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Agent Behavior under Risky and Uncertain Conditions. An Empirical Verification of Irving Fisher’s Notion of Time Preference AgEcon
Balgah, Roland Azibo; Buchenrieder, Gertrud.
Irving Fisher's theory on time preference in the 1930s arguably influenced the analysis of agents' current behavior with respect to future outcomes. By suggesting linear discount rates implying rational and self-interested motives of agents, Fisher substantiated neoclassical economic thinking. However, Fisher's notion of time preference, the choice between present and future enjoyment that actually integrates a psychological discounting component has not received similar attention in the scholarly literature. This paper aims at closing this gap. It empirically examines agent behavior under uncertain conditions culminating from natural shocks, and differentiates the psychic from the physical component. To empirically test Fisher's notion of time preference,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Risks; Uncertainty; Agent behavior; Fisher; Time preference; Cameroon; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114214
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AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY: FARM-LEVEL, MARKET, AND POLICY CONSIDERATIONS AgEcon
Van der Sluis, Evert; Diersen, Matthew A.; Dobbs, Thomas L..
This study provides an overview of the economic costs, benefits, and risks involved with agricultural biotechnology at the farm level, at the market level, and for the farm and food system as a whole. Both advantages and disadvantages of agricultural biotechnology are discussed. Among the drivers of U.S. domestic and international consumer demand for transgenic crop products discussed are environmental and food safety concerns. A comparison is made between a "science-based" regulatory framework and a policy based on the precautionary principle. The authors argue that open dialogue is needed for achieving improved public understanding of agricultural biotechnology, and that analyses need to go beyond discussing the scientific merits of biotechnology, to...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Acceptance; Agricultural biotechnology; Benefits; Costs; Public dialogue; Risks; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14654
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Análisis de peligros y evaluación de riesgos en productos pesqueros sensíbles comercializados en el Uruguay OceanDocs
Bertullo, E..
Los productos pesqueros se han catalogado en general como alimentos sensibles desde el punto de vista del riesgo alimentario y dada la aparición de entidades mórbidas de origen pesquero que pueden definirse como “emergentes”, se ha considerado necesaria una actualización de la información científica disponible. Ello abarca los riesgos que para los consumidores nacionales pueden tener potencialmente un grupo de alimentos derivados de animales acuáticos, los cuales luego de acondicionados, elaborados o transformados tecnológicamente, empacados e identificados se vuelcan al mercado como productos pesqueros. Para ello, teniendo en cuenta las directrices en materia de análisis de riesgo y a la información disponible se efectuó este análisis descriptivo de la...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Health and safety; Risks; Processed fishery products.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/1580
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Análisis de riesgo de inundación por tsunamis en el Golfo de Guayaquil OceanDocs
Arreaga Vargas, P.; Ortíz, M..
Se simula numéricamente un escenario sísmico-tsunamigénico frente a las costas del Golfo de Guayaquil para evaluar el riesgo de inundación por tsunamis en las zonas costeras bajas al interior del Golfo. La propagación del tsunami al interior del Golfo se simuló empleando la metodología del proyecto TIME (Tsunami Inundation Modeling for Exchange) de la Universidad de Tohoku. Los resultados de la simulación (alturas de inundación) fueron incorporados en los mapas urbanos de las ciudades para desarrollar los mapas de riesgo de inundación (los mapas urbanos no se presentan en este artículo).
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Tsunamis; Earthquakes; Flood forecasting; Risks; Earthquakes; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_2440.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/2237
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Az élelmiszer-biztonság szabályozásának közgazdasági vetületei AgEcon
Podruzsik, Szilard; Kasza, Gyula.
Az élelmiszer-biztonság olyan speciális terület, ahol a kiadások hasznosulását a jellemző kockázatok előfordulási gyakoriságain és ezek okozott hatásain lehet mérni, azonban a hatások – különösen azok egy részének látens jellege miatt – rendkívül nehezen becsülhetők. A látens rész pontosabb meghatározásához fogyasztói elemzések szükségesek. Az élelmiszer-biztonság gazdasági vetületének vizsgálatánál a jóléti közgazdaságtan és a humántőke-modell játszhat szerepet. Ezek közül a nemzetközi gyakorlat a könnyebb kvantifikálhatóság miatt elsősorban a humántőkemodellt alkalmazza. Az élelmiszer-biztonsági okokra visszavezethető megbetegedések gazdasági hatásait a háztartások, a vállalatok és az állam (ezen belül is kiemelten az ellátórendszerek) szintjén indokolt...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Élelmiszer-biztonság; Kockázat; Tökéletlen piacok; Food safety; Risks; Imperfect markets; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57724
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AZ ÖKOMARKETING GYAKORLATI MEGVALÓSULÁSA AZ ÉLELMISZER-GAZDASÁGBAN AgEcon
Szolnoki Gyozone Karkus, Maria.
Az Európai Unióba való belépésünkkel a környezetvédelem, a fenntartható fejlődés minden területen nagyobb hangsúlyt kap. Különösen igaz ez az élelmi-szer-gazdaságra. Azok a kutatások is felértékelődhetnek ennek tükrében, amelyek a környezet-gazdaságtan különböző területein folynak. A szerző évek óta foglalkozik az ökomarketing elméleti és módszertani kérdéseivel, kutatásának eredményeit kétrészes tanulmányban adja közre. A tanulmány első részében arra vállalkozott, hogy a nemzetközi szakirodalom alapján bemutassa az ökomarketing kutatás főbb állomásait, új irányzatait. A szerző tanulmánya két célt tűzött maga elé. Először azt kívánja bizonyítani, hogy az élelmiszer-gazdaság mind inputjai, mind outputjai oldaláról tekintve környezeti szempontból...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Fenntartható marketing; Élelmiszer-gazdaság; Környezetbarát gazdálkodás; Kockázat; Jövedelemtermelőképesség; Sustainable marketing; Food economy; Environmentally friend farming; Risks; Income producing capability; Crop Production/Industries; Marketing.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54416
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AZ ÖKOMARKETING GYAKORLATI MEGVALÓSULÁSA AZ ÉLELMISZER-GAZDASÁGBAN AgEcon
Szolnoki Gyozone Karkus, Maria.
Az Európai Unióba való belépésünkkel a környezetvédelem, a fenntartható fejlődés minden területen nagyobb hangsúlyt kap. Különösen igaz ez az élelmi-szer-gazdaságra. Azok a kutatások is felértékelődhetnek ennek tükrében, ame-lyek a környezet-gazdaságtan különböző területein folynak. A szerző évek óta foglalkozik az ökomarketing elméleti és módszertani kérdéseivel, kutatásának eredményeit kétrészes tanulmányban adja közre. A tanulmány első részében arra vállalkozott, hogy a nemzetközi szakiroda-lom alapján bemutassa az ökomarketing kutatás főbb állomásait, új irányzatait. A szerző tanulmánya két célt tűzött maga elé. Először azt kívánja bizonyítani, hogy az élelmiszer-gazdaság mind inputjai, mind outputjai oldaláról tekintve környezeti szempontból...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Fenntartható marketing; Élelmiszer-gazdaság; Környezetbarát gazdálkodás; Kockázat; Jövedelemtermelő-képesség - sustainable marketing; Food economy; Environmentally friend farming; Risks; Income producing capability; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Marketing.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54333
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Choice of Economic Strategies by Food Complex Enterprises in Conditions of Market Uncertainties AgEcon
Yermolova, Olga; Kireyeva, Natalia; Fisenko, Natalja.
The paper presents the results of the sociological survey and expertise describing the factors of risk reduction and increase of the level of trust in contract relations in food networks. The level of contract discipline is analyzed. It is shown that the insufficient rate of development of the institution of trust restricts the liberty of action for companies operating in a food network, deprives them of the opportunity to achieve the local optima and provides no grounds for setting their economic behavior sure-footed standards. Following the sociological survey the dynamics and structure of the transaction costs in food networks are displayed along with the specific features of their accounting in the company’s operations. An expertise of the most...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food complex; Economic strategies; Risks; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7743
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Consumption Growth and Agricultural Shocks in Rural Madagascar AgEcon
Thomas, A.-C.; Gubert, F.; Frahan, Bruno Henry de.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of rainfall and agricultural shocks on consumption growth in Madagascar. We are also interested in the impact of local endowments in infrastructures and social services on consumption growth. To achieve this goal, a micro model of household consumption growth is estimated thanks to household panel data collected by the Reseau des Observatoires Ruraux (ROR) between 1999 and 2004. Additional data sources include the 2001 communes census organized by the Ilo program of Cornell University. Altogether these different data sources make an unusually rich data set, at least when considered with developing country standards. We use panel data fixed effect estimation technique to remove unobserved household and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Risks; Growth; Poverty; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43610
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Contract Grazing on Winter Annuals: Risks and Returns for Cattle Owners AgEcon
Anand, Manik; Duffy, Patricia A.; Bergtold, Jason S.; Bransby, David; Shoemaker, Carla.
Critical factors affecting risk and profitability for cattle owners under contract grazing include cattle weight at purchase and time spent on pasture and feedlot. Buying lighter animals and placing them in pastures before sending them to feedlot is the most profitable as well as least risky option. Even in the least risky scenario, the cattle owner would still incur losses 28% of the times. The results also show a possibility that at contract-grazing rates of $0.41 per pound of gain or more, the cattle owner would place cattle directly on the feedlot, bypassing the pasture.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Contract grazing; Risks; Returns; Farm Management; Livestock Production/Industries; Q12.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98752
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Determinants of Household Poverty Dynamics in Rural Regions of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa AgEcon
Baiyegunhi, L.J.S.; Fraser, Gavin C.G..
Poverty has always been studied in a world of certainty. However, if the aim of studying poverty is not only improving the well-being of households who are currently poor, but also preventing people from becoming poor in the future, a new forward looking perspective must be adopted. For thinking about appropriate forward-looking anti-poverty interventions (i.e. interventions that aim to prevent or reduce future poverty rather than alleviate current poverty), the critical need then is to go beyond a cataloging of who is currently poor and who is not, to an assessment of households’ vulnerability to poverty. This study analyses a panel dataset on a representative sample of 150 rural households interviewed in 2007 and 2008 in the Amathole District...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Poverty; Vulnerability; Poverty dynamics; Risks; Rural households; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97078
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Diseases in mollusc hatcheries and their paraedox in health management ArchiMer
Berthe, Franck.
Global molluscan aquaculture production is continuously increasing, dominated by five species, among which the Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas, predominates. Hatchery production is accompanying this increase to assist consistent availability of juveniles for restocking, fishery enhancement, genetic improvements as well as for species diversification. Hatchery development contributes significantly to the demand for international transfers of live molluscs; a consequence of which pathogen transfer via transfer of live molluscs is currently recognised as a major cause of epizootic disease outbreaks. Diseases are a primary constraint to mollusc aquaculture growth and sustainability, severely impacting socioeconomic development in many countries....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mollusca; Crassostrea gigas; Risks; Mollusc culture; Husbandry diseases; Hatcheries; Disease control.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2005/acte-3289.pdf
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Estimating Farm Level Multivariate Yield Distribution Using Nonparametric Methods AgEcon
Zheng, Qiujie; Wang, H. Holly; Shi, Qinghua.
Modeling crop yield distributions has been an important topic in agricultural production and risk analysis, and nonparametric methods have gained attention for their flexibility in describing the shapes of yield density functions. In this article, we apply a nonparametric method to model joint yield distributions based on farm-level data for multiple crops, and also provide a way of simulation for univariate and bivariate distributions. The results show that the nonparametric models, both univariate and bivariate, are estimated quite well compared to the original samples, and the simulated empirical distributions also preserve the attributes of the original samples at a reasonable level. This article provides a feasible way of using multivariate...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Yield distribution; Multi-variate nonparametric; China; Farm-level; Risks; Farm Management; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6509
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Evaluación de corvina rubia (Micropogonias furnieri) en el área del Río de la Plata y Zona Común de Pesca argentino-uruguaya por medio de un modelo de dinámica de biomasa OceanDocs
Carozza, C.R.; Hernandez, D.R.; Perrotta, R.G..
Whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri)has a broad distribution along the Atlantic coast of the Americas, from Mexico to the south of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. At the southern end of distribution, Argentina and Uruguay catch the species with different commercial fleet types bay or creek, coastal and off-shore and modalities of bottom trawling with doors and paired trawling. Maximum catches of both countries, that reached 60,000 t, were registered between 1995 and 1997. After that period a remarkable decrease was observed, specially in Argentina where catches remained at around 6,000 t over a total of 30,000 t for both countries. The commercial fleet was divided in three categories and the total area of study in three subareas: El Salado,...
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Stock assessment; Catch/effort; Risks; Biomass; Depleted stocks; Mathematical models; Coastal fisheries; Commercial fishing; Stock assessment; Biomass; Mathematical models; Coastal fisheries; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_24251; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_926; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_24199; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_1696.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/1503
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Evaluación de merluza de cola (Macruronus magellanicus) en el Atlántico Sudoccidental. Período 1985-2001 OceanDocs
Wöhler, O.C.; Hansen, J.E.; Giussi, A.R.; Cordo, H.D..
Period 1985-2001. A stock assessment of Patagonian hoki of the Southwest Atlantic was carried out by using data from the years 1985-2001. A cohort analysis, fitted with some survey abundance indices was used in an adaptive conceptual framework. Simulation trials were performed to project the evolution of the fishery, to evaluate the risk of over-fish the stock under different exploitation levels, and to estimate Biologically Acceptable Catches (BAC). Both total biomass and spawning stock biomass showed increasing trends resulting from four strong year classes (1993, 1995, 1996 and 1998). Total biomass at the beginning of 2001 was estimated to be 2.5 million tons, and spawning stock biomass at the spawning time (August) was estimated to be around 1.28...
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Stock assessment; Fishery management; Biomass; Risks; Demersal fisheries; Stock assessment; Fishery management; Biomass; Demersal fisheries; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_24251; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_24026; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_926; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_2173.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/2525
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Evaluación del recurso abadejo y recomendaciones sobre su explotación a partir del año 2002 OceanDocs
Cordo, H.D..
Ling (Genypterus blacodes) resource was assessed by means of an age structured production model fitted with stock abundance indices from catch per unit effort data (CPUE) obtained from the commercial fishing fleet. Reproductive stock was assessed in the same way with CPUE data from the fishery research vessel. A short-term analysis of collapse risk as a function of 1999 and 2000 fishing mortalities was carried out with the results, and also a long-term analysis with the assumption of a variable fishing mortality (F) with two recruitment hypotheses. Results show that the present state of the Ling resource has worsened with respect to the last assessment. Considering the best of all cases, the Br/Kr relationship decreased from 0.55 to 0.33, indicating that...
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Stock assessment; Catch/effort; Fishery management; Risks; Gadoid fisheries; Commercial fishing; Stock assessment; Fishery management; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_24251; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_24026.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/2518
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Evaluación pesquera del bacalao austral (Salilota australis) del Atlántico Sudoccidental OceanDocs
Wöhler, O.C.; Cassia, M.C.; Hansen, J.E..
Information about the austral cod Salilota australis caught in the Patagonian shelf including the area around Malvinas Islands (SW Atlantic)as well as some data from annual research surveys carried out as of 1992 to 1998 were analyzed. On this basis, the fishery was studied and the abundance of the stock inhabiting the area under Argentine control was estimated. To calculate the optimum yield as a function of both age-at-first catch and fishing mortality, the Yield-per-Recruit model was used. Some biological reference points were also identified and an exploitation strategy based on low risk of collapse recommended. Austral cod landings, although small, showed an increasing trend as of 1990 that reached a maximum of 14,900 tons in 1998. Most of the catches...
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Stock assessment; Landing statistics; Fishing mortality; Fishing grounds; Risks; Demersal fisheries; Biomass; Stock assessment; Demersal fisheries; Biomass; Fishing grounds; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_24251; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_2173; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_926; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_2947.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/1866
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Financial Innovation and Financial Fragility AgEcon
Gennaioli, Nicola; Shleifer, Andrei; Vishny, Robert.
We present a standard model of financial innovation, in which intermediaries engineer securities with cash flows that investors seek, but modify two assumptions. First, investors (and possibly intermediaries) neglect certain unlikely risks. Second, investors demand securities with safe cash flows. Financial intermediaries cater to these preferences and beliefs by engineering securities perceived to be safe but exposed to neglected risks. Because the risks are neglected, security issuance is excessive. As investors eventually recognize these risks, they fly back to safety of traditional securities and markets become fragile, even without leverage, precisely because the volume of new claims is excessive. Financial innovation can make both investors and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Financial Innovation; Financial Fragility; Securities; Risks; Financial Economics; G; G11; G15; G2.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96496
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GM Foods in the UK between 1996 and 1999: Comments on "Genetically Modified Crops: Risks and Promise" by Gordon Conway Ecology and Society
Krebs, John R; Oxford University; john.krebs@zoo.ox.ac.uk.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: BSE; GM food; Consumer; Genetically modified crops; Risks.
Ano: 2000
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Kecsketartó gazdaság vizsgálata AgEcon
Nemeth, Szabina; Gulyas, Laszlo; Salamon, Lajos.
A Dunaszigeten 300 anyával működő gazdaság eredményességében kulcskérdés a termelési költségek csökkentése, mindenekelőtt a takarmányozás, az egyéb (áram, tejvizsgálat, bérleti díjak stb.), valamint a munkabérköltségek mérséklése. A bevételi oldalon növekvő jelentőségű – a kecsketej- és gidaértékesítés mellett – egyre nagyobb arányban a sajtértékesítés. A jövőt illetően a kockázati tényezők és a fejlesztési lehetőségek számbavétele, a helyi lehetőségek hasznosítása, s az egészségre kedvező hatású tej és sajt megismertetése a meghatározó. ------------------------------------ The success of the farm using 300 mother goats depended on the reduction of production costs including especially that of fodder and others (electricity, milk...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Kecske; Termékek; Kockázatok; Fejlesztések; Goat; Products; Risks; Developments; Farm Management; Livestock Production/Industries; Production Economics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92416
Registros recuperados: 40
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