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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH: BENEFITS AND BENEFICIARIES OF ALTERNATIVE FUNDING MECHANISM AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E.; Just, Richard E..
The United States has developed a very successful R&D system for agriculture. It is a system with shared cost/financing and performance by the federal and state governments and by the private sector. The paper presents an economic analysis of alternative organization, management, incentive, and funding mechanisms for agricultural research under budget constraints, including some emphasis on the kinds of benefits that are generated and the groups that receive them. We conclude that the private sector should be permitted to carry out research that it finds profitable to undertake with minimal competition from the public sector. The public research institutions should focus on general and pretechnology science programs that complement private R&D...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research; R&D; Funding; Innovations; Science; Agriculture; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18259
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Ambiguous Aggregation of Expert Opinions: The Case of Optimal R&D Investment AgEcon
Athanassoglou, Stergios; Bosetti, Valentina; Maere d'Aertrycke, Gauthier de.
How should a decision-maker allocate R&D funds when a group of experts provides divergent estimates on a technology's potential effectiveness? To address this question, we propose a simple decision-theoretic framework that takes into account ambiguity over the aggregation of expert opinion and a decision-maker's attitude towards it. In line with the paper's focus on R&D investment, decision variables in our model may affect experts' subjective probability distributions of the future potential of a technology. Using results from convex optimization, we are able to establish a number of analytical results including a closed-form expression of our model's value function, as well as a thorough investigation of its differentiability properties. We apply...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Ambiguity; Expert Opinions; R&D; Convex/Conic Optimization; Aggregation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C61; D81; Q42.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121719
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An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System 2011 AgEcon
This 2011 report provides an economic overview of the Canadian agriculture and agri-food system. It is meant to be a multi-purpose reference document to provide: an introduction to the agriculture and agri-food system; a snapshot of structural changes that are occurring throughout the system in response to various factors; and background data and information to inform public discussions on challenges and opportunities facing the Canadian agriculture and agri-food system. Charts and tables with brief accompanying texts are used to summarize information and to provide base performance indicators. The 2011 report begins with a special feature that provides a description of young farmers in Canada including their numbers by farm size, province and farm...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Agri-food; R&D; Consumers; GDP; Employment; Exports; Imports; Innovation; Young farmers; Farm typology; Income; Government support; Trade; Productivity; Food processing; Food manufacturing; Environment; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Financial Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use; Livestock Production/Industries; Marketing; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Public Economics; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103047
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Az agrárkutatások helyzete és a fontosabb tennivalók AgEcon
Szucs, Istvan; Mohamed, Zsuzsanna; Takacs, Szabolcs.
Az agrárkutatás-oktatás kiemelt társadalmi feladat. Az innováció olyan tudatos emberi tevékenység, amely a technikai-gazdasági fejlesztések minden területére kiterjed, s célja új javak és szolgáltatások új módon történő előállítása a tudomány eredményeinek közvetlen felhasználásával. Eredményorientált tevékenység. A gazdasági növekedés motorja. Minél élesebb a verseny a hazai és nemzetközi piacokon, annál nagyobb jelentőségű az innovatív szemléletmód kialakítása. Az EU tagországainak adatai alapján a 2005-2008. években az országok gazdasága és a K+F tevékenység intenzitása között nagyon erős pozitív összefüggés található. Minél gazdagabb egy ország, annál többet áldoz a kutatás-fejlesztési tevékenységre. Hazai viszonyok közepette az agrár K+F+I területén a...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agrárkutatás-oktatás; K+F; Innovációs transzfer; Teaching of agricultural research; R&D; Innovation transfer; Agricultural and Food Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99076
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Biotech--Who Wins? Economic Benefits and Costs of Biotechnology Innovations in Agriculture AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo.
The conceptual model necessary for an assessment of biotechnology's economic benefits and costs is outlined, emphasizing the need to account for the proprietary nature of biotechnology innovations. The model is illustrated with an application to Roundup Ready soybeans. The estimated value of this innovation is sizeable, with consumers and innovators claiming the largest shares of net benefits. Also, disparities in intellectual property rights protection across countries affect the distribution of benefits. Consumer resistance toward GMOs and the issue of labelling and market segregation complicate the economic evaluation of biotechnology innovations; a number of related regulation and public policy issues are discussed. Emerging output-trait GMOs are...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Genetically modified organisms; Identity preservation; Intellectual property rights; R&D; Transgenic crops; Welfare evaluation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23862
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CAUSALITY BETWEEN TFP, R&D AND PRICES: UNCONDITIONAL AND CONDITIONAL LINEAR FEEDBACK AgEcon
Shaik, Saleem.
This paper estimates the unconditional and conditional linear dependence between exogenous supply (R&D), endogenous demand (prices) and TFP based on the linear feedback method. Unit root tests are performed for Nebraska agriculture sector data spread over 1936-94 time period. Results indicate the influence of both R&D and prices on productivity.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Linear Feedback; Causality; Productivity; R&D; Prices; Productivity Analysis; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21584
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Crop Genetic Resources: An Economic Appraisal AgEcon
Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; Heisey, Paul W.; Shoemaker, Robbin A.; Sullivan, John; Frisvold, George B..
Crop genetic resources are the basis of agricultural production, and significant economic benefits have resulted from their conservation and use. However, crop genetic resources are largely public goods, so private incentives for genetic resource conservation may fall short of achieving public objectives. Within the U.S. germplasm system, certain crop collections lack sufficient diversity to reduce vulnerability to pests and diseases. Many such genetic resources lie outside the United States. This report examines the role of genetic resources, genetic diversity, and efforts to value genetic resources. The report also evaluates economic and institutional factors influencing the flow of genetic resources, including international agreements, and their...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Genetic resources; Genetic diversity; Germplasm; R&D; International transfer of genetic resources; In situ conservation; Ex situ conservation; Gene banks; Intellectual property.; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59388
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Do Technology Shocks Shift Output? An Empirical Analysis of a Two Factor Model AgEcon
Ulku, Hulya.
This study identifies the effect of technology shocks on aggregate output using confirmatory factor analysis employed by Griliches, Hall and Pakes (1991). The analysis is based on the assumptions that there are two distinct shocks in an economy, demand and technology shocks, and that the patent data contain additional information on technology shocks. The findings show that, while the patent and R&D data do not contain significant information on technology shocks in the full sample of OECD countries, they do have significant information on these shocks in the G13 countries. The results suggest that, in the G13 countries technology shocks can explain almost all of the unexpected changes in patent stock, half of those in R&D stock and a quarter of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Technology shocks; Innovation; R&D; Patents; Output; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30547
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Economic Benefits and Costs of Biotechnology Innovations in Agriculture AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo.
The conceptual model necessary for an assessment of biotechnology's economic benefits and costs is outlined, emphasizing the need to account for the proprietary nature of biotechnology innovations. The model is illustrated with an application to Roundup Ready soybeans. The estimated value of this innovation is sizeable, with consumers and innovators claiming the larger share of net benefits. Also, disparities in intellectual property rights protection across countries affect the distribution of benefits. Consumer resistance toward genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the issues of labeling and market segregation complicate the economic evaluation of biotechnology innovations, and a number of related regulation and public policy issues are discussed....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Genetically modified organisms; Identity preservation; Intellectual property rights; R&D; Transgenic crops; Welfare evaluation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18413
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Economic Evaluation of New Technologies and Promotions in the Australian Sheep and Wool Industries AgEcon
Mounter, Stuart W.; Griffith, Garry R.; Piggott, Roley R.; Fleming, Euan M.; Zhao, Xueyan.
Knowledge about the size and distribution of returns from alternative broad types of R&D and promotion investments permit strategic-level decisions about resource allocation, both within and across research programs. The Australian sheep meat and wool industries are characterised by strong cross-commodity relationships due to the joint product nature of the industries. An equilibrium displacement model of the Australian sheep meat and wool industries was developed to account for these relationships and any indirect benefits and costs arising from spill-over and feedback effects between the industries as a result of research-induced innovation or promotion. The potential annual returns and their distribution among the various industry sectors were...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Australian sheep and wool industries; Equilibrium displacement model; Cross-commodity relationships; R&D; Promotion evaluation; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10415
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EDUCATING AGRICULTURAL RESEARCHERS: A REVIEW OF THE ROLE OF AFRICAN UNIVERSITIES AgEcon
Beintema, Nienke M.; Pardey, Philip G.; Roseboom, Johannes.
The number of higher-education institutions and the students enrolled in them has grown rapidly throughout Africa since the early 1960s. The number of universities increased from less than 20 in 1960 to nearly 160 by 1996; student numbers grew from 119,000 to almost two million over the same period, yet enrollment ratios in Africa continue to lag well behind developed and other-developing country norms. Funding for higher-education in Africa kept pace with the expanding institutional base during the 1960s and 1970s, but has fallen well behind the growth in student numbers since 1980. The pattern of the development of the agricultural sciences has matched the general pattern of development of the higher-education sector. Three quarters of the countries in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: University education; Agriculture; R&D; Human capital; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; Africa.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16046
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EFFECTS OF FIRM-SPECIFIC FACTORS ON R&D EXPENDITURES OF AGRIBUSINESS COMPANIES AgEcon
Roucan-Kane, Maud; Ubilava, David; Xu, Pei.
The objective of this paper is to determine how the firm's infrastructure, the financial characteristics of a company (net income, sales), and the organizational structure (number of acquisitions, age of establishment of the firm) affect R&D investments in the agricultural sector. We use data for companies under the SIC codes for agricultural chemicals, and crop planning and protection. The results based on analysis of 69 observations of 12 firms revealed that firm's financial and organizational infrastructure does affect its R&D expenditures. Older and larger firms tend to spend more on R&D. During the last 17 years the R&D expenditures with respect to the sales of the company have been reduced. Finally, contrary to the expectations,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: R&D; Agriculture; Chemicals; Crop planning; Crop protection; Agribusiness; Agribusiness; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; A10; O32; Q16.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7332
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Endogenous R&D Investment and Market Structure: A Case Study of the Agricultural Biotechnology Industry AgEcon
Anderson, Benjamin; Sheldon, Ian M..
Over the past three decades, the agricultural biotechnology sector has been characterized by rapid innovation, market consolidation, and a more exhaustive definition of property rights. The industry attributes consistently identified by the literature and important to this analysis include: (i) endogenous sunk costs in the form of expenditures on R&D; (ii) seed and agricultural chemical technologies that potentially act as complements within firms and substitutes across firms; and (iii) property rights governing plant and seed varieties that have become more clearly defined since the 1970s. This paper adds to the stylized facts of the agricultural biotechnology industry to include the ability of firms to license technology, a phenomenon observed only...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Licensing; Market structure; R&D; Agricultural biotechnology; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; L22; L24; Q16.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/107832
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Evidence for increasing concentration in plant breeding industries in the United States and the European Union AgEcon
Nolan, Elizabeth; Santos, Paulo.
There is evidence of an increase in market concentration and in the importance of private plant breeding in the seed industry following the widespread adoption of Intellectual Property Rights regimes for the industry in the developed world. We use data from the US Patent and Trademark Office, US Plant Variety Protection Office and various European Plant Variety Protection databases to estimate the extent of these changes in the seed corn industry.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Intellectual Property Rights; R&D; Market concentration; Germplasm.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48060
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Has the Return on Australian Public Investment in Agricultural Research Changed? AgEcon
Binenbaum, Eran; Mullen, John D.; Wang, Chang Tao.
We examine whether there has been a decline in the returns from Australian public investment in research on broadacre agriculture. Complementing a forthcoming paper by Mullen, we use alternative specifications for the regression equation, which employs the log of total factor productivity (TFP) as the dependent variable. The rate of return is computed on an annual basis rather than by using multi-year averages. In contrast to Mullen’s earlier preliminary analysis, we have now found some evidence of a decline in the rate of return on public R&D investment, lending some support to recently voiced concerns on this matter.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: R&D; Rate of return; Agricultural productivity; Public investment; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6016
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How Large Are the Welfare Gains from Technological Innovation Induced by Environmental Policies? AgEcon
Parry, Ian W.H.; Pizer, William A.; Fischer, Carolyn.
This paper examines whether the welfare gains from technological innovation that reduces future abatement costs are larger or smaller than the “Pigouvian” welfare gains from optimal pollution control. The relative welfare gains from innovation depend on three key factors ¾ the initially optimal level of abatement, the speed at which innovation reduces future abatement costs, and the discount rate. We calculate the welfare gains from innovation under a variety of different scenarios. Mostly they are less than the Pigouvian welfare gains. To be greater, innovation must reduce abatement costs substantially and quickly and the initially optimal abatement level must be fairly modest.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Innovation; Welfare; Regulation; Endogenous; Technological; Change; R&D; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q16; Q28; O32; O33.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10448
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How Large Are the Welfare Gains from Technological Innovation Induced by Environmental Policies? AgEcon
Parry, Ian W.H.; Pizer, William A.; Fischer, Carolyn.
This paper examines whether the welfare gains from technological innovation that reduces future abatement costs are larger or smaller than the "Pigouvian" welfare gains from optimal pollution control. The relative welfare gains from innovation depend on three key factors - the initially optimal level of abatement, the speed at which innovation reduces future abatement costs, and the discount rate. We calculate the welfare gains from innovation under a variety of different scenarios. Mostly they are less than the Pigouvian welfare gains. To be greater, innovation must reduce abatement costs substantially and quickly and the initially optimal abatement level must be fairly modest.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Innovation; Welfare; Regulation; Endogenous; Technological; Change; R&D; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q16; Q28; O32; O33.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10621
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Identifying the optimal strategy for suppliers’ involvement in product design: A case study CIGR Journal
Achillas, Ch.; Aidonis, D.; Folinas, D.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Triantafillou, D..
In order to increase efficiency and improve competitiveness, manufacturers around the globe are focusing on developing their core businesses. On the other hand, standard activities of engineering are optimally accomplished outside the borders of the firm; thus outsourcing of non-core businesses has become lately a common practice. Product design is considered as one of the most important phases in a product’s life cycle, since the majority of most critical decisions in terms of products’ overall performance are considered during the Research & Development (R&D) phase. Involving suppliers in a firm’s R&D offers significant benefits in various directions, such as feasibility, practicability, sustainability, competitiveness and innovativeness....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Product design; Suppliers; R&D; Outsourcing strategy; Multicriteria analysis ELECTRE III.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2917
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Industry-Science Connections in Agriculture: Do public science collaborations and knowledge flows contribute to firm-level agricultural research productivity? AgEcon
Toole, Andrew A.; King, John L..
Prior research identifies a direct positive link between the stock of public scientific knowledge and agricultural productivity; however, an indirect contribution to agricultural productivity is also possible when this stock facilitates private sector invention. This study examines how “connectedness” between the stock of public scientific knowledge and private firms influences firm-level research productivity. Bibliographic information identifies the nature and degree to which firms use public agricultural science through citations and collaborations on scientific papers. Fixed effects models show that greater citations and collaborations with university researchers are associated with greater agricultural research productivity.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Public science; Research productivity; Patents; Citations; Collaboration; R&D; Productivity Analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Q16; O31.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103211
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Innovation and productivity in knowledge intensive business Inra
Musolesi, A.; Huiban, J.P..
This paper studies empirically the relationship between the sources of knowledge, innovation and productivityin Knowledge Intensive Business Services using French micro data and sheds some new light on the production of knowledge and on effects of innovative output on firm productivity. Both an innovation function and a production function augmented with dummy endogenous innovation are estimated. Three estimators which control for endogeneity of the dummy innovation are employed: the first is a maximum likelihood estimator of the equations’ system while the other two are built in the instrumentalvariables framework. These estimators give useful complementary information because of the usual efficiency-robustness tradeoff comparing system-equations and...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: PRODUCTIVITY; INNOVATION; R&D; KNOWLEDGE INTENSIVE BUSINESS SERVICES ; RECHERCHE ET DEVELOPPEMENT .
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2010feb24b9&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2010/12/
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