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A decade of adaptive governance scholarship: synthesis and future directions Ecology and Society
Chaffin, Brian C.; Geography Program, College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University; chaffinb@geo.oregonstate.edu; Gosnell, Hannah; Geography Program, College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University; gosnellh@geo.oregonstate.edu; Cosens, Barbara A.; College of Law and Waters of the West Program, University of Idaho; bcosens@uidaho.edu.
Adaptive governance is an emergent form of environmental governance that is increasingly called upon by scholars and practitioners to coordinate resource management regimes in the face of the complexity and uncertainty associated with rapid environmental change. Although the term “adaptive governance” is not exclusively applied to the governance of social-ecological systems, related research represents a significant outgrowth of literature on resilience, social-ecological systems, and environmental governance. We present a chronology of major scholarship on adaptive governance, synthesizing efforts to define the concept and identifying the array of governance concepts associated with transformation toward adaptive governance. Based...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Adaptive governance; Environmental governance; Literature review; Resilience.
Ano: 2014
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A Diagnostic Procedure for Transformative Change Based on Transitions, Resilience, and Institutional Thinking Ecology and Society
Ferguson, Briony C.; Monash Water for Liveability; Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities; Monash University; briony.ferguson@monash.edu; Brown, Rebekah R.; Monash Water for Liveability; Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities; Monash University; Rebekah.Brown@monash.edu; Deletic, Ana; Department of Civil Engineering; Monash Water for Liveability; Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities; Monash University; ana.deletic@monash.edu.
Urban water governance regimes around the world have traditionally planned large-scale, centralized infrastructure systems that aim to control variables and reduce uncertainties. There is growing sectoral awareness that a transition toward sustainable alternatives is necessary if systems are to meet society’s future water needs in the context of drivers such as climate change and variability, demographic changes, environmental degradation, and resource scarcity. However, there is minimal understanding of how the urban water sector should operationalize its strategic planning for such change to facilitate the transition to a sustainable water future. We have integrated concepts from transitions, resilience, and institutional theory to develop a...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Institutions; Resilience; Strategic planning; Sustainability; Transformative change; Transition; Urban water.
Ano: 2013
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A Framework for Resilience-based Governance of Social-Ecological Systems Ecology and Society
Garmestani, Ahjond S; Environmental Protection Agency, USA; garmestani.ahjond@epa.gov; Benson, Melinda Harm; University of New Mexico, USA; mhbenson@unm.edu.
Panarchy provides a heuristic to characterize the cross-scale dynamics of social-ecological systems and a framework for how governance institutions should behave to be compatible with the ecosystems they manage. Managing for resilience will likely require reform of law to account for the dynamics of social-ecological systems and achieve a substantive mandate that accommodates the need for adaptation. In this paper, we suggest expansive legal reform by identifying the principles of reflexive law as a possible mechanism for achieving a shift to resilience-based governance and leveraging cross-scale dynamics to provide resilience-based responses to increasingly challenging environmental conditions.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed article Palavras-chave: Adaptive governance; Adaptive management; Environmental governance; Intermediaries; Panarchy; Reflexive law; Resilience; Resilience-based governance.
Ano: 2013
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A Framework to Analyze the Robustness of Social-ecological Systems from an Institutional Perspective Ecology and Society
Anderies, John M; Arizona State University; m.anderies@asu.edu; Janssen, Marco A; Indiana University; maajanss@indiana.edu; Ostrom, Elinor; Indiana University; ostrom@indiana.edu.
What makes social-ecological systems (SESs) robust? In this paper, we look at the institutional configurations that affect the interactions among resources, resource users, public infrastructure providers, and public infrastructures. We propose a framework that helps identify potential vulnerabilities of SESs to disturbances. All the links between components of this framework can fail and thereby reduce the robustness of the system. We posit that the link between resource users and public infrastructure providers is a key variable affecting the robustness of SESs that has frequently been ignored in the past. We illustrate the problems caused by a disruption in this link. We then briefly describe the design principles originally developed for robust...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Institutions; Resilience; Robustness; Social-ecological systems.
Ano: 2004
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A Handful of Heuristics and Some Propositions for Understanding Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems Ecology and Society
Walker, Brian; CSIRO; Brian.Walker@csiro.au; Gunderson, Lance; Emory Universitry; lgunder@emory.edu; Kinzig, Ann; Arizona State University; Ann.Kinzig@asu.edu; Folke, Carl; Stockholm University; calle@system.ecology.su.se; Carpenter, Steve; University of Wisconsin; srcarpen@wisc.edu; Schultz, Lisen; Stockholm University; lisen@ecology.su.se.
This paper is a work-in-progress account of ideas and propositions about resilience in social-ecological systems. It articulates our understanding of how these complex systems change and what determines their ability to absorb disturbances in either their ecological or their social domains. We call them “propositions” because, although they are useful in helping us understand and compare different social-ecological systems, they are not sufficiently well defined to be considered formal hypotheses. These propositions were developed in two workshops, in 2003 and 2004, in which participants compared the dynamics of 15 case studies in a wide range of regions around the world. The propositions raise many questions, and we present a list of...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed article Palavras-chave: Resilience; Social-ecological systems; Change; Propositions; Synthesis; Theory; Adaptatability; Transformability.
Ano: 2006
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A Synthesis of Current Approaches to Traps Is Useful But Needs Rethinking for Indigenous Disadvantage and Poverty Research Ecology and Society
Maru, Yiheyis T; CSIRO; yiheyis.maru@csiro.au; Fletcher, Cameron S; CSIRO; Cameron.Fletcher@csiro.au; Chewings, Vanessa H; CSIRO; vanessa.chewings@csiro.au.
Indigenous disadvantage and poverty have persisted and are set to continue into the future. Although a large amount of work describes the extent and nature of indigenous disadvantage and poverty, there is little evidence-based systems understanding of the mechanisms that keep many indigenous people in their current dire state. In such a vacuum, policy makers are left to make assumptions about the causal mechanisms. The persistence of inequality and poverty suffered by indigenous people is broadly consistent with the existence of dynamical traps as described in both the resilience and development literature. We reviewed and synthesized these bodies of literature on traps and found that although they give a good lead to a systemic and parsimonious way of...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Developments; Indigenous disadvantage; Poverty traps; Resilience; Rigidity traps.
Ano: 2012
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A systemic framework for context-based decision making in natural resource management: reflections on an integrative assessment of water and livelihood security outcomes following policy reform in South Africa Ecology and Society
Pollard, Sharon; The Association for Water and Rural Development; sharon@award.org.za; Biggs, Harry; SANParks; Harry.Biggs@sanparks.org; Du Toit, Derick R; The Association for Water and Rural Development; derick@award.org.za.
We aimed to contribute to the field of natural resource management (NRM) by introducing an alternative systemic context-based framework for planning, research, and decision making, which we expressed practically in the development of a decision-making “tool” or method. This holistic framework was developed in the process of studying a specific catchment area, i.e., the Sand River Catchment, but we have proposed that it can be generalized to studying the complexities of other catchment areas. Using the lens of systemic resilience to think about dynamic and complex environments differently, we have reflected on the development of a systemic framework for understanding water and livelihood security under transformation in postapartheid...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Complexity; Decision making; Dynamic; Governance; IWRM; Livelihood security; Resilience; SES; Social-ecological systems; Transdisciplinarity; Transformation.
Ano: 2014
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Access and Resilience: Analyzing the Construction of Social Resilience to the Threat of Water Scarcity Ecology and Society
Langridge, Ruth; University of California, Santa Cruz; rlangrid@ucsc.edu; Christian-Smith, Juliet; University of California, Berkeley; jchristi2001@gmail.com; Lohse, Kathleen A.; Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University; Kathleen.Lohse@asu.edu.
Resilience is a vital attribute that characterizes a system’s capacity to cope with stress. Researchers have examined the measurement of resilience in ecosystems and in social–ecological systems, and the comparative vulnerability of social groups. Our paper refocuses attention on the processes and relations that create social resilience. Our central proposition is that the creation of social resilience is linked to a community’s ability to access critical resources. We explore this proposition through an analysis of how community resilience to the stress of water scarcity is influenced by historically contingent mechanisms to gain, control, and maintain access to water. Access is defined broadly as the ability of a community...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Access; Resilience; Vulnerability; Water.
Ano: 2006
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Adaptation or Manipulation? Unpacking Climate Change Response Strategies Ecology and Society
Thomsen, Dana C; Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast; dthomsen@usc.edu.au; Smith, Timothy F; Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast; tim.smith@usc.edu.au; Keys, Noni; Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast; nkeys@usc.edu.au.
Adaptation is a key feature of sustainable social–ecological systems. As societies traverse various temporal and spatial scales, they are exposed to differing contexts and precursors for adaptation. A cursory view of the response to these differing contexts and precursors suggests the particular ability of persistent societies to adapt to changing circumstances. Yet a closer examination into the meaning of adaptation and its relationship to concepts of resilience, vulnerability, and sustainability illustrates that, in many cases, societies actually manipulate their social–ecological contexts rather than adapt to them. It could be argued that manipulative behaviors are a subset of a broader suite of adaptive behaviors; however, this...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Adaptation; Adaptive capacity; Climate change; Learning; Manipulation; Path dependency; Resilience.
Ano: 2012
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Adapting to Climate Change: Social-Ecological Resilience in a Canadian Western Arctic Community Ecology and Society
Berkes, Fikret; University of Manitoba; berkes@cc.umanitoba.ca; Jolly, Dyanna; University of Manitoba; dyjolly@ihug.co.nz.
Human adaptation remains an insufficiently studied part of the subject of climate change. This paper examines the questions of adaptation and change in terms of social-ecological resilience using lessons from a place-specific case study. The Inuvialuit people of the small community of Sachs Harbour in Canada's western Arctic have been tracking climate change throughout the 1990s. We analyze the adaptive capacity of this community to deal with climate change. Short-term responses to changes in land-based activities, which are identified as coping mechanisms, are one component of this adaptive capacity. The second component is related to cultural and ecological adaptations of the Inuvialuit for life in a highly variable and uncertain environment; these...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Social-ecological systems; Sustainability science; Arctic; Canadian North; Inuit; Inuvialuit; Adaptive strategies; Climate change; Community-based research; Coping mechanisms; Human ecology; Participatory research; Participatory research; Resilience; Social-ecological systems.
Ano: 2001
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Adaptive Capacity and Traps Ecology and Society
Carpenter, Stephen R; University of Wisconsin-Madison; srcarpen@wisc.edu; Brock, William A.; University of Wisconsin-Madison; WBrock@ssc.wisc.edu.
Adaptive capacity is the ability of a living system, such as a social–ecological system, to adjust responses to changing internal demands and external drivers. Although adaptive capacity is a frequent topic of study in the resilience literature, there are few formal models. This paper introduces such a model and uses it to explore adaptive capacity by contrast with the opposite condition, or traps. In a social–ecological rigidity trap, strong self-reinforcing controls prevent the flexibility needed for adaptation. In the model, too much control erodes adaptive capacity and thereby increases the risk of catastrophic breakdown. In a social–ecological poverty trap, loose connections prevent the mobilization of ideas and resources...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Adaptation; Allostasis; Model; Poverty trap; Resilience; Rigidity trap; Transformation.
Ano: 2008
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Adaptive Comanagement and Its Relationship to Environmental Governance Ecology and Society
Plummer, Ryan; Brock University, Canada; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden; ryan.plummer@brocku.ca; Armitage, Derek R; University of Waterloo, Canada; derek.armitage@uwaterloo.ca; de Loë, Rob C; University of Waterloo, Canada; rdeloe@uwaterloo.ca.
We provide a systematic review of the adaptive comanagement (ACM) literature to (i) investigate how the concept of governance is considered and (ii) examine what insights ACM offers with reference to six key concerns in environmental governance literature: accountability and legitimacy; actors and roles; fit, interplay, and scale; adaptiveness, flexibility, and learning; evaluation and monitoring; and, knowledge. Findings from the systematic review uncover a complicated relationship with evidence of conceptual closeness as well as relational ambiguities. The findings also reveal several specific contributions from the ACM literature to each of the six key environmental governance concerns, including applied strategies for sharing power and responsibility...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Adaptive comanagement; Adaptive governance; Environmental governance; Integrated management; Multilevel governance; Resilience; Systematic review.
Ano: 2013
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Adaptive Harvesting in a Multiple-Species Coral-Reef Food Web Ecology and Society
Kramer, Daniel B; Michigan State University; dbk@msu.edu.
The utility of traditional bio-economic harvest models suffers from their dependence on two commonly used approaches. First, optimization is often assumed for harvester behavior despite system complexity and the often neglected costs associated with information gathering and deliberation. Second, ecosystem interactions are infrequently modeled despite a growing awareness that these interactions are important. This paper develops a simulation model to examine the consequences of harvesting at two trophic levels in a coral-reef food web. The model assumes adaptive rather than optimizing behavior among fishermen. The consequences of changing economic, biological, and social parameters are examined using resilience as an evaluative framework. Three general...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Fisheries; Resource economics; Coral reefs; Resilience; Adaptive behavior; Food web; Simulation.
Ano: 2008
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Adaptive Management and Social Learning in Collaborative and Community-Based Monitoring: a Study of Five Community-Based Forestry Organizations in the western USA Ecology and Society
Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria E.; Colorado State University; gimenez@warnercnr.colostate.edu; Ballard, Heidi L.; University of California - Davis; hballard@ucdavis.edu; Sturtevant, Victoria E.; Southern Oregon University; sturtevant@sou.edu.
Collaborative and community-based monitoring are becoming more frequent, yet few studies have examined the process and outcomes of these monitoring approaches. We studied 18 collaborative or community-based ecological assessment or monitoring projects undertaken by five community-based forestry organizations (CBFs), to investigate the objectives, process, and outcomes of collaborative ecological monitoring by CBF organizations. We found that collaborative monitoring can lead to shared ecological understanding among diverse participants, build trust internally and credibility externally, foster social learning and community-building, and advance adaptive management. The CBFs experienced challenges in recruiting and sustaining community participation in...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Adaptive management; Collaborative monitoring; Multiparty monitoring; Community-based monitoring; Resilience; Social-ecological systems; Social learning.
Ano: 2008
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Addressing surprise and uncertain futures in marine science, marine governance, and society Ecology and Society
Thrush, Simon F; Institute of Marine Science, The University of Auckland; School of Environment, The University of Auckland; simon.thrush@auckland.ac.nz; Lewis, Nick; School of Environment, The University of Auckland; n.lewis@auckland.ac.nz; Le Heron, Richard; School of Environment, The University of Auckland; r.leheron@auckland.ac.nz; Fisher, Karen T; School of Environment, The University of Auckland; k.fisher@auckland.ac.nz; Lundquist, Carolyn J; Institute of Marine Science, The University of Auckland; National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New Zealand; carolyn.lundquist@niwa.co.nz; Hewitt, Judi; National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New Zealand; Judi.Hewitt@niwa.co.nz.
On an increasingly populated planet, with decreasing biodiversity and limited new opportunities to tap unexploited natural resources, there is a clear need to adjust aspects of marine management and governance. Although sectarian management has succeeded in addressing and managing some important threats to marine ecosystems, unintended consequences are often associated with overlooking nonlinear interactions and cumulative impacts that increase the risk of surprises in social-ecological systems. In this paper, we begin to untangle science-governance-society (SGS) interdependencies in marine systems by considering how to recognize the risk of surprise in social and ecological dynamics. Equally important is drawing attention to our state of preparedness,...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Governance; Management; Marine ecosystems; Regime shift; Resilience; Science; Society.
Ano: 2016
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Agency and Resilience: Teachings of Pikangikum First Nation Elders, Northwestern Ontario Ecology and Society
Miller, Andrew M.; First Nations University of Canada; amiller@fnuniv.ca; Davidson-Hunt, Iain; Natural Resources Institute; University of Manitoba; davidso4@cc.umanitoba.ca.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Agency; Anishinaabe; Other-than-human persons; Pikangikum First Nation; Resilience; Social-ecological system.
Ano: 2013
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Aligning Key Concepts for Global Change Policy: Robustness, Resilience, and Sustainability Ecology and Society
Anderies, John M; Arizona State University; m.anderies@asu.edu; Folke, Carl; Beijer Institute for Ecological Economics; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University; carl.folke@beijer.kva.se; Walker, Brian; CSIRO Ecosystem Science; Brian.Walker@csiro.au; Ostrom, Elinor; Indiana University; ostrom@indiana.edu.
Globalization, the process by which local social-ecological systems (SESs) are becoming linked in a global network, presents policy scientists and practitioners with unique and difficult challenges. Although local SESs can be extremely complex, when they become more tightly linked in the global system, complexity increases very rapidly as multi-scale and multi-level processes become more important. Here, we argue that addressing these multi-scale and multi-level challenges requires a collection of theories and models. We suggest that the conceptual domains of sustainability, resilience, and robustness provide a sufficiently rich collection of theories and models, but overlapping definitions and confusion about how these conceptual domains articulate with...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Fragility; Global change; Governance; Institutions; Resilience; Robustness; Sustainability.
Ano: 2013
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“A shepherd has to invent”: Poetic analysis of social-ecological change in the cultural landscape of the central Spanish Pyrenees Ecology and Society
Fernández-Giménez, Maria E.; Department of Forest and Rangeland Stewardship, Colorado State University; maria.fernandez-gimenez@colostate.edu.
Since the mid-20th century, the Pyrenean pastoral social-ecological system (SES) has undergone socioeconomic and demographic transformations leading to changes in grazing practices and a decline in the livestock industry. Land abandonment has contributed to an ecological transition from herbaceous vegetation cover to shrublands and forests, leading to a loss of ecosystem services, including biodiversity and forage. I interviewed 27 stockmen (ganaderos) in two valleys of the central Pyrenees to document their traditional ecological knowledge and observations of environmental, social, economic, and cultural changes in the valleys. I used poetic analysis, a qualitative data analysis approach, to illustrate and analyze one ganadero’s experience of...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Arts-based analysis; Cultural ecosystem services; Pastoralism; Place attachment; Place identity; Rangelands; Resilience.
Ano: 2015
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An Indicator Framework for Assessing Agroecosystem Resilience Ecology and Society
Cabell, Joshua F; Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences; josh.cabell@gmail.com; Oelofse, Myles; Department of Agriculture and Ecology, Copenhagen University; myles@life.ku.dk.
Taking departure in the theory of resilience in social-ecological systems, we present an analysis and discussion of how resilience theory can be applied to agroecosystems. Building on the premise that agroecosystems are too complex for resilience to be measured in any precise manner, we delineate behavior-based indicators of resilience within agroecosystems. Based on a review of relevant literature, we present and discuss an index of 13 such indicators, which, when identified in an agroecosystem, suggest that it is resilient and endowed with the capacity for adaptation and transformation. Absence of these indicators identifies points of intervention for managers and stakeholders to build resilience where there is vulnerability. The indicators encompass...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Adaptive cycle; Agroecosystems; Behavior-based indicators; Resilience; Social-ecological systems.
Ano: 2012
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An Integrated Approach to Analyzing (Adaptive) Comanagement Using the “Politicized” IAD Framework Ecology and Society
Whaley, Luke; Water Science Institute, Cranfield University; l.whaley@cranfield.ac.uk; Weatherhead, Edward K.; Water Science Institute, Cranfield University; k.weatherhead@cranfield.ac.uk.
Scholars of comanagement are faced with a difficult methodological challenge. As comanagement has evolved and diversified it has increasingly merged with the field of adaptive management and related concepts that derive from resilience thinking and complex adaptive systems theory. In addition to earlier considerations of power sharing, institution building, and trust, the adaptive turn in comanagement has brought attention to the process of social learning and a focus on concepts such as scale, self-organization, and system trajectory. At the same time, a number of scholars are calling for a more integrated approach to studying (adaptive) comanagement that is able to situate these normative concepts within a critical understanding of how context and power...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Comanagement; Adaptive comanagement; IAD Framework; Politicized IAD Framework; Methodology; Institutions; Power; Discourse; Resilience.
Ano: 2014
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