes Change the Dynamics of the North American Fresh Tomato Industry AgEcon
Cook, Roberta L.; Calvin, Linda.
The rapid growth of the North American greenhouse tomato industry has changed the longstanding dynamics of the fresh tomato industry. During the 1990s, Canada emerged as the largest North American producer of greenhouse tomatoes, a prominence it never attained in the fresh field tomato industry. The United States and Mexico have also become important greenhouse tomato producers, consistent with their long dominance in North American fresh field tomato production. Greenhouse tomatoes have changed the look of U.S. retail tomato sales, where they now account for 37 percent of the quantity sold of fresh tomatoes. While the primary U.S. fresh field tomato product, the mature green tomato, long dominated retail sales, its share has decreased significantly due to...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Greenhouse tomatoes; Field tomatoes; Mature green tomatoes; United States; Canada; Mexico; Market integration; Product differentiation; Seasonality in production; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7244
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GUARANTEED TENDER BEEF: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR A DIFFERENTIATED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT AgEcon
Carriquiry, Miguel A..
Replaced with revised copy September 28, 2004
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Beef tenderness; Guaranteed tender beef; Imperfect testing; Niche marketing; Product differentiation; Quality uncertainty; Value-added agriculture; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18437
Registros recuperados: 43
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