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Registros recuperados: 12
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Access of Eastern African Farmers to Domestic and International Markets: Opportunities and Constraints AgEcon
Bahiigwa, Godfrey.
This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges that Eastern African farmers face in accessing domestic, regional and international markets. With rising population and incomes, domestic markets offer great opportunities for farmers. However, because of structural, institutional and organizational constraints, small scale rural farmers may not benefit much from domestic urban markets unless they are organized and trained to meet the high quality product standards demanded by urban consumers and supermarkets. ECA countries stand to gain more by investing in commodities that are consumed within the region, than from traditional cash crops destined for international markets. Regional integration offers opportunities for larger markets and efficiency gains...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Market access; Trade reforms; Regional integration; Economic growth; Eastern African farmers; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25270
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Acordos comerciais e o setor produtivo de carne bovina: estimativas de ganhos para o Mercosul AgEcon
Waquil, Paulo Dabdab; Alvim, Augusto Mussi.
This study identifies the effects of free trade agreements at the multilateral (WTO) and regional (FTAA and MERCOSUR-EU) levels on the bovine meat markets in several regions. In order to evaluate these effects, we used a spatial allocation model, presented as a mixed complementarity problem (MCP). The study identifies the changes in production and consumption levels, as well as the changes in producer and consumer surplus, in four possible scenarios. In general, gains to bovine meat producers in the MERCOSUR countries are expected in all scenarios. Although, these gains are greater when we simulate a multilateral trade liberalization, with or without the elimination of subsidies.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Free trade; Regional integration; Mixed complementarity problem; Bovine meat; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55190
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CARICOM Bilateral Trade: A Preliminary Analysis Using the Gravity Model AgEcon
Sandberg, H. Mikael; Taylor, Timothy G.; Seale, James L., Jr..
This paper investigates the determinants of intra-CARICOM bilateral trade and the CARICOM member's trade with the North American and European countries using the gravity model. Seventeen annual cross-sections are estimated for the period 1980 through 1996. Overall, the empirical results indicate that the gravity model has considerable potential to explain intra-CARICOM bilateral trade as well as trade between CARICOM members and non-members. The evidence suggests that both the importer's GDP per capita and the exporter's GDP per capita exert strong positive effects on CARICOM trade levels. Since these effects are found to be statistically the same, we conclude that the gravity model is symmetric with respect to GDP per capita. Further, sharing a common...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Caribbean economies; CARICOM; FTAA; Gravity model; Regional integration; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15636
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DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATION PROCESSES WITHIN THE SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION AgEcon
Lan, Czyan.
Trade and investment cooperation is one of important direction within the Shanghai Organization of Cooperation reveal. The special attention is given a interests of China in expanding its economic interests in Central Asia. The paper describes the potential for further trade and investment involvement of China to cooperation with other parties of the international organization.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Regional integration; Trade cooperation; Central Asia; China; International Development; International Relations/Trade; F15; F59.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94548
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Economic Impacts of Brazilian Indirect Tax Reduction: An analysis of the competitiveness within MERCOEURO AgEcon
Pereira, Matheus Wemerson Gomes; Teixeira, Erly Cardoso.
The objective of this paper is to determine the effects of the creation of MERCOEURO stemming from an indirect tax reduction in the Brazilian economy. Four different scenarios were analyzed taking into account the elimination of tariffs on imports among the member countries in the MERCOEURO agreement and a 10% reduction in the indirect taxes on the final consumption, on intermediary inputs, and on sectors production. Simulations are run using GTAPinGAMS with the GTAP database version 6.0. The creation of the MERCOEURO generated significant results mainly in the agribusiness sector. A reduction in the indirect taxes on final consumption and over the intermediate inputs improve the competition and generate gains in growth, welfare, and government...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Regional integration; Indirect taxes; General equilibrium; GTAPinGAMS; Sectoral competition; International Relations/Trade; F13; F15; C68; H20.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53440
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EFEITOS DE UMA DESONERAÇÃO TRIBUTÁRIA NA ECONOMIA BRASILEIRA EM CENÁRIOS DE CRIAÇÃO DA ÁREA DE LIVRE COMÉRCIO DAS AMÉRICAS (ALCA) AgEcon
Pereira, Matheus Wemerson Gomes; Teixeira, Erly Cardoso.
O objetivo desse artigo é determinar os impactos da criação da Área de Livre Comércio das Américas (ALCA), a partir de uma desoneração tributária, na economia brasileira. Para isso, foram analisados diversos cenários que contam, além da eliminação das tarifas ao comércio entre os países do continente americano, com redução de 10% dos impostos indiretos que incidem sobre o consumo, sobre os insumos intermediários e sobre a produção brasileira. O modelo do GTAPinGAMS é usado como instrumental analítico, aplicado à versão 6.0 do banco de dados do GTAP. Os resultados indicam que, em todos os cenários de ALCA, a redução dos impostos indiretos em 10% aumentou a competitividade, promoveu o crescimento e o bem-estar do Brasil e elevou a receita tributária. O...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Integração regional; Tributos indiretos; Equilíbrio geral; GTAPinGAMS; Competitividade setorial; Regional integration; Indirect taxes; General equilibrium; GTAPinGAMS; Sectorial competition; International Relations/Trade; F13; F15; Q17; R13; H20.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109126
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European Trade Integration in the Baltic Sea Region - A Gravity Model Based Analysis AgEcon
Paas, Tiiu; Tafenau, Egle.
The paper explores regional trade integration of the countries involved in the EU eastward enlargement (EU-25) processes distinguishing the possible regional trade clusters within EU-25 that may support integration of the EU-15 and the new member states. We examine whether the gravity equation based on the new trade theory describes trade integration of the EU-25 countries, and whether the results of a gravity model based analysis may be different in the case of the Baltic Sea region (BSR). The gravity models are estimated based on panel data for the years 1993 to 2002. The results of our analysis indicate that the BSR is forming an exception within EU-25. The BSR trade cannot be explained as much with New Trade Theories as in the case of the whole EU. The...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Gravity models; International trade; Regional integration; Baltic Sea region; International Relations/Trade; F15; R1; C5.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26263
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Exploring growth linkages and market opportunities for agriculture in Southern Africa AgEcon
Nin Pratt, Alejandro; Diao, Xinshen.
Considering the heterogeneity of the countries of southern Africa and the presence of South Africa and other middle-income countries in the region, southern Africa has a unique opportunity to exploit agricultural potential and regional trade opportunities through regional dynamics and integration. We analyze the implications of such opportunities for the growth of the low-income countries, using a regional general equilibrium model that captures growth linkages. We find that growth in the middle-income southern African countries, such as South Africa, benefits the region’s low-income countries through increased demand for their agricultural exports. Agricultural productivity growth, however, is necessary for low-income countries to take advantage of South...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Regional trade; General equilibrium model; Regional integration; Agricultural productivity; Agricultural growth; Grain production; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Marketing.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55411
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O comércio potencial brasileiro de carne bovina no contexto de integração regional AgEcon
Rubin, Luciane da Silva; Ilha, Adayr da Silva; Waquil, Paulo Dabdab.
This study analyses the Brazilian beef exportation potential considering the supposition of future agreements of regional integration. The countries or blocks that were chosen are The European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) countries, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Popular Republic of China (PRC) and Japan. To analyze the meat sector exportation potential, four methodological generalizations are developed: the importing potential of the mentioned countries, the calculus of the evolution in the Revealed Advantage Index of Brazilian exportations and its main competitors, bibliographical research of the main existing trade barriers and the calculus of the Regional Orientation Index. The results concerning the...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Potential trade; Regional integration; Beef.; Agribusiness; F13; F15..
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61197
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Regional Integration in Developing Countries: Some Lessons Based on Case Studies AgEcon
Shams, Rasul.
The main focus of this paper is the question if the success of regional integration organisation in developing countries is, in fact, dependent on factors like similarity of their economic structure, market size or lack of commitment. It is shown that there are also other more important institutional and politico-economical reasons to explain the functioning of such organisations in developing countries. Case studies of ECOWAS and SADC will be used to discuss this question. It is also very often argued that southsouth integration is inferior to north-south integration. This will be discussed considering the case of MERCOSUR as an example.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Regional integration; Economic development; Africa; Latin America; Political economy; International Relations/Trade; F15; O1; P16.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26272
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U.S. AGRICULTURE AND THE FREE TRADE AREA OF THE AMERICAS AgEcon
The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), a free trade area under negotiation among the United States and 33 countries in the Western Hemisphere, will progressively liberalize trade and investment in the region. It is scheduled to become effective by the end of 2005. The FTAA will lead to a 6-percent increase in annual U.S. agricultural exports to the Hemisphere and a 3-percent increase in annual U.S. agricultural imports from the Hemisphere. The FTAA will increase annual U.S. agricultural exports and imports worldwide by about $1 billion each. The expansion of U.S. agricultural trade due to the FTAA will result from both the direct effect of trade liberalization and the indirect effect of accelerated economic growth in increasing agricultural demand in...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Free Trade Area of the Americas; Regional integration; Preferential trade arrangements; WTO; Sanitary and phytosanitary; Tariffs; Foreign direct investment; Environment; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33995
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Vantagens comparativas reveladas e orientação regional das exportações agrícolas brasileiras para a União Européia AgEcon
Waquil, Paulo Dabdab; Alvim, Augusto Mussi; Silva, Leonardo Xavier da; Trapp, Glaucilene P..
The paper analyses the Brazilian agricultural trade with the European Union (EU), in the context of the negotiations for a commercial agreement between Mercosur and the EU. We calculate indexes of revealed comparative advantages (RCA) and regional orientation (RO), for the period from 1991 to 2001. We selected the following products: soybeans, orange juice, tobacco, chicken meat, bovine meat, sugar and coffee. Altogether, these products corresponded to more than 20% of total Brazilian exports in that period. The products that show the highest Brazilian participation in world trade are soybeans, orange juice and coffee. Except for sugar, all the analyzed products had the EU as an important destiny for the exports. The results indicate comparative advantages...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Regional integration; International trade; Comparative advantages; Agriculture; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56793
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