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Registros recuperados: 10
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Caractérisation et modélisation des processus de bioaccumulation des PCB chez le merlu (Merluccius merluccius) du golfe du Lion ArchiMer
Bodiguel, Xavier.
Understanding bioaccumulation mechanisms of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a major issue for environmental risk assessment. In this work, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a model contaminant family, has been studied in the European hake (Merluccius merluccius), a high trophic level species from the Gulf of Lions. High concentrations of PCBs were measured in hake from this area compared to those encountered in the population of the Bay of Biscay. PCB biomagnification was highlighted along its food web from marine phytoplankton, suggesting a strong influence of diet on contamination levels. The role of other biological processes was also apprehended in order to understand the high variability of observed levels. Thus, growth, sex, and also the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: DEB theory; Bioenergetic model; Gulf of Lions; Biomagnification; Food web; Hake; Bioaccumulation; Polychlorinated biphenyls; Organic contaminants; Théorie DEB; Modèle bioenergétique; Golfe du Lion; Bioamplification; Réseau trophique; Merlu; Bioaccumulation; Polychlorobiphényles; Contaminants organiques.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/these-6490.pdf
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Couplage de modèles trophiques et effets combinés de la pêche et du climat ArchiMer
Travers, Morgane.
Overfishing and climate change are now recognized to have important effects on marine ecosystem functioning but uncertainties remains about their combined effects. Using a modelling approach this thesis aims at assessing how the top-down effects of fishing and the bottom-up effects of climate combine themselves within the food web. A preliminary review highlighted the lack of end-to-end model applicable as it stands to our study case - the southern Benguela - and suitable to study the combined effects of fishing and climate. Coupling the plankton model ROMS-N2P2Z2D2 and the fish model OSMOSE appeared as an innovative method allowing to develop an appropriate tool meeting our objectives. The importance of two-way coupling via the predation process is first...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Modèle end-to-end; Couplage de modèle; Réseau trophique; Sud- Benguela; Effets combinés; Changement climatique; Surexploitation; End-to-end model; Model coupling; Food web; Southern Benguela; Combined effects; Climate change; Overfishing.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00003/11445/7993.pdf
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Devenir des bactéries dans les réseaux trophiques des vasières intertidales : le cas de brouage (Baie de Marennes-Oléron) ArchiMer
Pascal, Pierre-yves.
Bacteria are highly abundant and productive in intertidal mudflat sediments. By analogy with pelagic system, it has been suggested that bacteria play an important role in benthic food web. Due to technical difficulties, numbers of studies dealing with benthic bacterivory are not numerous and give conflicting results. A method using community of 15N enriched bacteria as tracer was developed in order to measure grazing of meiofauna and macrofauna. Since enriched bacteria present characteristics of size, activity and diversity close to natural ones, bias due to selective bacterial ingestion by grazers are limited. Due to tidal cycles, intertidal mudflat constitutes highly variable environment at short time scale. Since those variations may influence...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Stable isotope; Hydrobia ulvae; Foraminifera; Copepod; Nematode; Bacteria; Mudflat; Trophic foodweb; Isotope stable; Hydrobia ulvae; Foraminifère; Copépode; Nématode; Bactérie; Vasière; Réseau trophique.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/these-4778.pdf
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Diversité structurelle et fonctionnelle des peuplements sablo-vaseux de Bretagne sud : Impact de l'expansion d'Haploops nirae ArchiMer
Rigolet, Carine.
This thesis aims here, based on the case of the Bay of Concarneau, to understand the impact of the development of dense populations of the tubiculous amphipod Haploops nirae on the structural and functional diversity of sandy-mud communities of South Brittany. The study of Haploops communities was developed on various levels of organization of life, from the specific role of Haploops nirae to functional role of Haploops community in the ecosystem passing through the description of the community composition and its role on the biodiversity. Our results suggest firstly that the functional role of Haploops nirae alone (filtration pressure, secondary production) is potentially important. Moreover, the physical changes induced by Haploops were found to have...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ampeliscidae; Réseau trophique; Diversité fonctionnelle; Macrofaune benthique; Diversité; Bretagne Sud; Espèce ingénieure; Ampeliscidae; Benthic macrofauna diversity; Food web; Functional diversity; Engineer species; South Brittany.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00134/24549/22582.pdf
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Écologie trophique des juvéniles de merlu (Merluccius merluccius) dans le golfe du Lion : Implications biologiques de la variabilité spatio-temporelle des ressources alimentaires exploitées dans les zones de nourricerie ArchiMer
Ferraton, Franck.
European hake (Merluccius merluccius) is a commercial and ecological important species in the Gulf of Lions. Juveniles are mainly located on the continental shelf, and abundance of smaller individuals (< 15 cm) is highest during spring in deeper areas principally. Juvenile hake (5 to 24 cm) density, relative condition factor, food resources and food web structure were investigated in four locations of the continental shelf (distributed with depth : shallow-deep, and distance from the Rhone river mouth : Rhone-Agde) during three springs (2002-2003-2004). Changes of food resources were identified with hake length, spatio-temporal variations were also observed for smaller juveniles (< 15 cm). Despite of hake prey diversity, the same organic source is at...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Zone de nourricerie; Réseau trophique; Isotopes stables; Facteur de condition relative; Ressources alimentaires; Juvéniles; Merluccius merluccius; Golfe du Lion.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/these-4196.pdf
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Effet d’une espèce ingénieur sur la diversité et le fonctionnement des communautés benthiques : l’habitat récifal à Sabellaria alveolata ArchiMer
Jones, Auriane.
Coastal zones worldwide are home to a large diversity of ecosystem engineers that perform key functions such as the recycling of organic matter and nutrients. The habitats resulting from the biological activity of these species are exposed to numerous disturbances such as over harvesting and trampling or via coastal modification. In this context, it is becoming key to understand the functioning of these engineered habitats and how they are affected by increasing disturbances. During my PhD, I used the reef habitat built by the gregarious tubiculous polychaete Sabellaria alveolata as a study case. First, the environmental and biotic changes associated with the establishment of a S. alveolata reef and its increasing disturbance were assessed, focusing on...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ingénieur de l’écosystème; Habitat récifal; Macrofaune benthique; Diversité fonctionnelle et isotopique; Production primaire benthique; Réseau trophique; Flux biogéochimiques; Traits biologiques; Ecosystem engineer; Reef habitat; Benthic macrofauna; Functional and isotopic diversity; Facilitation; Benthic primary production; Food web; Biogeochemical fluxes; Isoscape; Biological traits.
Ano: 2017 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00498/60960/64363.pdf
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Etude et modélisation des mécanismes impliqués dans la croissance de l'huître perlière, Pinctada margaritifera, au sein de l'écosystème conchylicole du lagon de l'atoll de Takapoto (Polynésie Française) ArchiMer
Pouvreau, Stephane.
L'huître perlière, Pinctada margaritifera (Linné, 1758) var. cumingi (Reeve), productrice de perles noires, fait l' objet d'une aquaculture florissante en Polynésie Française. Afin de pérenniser cette activité, un programme de recherche (le PGRN) a été lancé, en 1990, sur l' atoll de Takapoto. L' un des thèmes de ce programme réside dans l'étude de la capacité trophique d'un lagon soumis à une activité de perliculture. A cet égard, un modèle déterministe expliquant la croissance et la reproduction de P. margaritifera à partir des paramètres du milieu (notamment la nourriture disponible) a été mis au point. La construction de ce modèle a impliqué : ( 1) l'analyse de l'hydrobiologie du lagon; (2) l'étude de la physiologie de P. margaritifera; (3) le sui vi...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bivalves; Huîtres perlières; Pinctada margaritifera; Physiologie; Croissance; Reproduction; Hydrobiologie; Atoll; Lagon; Écosystème; Réseau trophique; Modélisation; Capacité trophique; Polynésie française; Bivalves; Pearl oyster; Pinctada ma rgaritifera; Physiology; Growth; Reproduction; Hydrobiology; Atoll; Lagoon; Ecosystem; Trophic web; Modelling; Carrying capacity; French Polynesia.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00034/14558/11856.pdf
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Implications of morphological and functional traits for trophic relationships within fish communities and marine trophic network architecture ArchiMer
Cachera, Marie.
A current issue in ecology is to understand the contribution of biodiversity to ecosystem functioning and notably to comprehend how inter- and intra-specific trait variation affects trophic interactions between individuals and species, the trophic organization of communities and trophic network architecture. Particularly, morphology has historically been considered as a main determinant of organisms’ ecology, which led to the field of ecomorphology, and, from a functional perspective, is expected to influence trophic relationships and other ecological functions performed by species. This thesis aimed at studying the trophic organization of a marine fish community and its dependency on morphological and functional trait variation between and within species....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Communauté; Morphologie; Réseau trophique; Niche; Traits fonctionnels; Manche Est; Community; Morphology; Trophic network; Niche; Functional traits; Eastern English Channel.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00195/30603/29069.pdf
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Réseau trophique de l'anse de l'Aiguillon : dynamique et structure spatiale de la macrofaune et des limicoles hivernants ArchiMer
Degre, Delphine.
The Aiguillon Cove has been preserved as Natural Reserves since 1996 and 1999 for its international importance as wintering areas for waterbirds. The benthic communities of this a macrotidal bay were still little studied. In order to understand the spatial pattern and the dynamics of the main compartments of its trophic network, two cartographies were carried out at the time of the departure (March) and the arrival (October) of the waders. A monthly study was carried out too in three stations of the upper mudflat. The spatio-temporal homogeneity of the granulometry of the sediments and the strong seasonal variation of the salinity of pore water were highlighted. The molluscs' diversity is low, especially on the upper mudflat where abundance of Hydrobia...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Carrying capacity; Inverse analysis; Spatio temporal patterns; Food web; Isotope; Waders; Molluscs bivalves; Aiguillon Cove; Capacité d'accueil; Analyse inverse; Dynamique des populations; Structure spatiale; Réseau trophique; Isotope; Limicoles; Bivalves; Mollusques; Anse de l'Aiguillon.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2006/these-2097.pdf
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Typologie biosédimentaire de la baie de Saint-Brieuc (Manche ouest), et estimation de la biomasse des catégories trophiques macrozoobenthiques. ArchiMer
Gros, Philippe; Hamon, Dominique.
The aim of this report is to provide biomass estimates (AFDW, g.m-2 ) of the four main components of the benthic food web in the southern part of the Bay of St-Brieuc: suspension-feeders, deposit-feeders, herbivores and carnivores. Patterns in the environmental data (i.e., sedimentary characters) are first analysed, and then related to the spatial distribution of communities ; both approaches use classical ordination techniques (PCA, correspondence analysis). A second typology, based on a review of published litterature concerning coastal macrozoobenthos feeding, ascribes each taxonomic unit to a trophic group. Finally, quantitative results are thus given per biota ; suspension-feeders appear to dominate (in terms of biomass) most of fine-sand habitats of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Zoobenthos; Réseau trophique; Analyses multivariables; Manche ouest; Zoobenthos; Food web; Multivariate analysis; Western Channel.
Ano: 1988 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00107/21794/19371.pdf
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