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Registros recuperados: 68
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Agri-environmental conservation – the case for an environmental levy AgEcon
Crean, Jason.
Recent environmental assessments have highlighted the extent of land degradation in Australia and the significant costs involved in addressing it. With projected investment costs running into tens of billions of dollars, it is not surprising that greater attention is now being focussed on who should pay. One idea gathering significant momentum has been the imposition of an environmental levy. Such a levy would raise public funds to be spent on resource degradation issues and has been proposed to work through the taxation system in a similar fashion to the Medicare levy, albeit for a more limited 10 year period. The paper assesses the arguments behind the imposition of an environmental levy and considers some of the issues associated with its effective...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environment; Cost-sharing; Property rights; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57856
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ANALYSING THE LOW ADOPTION OF WATER CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES BY SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA AgEcon
Perret, Sylvain R.; Stevens, Joe B..
Natural resource degradation and water scarcity are a global concern, which typically threatens the sustainability of smallholder farmers' livelihoods in semi-arid developing areas. As part of research efforts, a number of water-conservation technologies (WCT) have been developed, yet with low adoption rates in smallholder farming environments. This paper discusses the concepts of adoption and innovation, comparing the perspectives of research operators to the ones of smallholder farmers. Discrepancies are highlighted and ultimately explain low uptake of technologies by farmer. Then it addresses socio-economic factors affecting such adoption. It is argued that WCT show specific traits: (1) diversity and applicability to different time and spatial...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Adoption; Innovation; Water conservation; Technologies; Collective action; Property rights; Sustainability; Livelihoods; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18028
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Are Traditional Cooperatives an Endangered species? About Shrinking Satisfaction, Involvement and Trust AgEcon
Nilsson, Jerker; Kihlen, Anna; Norell, Lennart.
Several researchers, who have observed that traditional cooperatives have difficulties in modern markets, mention a number of behavioral concepts characterizing the members. This study attempts to empirically test these concepts. It is based on a survey among members of a large traditional Swedish cooperative. The members perceive the cooperative to be so large and complex that they have difficulties understanding the operations. Hence, they become dissatisfied and uninvolved, and they mistrust the leadership. Moreover, they do not believe that the cooperative can be remodeled to strengthen member control. The findings support the behavioral explanations presented in prior studies.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural cooperative; Property rights; Satisfaction; Involvement; Trust; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92574
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ARE WEALTH TRANSFERS BIASED AGAINST GIRLS? GENDER DIFFERENCES IN LAND INHERITANCE AND SCHOOLING INVESTMENT IN GHANA'S WESTERN REGION AgEcon
Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Payongayong, Ellen M.; Otsuka, Keijiro.
This study attempts to analyze changing patterns of land transfers and schooling investments by gender over three generations in customary land areas of Ghana's Western Region. Although traditional matrilineal inheritance rules deny landownership rights to women, women have increasingly acquired land through gifts and other means, thereby reducing the gender gap in landownership. The gender gap in schooling has also declined significantly, though it persists. We attribute such changes to the increase in women's bargaining power due to an agricultural technology that increased the demand for women's labor, contributing to the reduction of "social" discrimination as well as weak "parental" discrimination.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Property rights; Land inheritance; Agricultural growth; West Africa; Africa south of Sahara; Wealth transfers; Gender; Ghana; Education; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60311
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Asymmetric property rights in China's economic growth AgEcon
Zhang, Xiaobo.
This paper highlights the difference between secure investor property rights and loosely defined individual property rights. Globalization and fiscal decentralization have intensified this difference. On the one hand, in the presence of mobile foreign direct investments and under the arrangement of fiscal decentralization, local governments compete vigorously to offer various protections on the property rights of investors; on the other hand, local governments and developers attempt to acquire land at as low price as possible by taking advantage of the loopholes inherent in the Chinese law. Secure investor property rights together with weak protections on individuals’ land property rights is argued to be one of the major drivers of China’s rapid economic...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Property rights; Investments; Economic growth; China; Individual land property; Fiscal policies; Decentralization; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55406
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Better Rich, or Better There? : Grandparent Wealth, Coresidence, and Intrahousehold Allocation AgEcon
Quisumbing, Agnes R..
This paper uses three-generation retrospective data from the rural Philippines to examine the role of the extended family, proxied by alternative measures of grandparent coresidence, on investments in children. An extension of the wealth model of intergenerational transfers shows that extended family resources may affect transfers to children if parents are credit constrained. Family-level unobservables are important in determining the allocation of education and land between sons and daughters. Both parent and grandparent pre-marriage wealth affect children’s completed schooling levels. Grandparent wealth, however, does not seem to affect the distribution of education between sons and daughters, although it affects the allocation of land. Grandparent...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Resource Allocation; Gender issues; Education; Gender; Property rights; Household Resource Allocation; Education; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97298
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Certifying the commons: eco-certification, privatization, and collective action Ecology and Society
Foley, Paul; Environmental Policy Institute, Memorial University, Grenfell Campus; pfoley@grenfell.mun.ca; McCay, Bonnie; Department of Human Ecology, Rutgers the State University; mccay@AESOP.RUTGERS.EDU.
We examine new dynamics of privatization and collective action in common pool resource situations facilitated by the nonstate multistakeholder institutions of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), the global leader in sustainability certification for wild caught seafood. Through a review of the literature and two case studies of fishing cooperatives in Baja California Sur, Mexico and on Fogo Island in the Canadian Province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), we advance two interrelated arguments. First, certification and eco-labeling institutions privatize fisheries governance in largely unexamined ways through the injection of new forms of exclusive rights or privileges into common pool resource situations already complicated by access and property...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Baja California Sur Mexico; Collective action; Common pool resources; Commons; Community-based fisheries; Cooperatives; Environmental certification; Environmental governance; Fisheries; Fogo Island Newfoundland and Labrador Canada; Governance; Marine Stewardship Council; MSC; Northern shrimp; Privatization; Property rights; Spiny lobster; Sustainable.
Ano: 2014
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Changing Use Patterns, Changing Feedback Links: Implications for Reorganization of Coastal Fisheries Management in the Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden Ecology and Society
Hammer, Monica; ; monica.hammer@sh.se.
Property rights are important institutions for regulating the use of valuable natural resources from coastal ecosystems. In this case study, we identify and analyze property rights and user patterns related to small-scale coastal fisheries in the Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden. User patterns and user groups have changed significantly over the last century, as commercial fishing has been increasingly replaced by recreational activities. Interviews with local resource users and owners of water properties in two different areas, Möja and Ornö parishes within the Stockholm Archipelago, revealed a very diverse pattern of property and user rights, with a large number of water and fishing rights owners. Recreational fisheries, including both...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Coastal fisheries; Management institutions; Property rights; Social-ecological systems; Stockholm archipelago.
Ano: 2006
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Coevolution: Agricultural Practices and Sustainability: Some Major Social and Ecological Issues AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
Outlines major social and ecological issues involved in the coevolution of social and ecological systems by initially reviewing relevant aspects of the recent literature relating to economic development and their implications for agricultural development. Coevolutionary qualitative-type models are presented. There has been a failure amongst advocates of structural adjustment policies (involving the extension of markets and economic globalisation) to take account of coevolutionary principles and allow for historical differences in the evolution of communities and their varied circumstances. This lack of sensitivity has had unfortunate social and ecological consequences for some communities eg The Russian Federation and subsistence agriculturalists in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Coevolution; Globalisation; Industrial/commercial agriculture; Property rights; Ecological systems; Social systems; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47991
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Collective Action and Property Rights for Poverty Reduction: A Review of Methods and Approaches AgEcon
Mwangi, Esther; Markelova, Helen.
While much attention has been given to examining various aspects of poverty, a number of studies have shown that institutional environment in which the poor exist conditions welfare outcomes, thus highlighting the inherently crucial importance of institutions for poverty reduction. The institutions of property rights and collective action are among those identified as playing a major role in the livelihood strategies of the poor. This paper highlights ways to operationalize the conceptual framework developed by Di Gregorio and colleagues (2008), which provides an analytical tool to study poverty through the institutional lens with a special focus on collective action and property rights. By emphasizing the multidimensionality of poverty, the authors...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Collective action; Property rights; Poverty reduction; Evaluation; Vulnerability; Power; Institutions; Wellbeing; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44355
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Collective Action for Water Harvesting Irrigation in Lerma-Chapala Basin, Mexico AgEcon
Scott, Christopher A.; Silva-Ochoa, Paula.
Water and watersheds are difficult to separate for management purposes. Providing irrigation as a supplement to rainfall for crop production requires considerable collective action at the watershed level to mobilize labor and other resources, as well as to make decisions and implement the distribution of benefits. Small- scale water harvesting irrigation systems in Mexico have endured for centuries. They now face considerable challenges with changes in the ejido property rights over land and water, the growing importance of alternative sources of livelihoods, and increasing scarcity and competition for water within the river basins. Two case studies of water harvesting irrigation systems in the Lerma-Chapala Basin illustrate the response of communities to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Irrigation; Watershed; Water harvesting; Water; Collective action; Property rights; Mexico; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50057
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Collective Action to Secure Property Rights for the Poor: A Case Study in Jambi Province, Indonesia AgEcon
Komarudin, Heru; Siagian, Yuliana L.; Colfer, Carol.
This study presents an approach to analyzing decentralized forestry and natural resource management and land property rights issues, and catalyzing collective action among villages and district governments. It focuses on understanding the current policies governing local people’s access to property rights and decision making processes, and learning how collective action among community groups and interaction among stakeholders can enhance local people’s rights over lands, resources, and policy processes for development. The authors applied participatory action research in two villages, one each in the Bungo and Tanjabbar districts of Jambi province (Sumatra), Indonesia, to facilitate identification of priorities through phases of planning, action,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Decentralization; Natural resource management; Forest; Collective action; Property rights; Action research; Indonesia; Food Security and Poverty; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44363
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Community Watershed Management in Semi-Arid India: The State of Collective Action and its Effects on Natural Resources and Rural Livelihood AgEcon
Shiferaw, Bekele A.; Kebede, Tewodros A.; Reddy, V. Ratna.
Spatial and temporal attributes of watersheds and the associated market failures that accelerate degradation of agricultural and environmental resources require innovative institutional arrangements for coordinating use and management of resources. Effective collective action (CA) allows smallholder farmers to jointly invest in management practices that provide collective benefits in terms of economic and sustainability gains. The Government of India takes integrated watershed management (IWM) as a key strategy for improving productivity and livelihoods in the rain-fed and drought-prone regions. This study investigates the institutional and policy issues that limit effective participation of people in community watershed programs and identifies key...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Collective action; Institutions; Property rights; Watershed management; Poverty; Environmental impacts; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44358
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Deforestation and Capital Accumulation: Lessons from the Upper Kerinci Region, Indonesia AgEcon
Wibowo, Dradjad H.; Tisdell, Clement A.; Byron, R. Neil.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Indonesia; Deforestation; Property rights; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53632
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Democracy, Property Rights, Income Equality, and Corruption AgEcon
Dong, Bin; Torgler, Benno.
This paper presents theoretical and empirical evidence on the nexus between corruption and democracy. We establish a political economy model where the effect of democracy on corruption is conditional on income distribution and property rights protection. Our empirical analysis with cross-national panel data provides evidence that is consistent with the theoretical prediction. Moreover, the effect of democratization on corruption depends on the protection of property rights and income equality which shows that corruption is a nonlinear function of these variables. The results indicate that democracy will work better as a control of corruption if the property rights system works and there is a low level of income inequality. On the other hand if property...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corruption; Democracy; Income inequality; Property rights; Political Economy; D73; H11; P16.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99685
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Die regionale Agrarumweltpolitik in Deutschland unter dem Einfluss der Förderangebote der Europäischen Union AgEcon
Osterburg, Bernhard; Stratmann, Ursula.
The article addresses the role the European Union plays in the agri-environmental policy and considers the co-financing of agri-environmental programmes in Germany. First, the development of measures taken under this policy is described from the 1980ies until the present Agenda 2000, taking especially into account the effects of financial promotion by the EU. In addition, a view on nature conservation and water protection reveals the sometimes conflicting interactions between agri-environmental measures and other areas and instruments of environmental policy. In a second part, three sections describe identified problems resulting from the influence of the EU: the effects on the choice and design of agri-environmental policy instruments in the Federal...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agri-environmental programmes; Reg. (EEC) 2078/92; Reg. (EC) 1257/99; Nature conservation; Water protection; Subsidiarity; Property rights; Income effects; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98258
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DIREITOS DE PROPRIEDADE, INVESTIMENTOS E CONFLITOS DE TERRA NO BRASIL AgEcon
Nascimento, Vivian Ester De Souza; Saes, Maria Sylvia Macchione.
A partir da segunda metade da década de noventa, após a fase de reestruturação e modernização da produção agrícola, as questões econômicas pertinentes aos conflitos de terra no Brasil ganharam maior grau de complexidade em virtude de significativas mudanças institucionais e das incertezas sobre os direitos de propriedade geradas com o aumento das disputas entre proprietários de terras, posseiros, organizações de movimentos sociais, indígenas, quilombolas, ambientalistas e organismos governamentais. Dentro desse contexto sócio-econômico, a presente pesquisa objetivou investigar um tipo específico de conflito fundiário referente ao processo de invasões (ocupações) de terras em propriedades rurais, realizadas por organizações de movimentos sociais. A...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Direitos de propriedade; Instituições; Agropecuária; Conflitos de terra; Property rights; Institutions; Agricultural; Land conflicts; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109632
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Economics of Reduced Water Allocations: Estimating Impacts on the Northern Victorian Dairy Industry AgEcon
Gyles, Oliver; Baird, Catherine A.; Brown, Stuart.
Water use efficiency data was used to estimate the impact of reducing sales water allocations on a range of irrigated dairy farms categorised according to intensity of water right. The expected deficiency in available water was estimated for each farm category on the basis of historical demand for sales and the potential production loss estimated. The cost of substitution through management options of purchasing 1) water right (with associated sales), 2) temporary sales water, or 3) feed supplements as grain or hay and silage was calculated. Purchase of water right was found to be the cheapest option and the regional transfer volume required estimated at 93 GL of water right valued at A$ 60.7 million. The average transfer requirement was estimated at 31 ML...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Water use efficiency; Water allocations; Industry impact; Water policy; Property rights; Risk management.; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123810
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Effect of changes in the institutional structure of irrigation water property rights on the willingness to pay of farmers for water: case of Tunisia AgEcon
Frija, Aymen; Chebil, Ali; Speelman, Stijn; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido.
This paper assesses the economic value of changes in the attributes of farmers’ irrigation water property rights in Tunisia. Changes on attributes generated by the transfer process of the property rights from the collective to the individual level in addition to changes in “constitutional” attributes were integrated into three scenarios. The valuation was conducted using the Contingent Valuation Method through the elicitation of individuals’ willingness to pay. Results show positive willingness to pay values for all scenarios. However, farmers of the studied region are shown willing to pay more for changes in the constitutional attributes. Furthermore their willingness to pay appears to be most affected by their perceptions concerning the organization and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Property rights; Irrigation water; Contingent Valuation; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44422
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Environmental Regulations of Land-use and Public Compensation: Principles with Swiss and Australian Examples AgEcon
Seidl, Irmi; Tisdell, Clement A.; Harrison, Stephen R..
This paper discusses regulation of rural land-use and compensation, both of which appear to have become more common but also more disputed. The implications of contemporary theories in relation to this matter are examined. Coverage includes the applicability of new welfare economics, the relevance of the neoclassical theory of politics, and the implications of contemporary theories of social conflict resolution and communication. Examining case studies of Swiss and Australian regulation of the use of rural properties and the ensuing conflicts, it is found that many decisions reflect a mixture of these elements. Rarely, if ever, are social decisions in this area made solely on the basis of welfare economics, for instance social cost-benefit analysis. Only...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Australia; Compensation for takings; Conservation; Environmental regulation; Property rights; Rural land-use; Switzerland; Welfare economics; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48366
Registros recuperados: 68
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