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Registros recuperados: 53
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Afforestation and Timber Management Compliance Strategies in Climate Policy. A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis AgEcon
Michetti, Melania; Nunes Rosa, Renato.
This paper analyzes the role of afforestation-reforestation and timber management activities, and their major and secondary economic effects in stabilizing climate during the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. In particular, with a Computable General Equilibrium framework, the ICES model, it is inferred how forest carbon sequestration fits within the European domestic portfolio of a 2020-20 and 2020-30 climate stabilization policy. Afforestation and land use are accounted for by introducing their effects in the model. This is done by relying on carbon sequestration curves provided by Sohngen (2005), which describe the average annual cost of sequestration for selected world regions. Results show that afforestation and timber management could...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change; General Equilibrium Modelling; Forestry; Afforestation; Environmental Economics and Policy; D58; Q23; Q24; Q52; Q54.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99641
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An Experimental Examination of Target Based Conservation Auctions AgEcon
Boxall, Peter C.; Perger, Orsolya; Packman, Katherine.
Conservation auctions (CA) are typically employed to increase the provision of Ecological Goods and Services (EG&S) for achieving environmental goals. This paper exmaines the ability of a CA to meet an environmental target. Previous research on this topic used the number of contracts as a target rather than some specified environmental goal. We used experimental economic methods benchmarked to a wetlands restoration case study to examine a target constraint that must be met by bidders rather than a budget constraint. However, since no budget constraint is employed, agencies with limited resources might have to use other auction design procedures to ensure that financial outlays to pay winning bidders are not too high while meeting the target....
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Conservation auctions; Environmental target; Experimental economics; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q52; Q58; D44.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121624
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An Interpretative Model of Aquaculture Multifunctionality: A Methodological Framework Definition AgEcon
De Blasi, Giuseppe; Acciani, Claudio; De Boni, A.; Roma, R..
International trade agreements and the new EU CAP targets require the definition of a new type of subsidy, depending on the non-market functions provided by production activities. The aim of the research project reported in this paper is to find a model to reward multifunctionality of aquaculture, defining all the positive externalities it involves and trying to calculate a monetary value for each of these.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environment; Bioeconomics; Distributional Effects; Ecological Economics; Water Pollution; Livestock Production/Industries; P28; Q52; Q53; Q57; Q58.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56002
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Assessing China’s Energy Conservation and Carbon Intensity: How Will the Future Differ from the Past? AgEcon
Zhang, ZhongXiang.
As an important step towards building a “harmonious society” through “scientific development”, China has incorporated for the first time in its five-year economic plan an energy input indicator as a constraint. While it achieved a quadrupling of its GDP while cutting its energy intensity by about three quarters between 1980 and 2000, China has had limited success in achieving its own 20% energy-saving goal set for 2010 to date. Despite this great challenge at home, just prior to the Copenhagen climate summit, China pledged to cut its carbon intensity by 40-45% by 2020 relative its 2005 levels to help to reach an international climate change agreement at Copenhagen or beyond. This raises the issue of whether such a pledge is ambitious or just represents...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Energy Saving; Renewable Energy; Carbon Intensity; Post-Copenhagen Climate Negotiations; Climate Commitments; China; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q42; Q43; Q48; Q52; Q53; Q54; Q58.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92837
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Assessing the Risk of Oil Spills in the Mediterranean: the Case of the Route from the Black Sea to Italy AgEcon
Bigano, Andrea; Sheehan, Paul.
Recent major spills on European coasts have highlighted the primary policy relevance for the EU of oil spills. This paper assesses the risks related to carrying oil to the EU along the route from the Russian Black Sea coast to Sicily, Italy (one of the most congested and strategically relevant European import routes). We develop a methodology based on Fault Tree Analysis, and we apply it to the most likely causes of an oil spill. We couple the resulting probabilities with data on expected spill size, types of oil carried and cleanup costs, to estimate expected costs for cleanup and loss of cargo. The route analysed appears to be a risky one; there is a “high” to “very high” risk of a spill along this route. The Turkish Straits turn out to be the major...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Oil spills; Cleanup costs; Risk analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q32; Q51; Q52; Q53.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12112
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Breaking the Impasse in International Climate Negotiations: A New Direction for Currently Flawed Negotiations and a Roadmap for China to 2050 AgEcon
Zhang, ZhongXiang.
China’s unilateral pledge to cut its carbon intensity by 40-45 percent by 2020 relative to its 2005 levels raises both the stringency issue, and given that China’s pledge is in the form of carbon intensity, reliability issues concerning China’s statistics on energy and GDP. Moreover, as long as China’s commitments differ in form from those of other major greenhouse gas emitters, China is constantly confronted with both criticism on its carbon intensity commitment being less stringent and the threats of trade measures. In response to these concerns and to put China in a positive position, this paper will map out a realistic roadmap for China’s specific climate commitments towards 2050, with its main distinguishing features including China taking on absolute...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon Intensity; Post-Copenhagen Climate Change Negotiations; Climate Commitments; China; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q42; Q43; Q48; Q52; Q53; Q54; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108263
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Can Climate Change Mitigation Policy Benefit the Israeli Economy? A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis AgEcon
Palatnik, Ruslana Rachel; Shechter, Mordechai.
The growing attention to global warming due to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the process of fossil fuel--based energy production is expressed in the Kyoto Protocol, which prescribes, on average, a 7 percent reduction in GHG emissions for developed countries. Although Israel was not included in the list of the obligated countries ("Annex A"), it should consider the economic implications of participating in the emission reduction effort, as such a commitment becomes highly feasible following the Bali roadmap which oblige a successor to the Kyoto Protocol to launch negotiations including all parties to the UNFCCC on a future framework, stressing the role of cooperative action and of common though differentiated responsibility. This study aimed to quantify...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Computable General Equilibrium; Climate Change; Environmental Policy; Double Dividend; Israel; Environmental Economics and Policy; Public Economics; D58; H23; Q43; Q48; Q52.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6361
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China in the Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy AgEcon
Zhang, ZhongXiang.
China, from its own perspective cannot afford to, and from an international perspective, is not allowed to continue on the conventional path of encouraging economic growth at the expense of the environment. The country needs to transform its economy to effectively address concern about a range of environmental problems from burning fossil fuels and steeply rising oil import and international pressure to exhibit greater ambition in fighting global climate change. This paper first discusses China’s own efforts towards energy saving and pollutants cutting, the widespread use of renewable energy and participation in clean development mechanism, and puts carbon reductions of China’s unilateral actions into perspective. Given that transition to a low carbon...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Energy Saving; Renewable Energy; Clean Development Mechanism; Nuclear Power; Power Generation; Oil and Gas; Post-Copenhagen Climate Negotiations; China; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q42; Q48; Q52; Q54; Q58.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91009
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Computable General Equilibrium Analysis of the Economic and Land-use Interfaces of Bio-energy Development AgEcon
Abdula, Rahimaisa D..
This paper explores the inter-sectoral and land-use dynamics behind the development of bio-energy as a climate change policy through a computable general equilibrium (CGE) with a land use change (LUC) model. It assesses the economic and social costs of bio-energy development both in terms of the financial investment needed for its market penetration and in terms of the trade-offs its future supply will entail upon the land-use system. It analyzes how policies directed to develop bio-energy alters the pattern of energy mix and land utilization in the economy and how these changes in turn contribute to carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation. Policies analyzed in the study include carbon tax with revenues recycled upon bio-energy subsidy and upon direct tax...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D58; Q4; Q52; H23; O13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25536
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Copenhagen and Beyond: Reflections on China’s Stance and Responses AgEcon
Zhang, ZhongXiang.
China had been singled out by Western politicians and media for dragging its feet on international climate negotiations at Copenhagen, the accusations previously always targeted on the U.S. To put such a criticism into perspective, this paper provides some reflections on China’s stance and reactions at Copenhagen. While China’s reactions are generally well rooted because of realities at home, some reactions could have been handled more effectively for a better image of China. The paper also addresses the reliability of China’s statistics on energy and GDP, the issue crucial to the reliability of China’s carbon intensity commitments. The paper discusses flaws in current international climate negotiations and closes with my suggestion that international...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Copenhagen Climate Negotiations; Emissions Reductions; Carbon Intensity Target; Binding Emissions Caps; Statistics on Energy and GDP; Coal and Energy Consumption; China; USA; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q41; Q43; Q48; Q52; Q54; Q58; O53.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92836
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Cost-Effectiveness of Nutrient Management and Buffers: Comparisons of Two Spatial Scenarios AgEcon
Bonham, John G.; Bosch, Darrell J.; Pease, James W..
Farmers and taxpayers would benefit from more cost-effective agricultural nutrient pollution control measures. The objectives of our study are (1) to assess compliance costs and reductions in phosphorus loadings from implementation of nutrient management and riparian buffers; and (2) to estimate how the spatial scenario, which is the method of representing farms within the watershed, affects estimated compliance costs and reductions in phosphorus deliveries. Estimated compliance costs are quite sensitive to the spatial scenario. Buffers are more cost-effective than nutrient management under one of the two spatial scenarios, whereas nutrient management is more cost-effective under the other scenario. Shifts to more erosive crops reduce the effectiveness...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Compliance costs; Geographic information systems (GIS); Mathematical programming; Nutrient management; Phosphorus (P); Pollution abatement; Riparian buffers; Spatial analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Q12; Q52.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43746
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Costs of Reducing Nutrient Losses in Denmark - Analyses of Different Regulation Systems and Cost Effective Measures AgEcon
Jacobsen, Brian H.; Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Jorgen Dejgaard; Hasler, Berit.
The economic calculations carried out prior to the Plan for the Aquatic Environment III included a comparison of regulation systems aimed at reducing nitrogen leaching, analyses of measures for reducing phosphorus losses and estimation of administrative costs. The conclusions were that taxation of the N-surplus introduced at the sector level was the most cost effective regulation when compared with administrative regulation and set a side. For phosphorus a balance between incoming and outgoing phosphorus is very costly as this requires that much slurry is transported from the western to the eastern part of Denmark. The final plan for the Aquatic Environment III from 2004 included a 13% reduction of N-leaching until 2015 based on cost effective...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Cost-effectiveness; Cost of reducing nitrogen leaching; Phosphorus; Administrative costs; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q51; Q52; Q53.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24536
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Does geography matter in nutrient abatement? Bioeconomic model of heteregoneus farm nutrient loads AgEcon
Helin, Janne.
Economists often rely on stylised models for analysis of environmental policies. This study demonstrates that abstracting from soil and topography can have profound effect on marginal abatement costs of nutrient loads. By extending earlier bioeconomic models to represent heterogeneous soils and slopes, it is possible to show that targeting the abatement methods on high load risk areas allows low cost reduction. Ignoring the heterogeneity can lead to significant overestimates of the abatement costs and hence to misleading policy recommendations. The results hold even for relatively Flat areas, such as the watershed of River Kalajoki, for which the model was applied to.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Non-point source water pollution; Abatement costs; Heterogeneity; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; Q52.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51693
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Dynamic Interaction between Economic Indicators and SO2 Emission in U.S. AgEcon
Kim, Man-Keun; Yu, Tun-Hsiang (Edward).
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental Kuznets Curve; Energy Use; Vector Autoregression; Historical Decomposition; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q43; Q52; Q56.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103239
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Economic Effects of Environmental Taxation on Chemical Fertilizers AgEcon
Kim, Chang-Gil; Stoecker, Arthur L..
This paper analyzes the economic effects of environmental taxes on chemical fertilizer in producing rice. A charge of 10 percent tax on nitrogen fertilizer leads to a reduction in fertilizer use of 1.5 percent without changing rice yield, but the farm income is reduced by 0.6 percent. The tax rate of 100 percent leads to a reduction of 14.6 percent in fertilizer use, a 0.4 percent reduction in rice yield, and a 3.6 percent reduction in farm income. A significant feature of eco-taxes imposed on chemical fertilizers is their revenue potential, which could contribute to increasing government budgets for finance pollution control programs, such as education and R&D. This study provides an insight into the application of market-based instrument to achieve...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Polluter-pays-principle; Nonpoint pollution; Environmental tax; Nitrogen fertilizer; Negative externalities; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; Q52.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25501
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Economic Impacts of EPA's Manure Application Regulations on Dairy Farms with Lagoon Liquid Systems in the Southwest Region AgEcon
Huang, Wen-Yuan; Magleby, Richard S.; Christensen, Lee A..
EPA's new restrictions on land application of manure nutrients by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) could decrease the net return of 6-17% of the medium and large dairy farms with lagoon systems in the southwestern United States. Many of the other dairy CAFOs in the region could achieve higher net income under the restrictions if they reduce feed costs by better utilizing manure and expanding homegrown feed production.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: CAFO; Dairy farms; Land application; Manure regulations; Nutrient management; Environmental Economics and Policy; Livestock Production/Industries; C61; Q12; Q52; Q58.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43993
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Efectos distributivos de las compensaciones por inactividad concedidas al sector pesquero afectado por la marea negra del Prestige AgEcon
Castro, Daniel Fuentes.
Resumen En el presente trabajo se analizan las ayudas paliativas de primera hora destinadas a compensar la disminución de rentas derivada de la inactividad provocada por la marea negra del Prestige en el sector pesquero y marisquero gallego. En particular se analiza el diseño uniforme de dichas ayudas y sus efectos redistributivos entre los subsectores de actividad afectados. Asimismo se estima el coste total soportado por las administraciones públicas y se muestra cómo una sencilla re-evaluación de las ayudas hubiese permitido ajustar las compensaciones a la realidad económica de cada subsector de actividad afectado, corrigiendo de este modo la notable distorsión en la asignación de los recursos públicos. Keywords: Marea negra; Prestige; Compensaciones;...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Oil Slick; Prestige; Indemnities; Distributional Effects; Pollution Control Costs; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q52; Q54; Q50.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28769
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Essays on Regional Differences in Time Preferences and Attachment to Place AgEcon
Yi, Dale.
Data from a national telephone survey of working-aged adults in the continental US is combined with US Census 2000 data to explore the determinants of attachment to place and time preferences for jobs, natural amenities, and financial assets. Five regions in the US were delineated so that regional differences in the determinants of the dependent variables of interest could be parsed out. The regions are the Great Plains, Borderlands, Appalachia, the Plantation Belt, and the rest of the continental US. The first essay that explores time preferences for jobs, natural amenities, and money. Each was embedded with a ten percent rate of return. In aggregate, the nation as a whole demonstrated that the discount rate for jobs, natural amenities, and financial...
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation Palavras-chave: Great Plains; Migration; Time preference; Survey; Community attachment; Social capital; Natural amenity; Economic development; Community; Census; Zip code; Policy; Native American; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; R11; R23; R53; R58; Q51; Q52; O13; O15.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56009
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Estimating the Marginal Costs of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Abatement using Irish Farm-Level Data AgEcon
Breen, James P.; Donellan, Trevor.
Agriculture in Ireland accounts for a higher proportion of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than in any other EU member state. Furthermore as part of the EU’s commitment to reduce emissions by 20 percent by 2020, Ireland is one of the few countries who will have to cuts its 2005 GHG emissions level by the full 20 percent. Given the magnitude of the cut in national emissions that is required and the size of agriculture’s contribution to Ireland’s total emissions, the agriculture sector has been identified by some parties as a sector that could make a significant contribution to achieving the national target. In order to evaluate the impact on Irish farmers of reducing GHG emissions it is necessary to first estimate the marginal cost of emissions abatement....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Keywords: Farm-Level; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Marginal Abatement Cost Curve; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q12; Q18; Q52.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50938
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Evaluacion de impactos ambientales derivados de estrategias de restauracion a traves de las decisiones de jurados de ciudadanos AgEcon
Alvarez-Farizo, Begona; Gil, Jose Maria; Howard, B.J..
En los últimos años hemos asistido a una serie de vertidos contaminantes que han afectado tanto a espacios naturales como a áreas urbanas, industriales y rurales. Para mitigar sus efectos se hace necesaria una gestión integrada de las áreas productivas y naturales. Sin embargo, para que esta gestión sea eficaz es necesario considerar no sólo los efectos de las posibles medidas sobre la salud o los efectos biofísicos sobre el ambiente sino también la respuesta de los individuos a estos cambios. El objetivo de este trabajo se centra en la evaluación de los potenciales impactos, tanto ambientales como sociales, que se pueden derivar de las estrategias de restauración por vertidos. El enfoque adoptado se basa en la realización de un experimento de elección...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Q53; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q51; Q52.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28787
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