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Aislamiento, filogenia e identificación bioquímica de una especie de Shigella de rumen con capacidad para degradar celulosa. Colegio de Postgraduados
Luna Rodríguez, Lorena.
De una muestra tomada del rumen de un bovino se aisló una cepa de Shigella sp nov en condiciones anaerobias, y creció en medio selectivo cuya única fuente de carbono fue celulosa, a 39 °C y pH 6.8. La bacteria aislada es Gram negativa, en forma de coco bacilo, con actividad celulolítica cuando se utilizó la tinción con rojo congo en colonias de 10 d. Los resultados filogenéticos indican que se encuentra ubicada en el grupo monofilético perteneciente al género Shigella, pero con 98 % de similitud con respecto a las demás especies del taxa, por lo cual este microorganismo es una especie no reconocida. La utilización de azúcares y alcoholes de la cepa aislada se determinó con el Kit API 50 CH y el Software API WEB. De acuerdo con los resultados hubo...
Palavras-chave: Shigella; Rumen; Celulolítica; Monofilético; Cellulolytic; Monophyletic; Ganadería; Doctorado.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/1860
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Aislamiento y caracterización de bacterias quitinolíticas ruminales Colegio de Postgraduados
Piloni Martini, Javier.
Los principales objetivos del presente estudio fueron aislar y seleccionar bacterias ruminales quitinolíticas con alta capacidad para degradar quitina pura y caparazón de camarón in vitro, e identificar genéticamente a las bacterias seleccionadas usando secuencias de su gen 16S rARN amplificado mediante PCR. El aislamiento de las bacterias ruminales se inicio con un cultivo mixto liofilizado de bacterias quitinolíticas (CMBQ) obtenido de borregos alimentados con una dieta con 25% de caparazón de camarón. Se requirieron tres aislamientos progresivos para obtener dos bacterias ruminales puras. En el primer aislamiento se obtuvieron seis consorcios bacterianos: BQT1, BQT2, BQT3, BQT4, BQT6 y BQT6 , a partir de CMBQ. Por su alta capacidad para...
Palavras-chave: Rumen; Quitina; Caparazón de camarón; Bacterias quitinolíticas; 16S rARN Rumen; Chitin; Shrimp shell waste; Chitinolytic bacteria; 16S r RNA.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/787
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Aislamiento y caracterización de bacterias quitinolíticas ruminales Colegio de Postgraduados
Piloni Martini, Javier.
Los principales objetivos del presente estudio fueron aislar y seleccionar bacterias ruminales quitinolíticas con alta capacidad para degradar quitina pura y caparazón de camarón in vitro, e identificar genéticamente a las bacterias seleccionadas usando secuencias de su gen 16S rARN amplificado mediante PCR. El aislamiento de las bacterias ruminales se inicio con un cultivo mixto liofilizado de bacterias quitinolíticas (CMBQ) obtenido de borregos alimentados con una dieta con 25% de caparazón de camarón. Se requirieron tres aislamientos progresivos para obtener dos bacterias ruminales puras. En el primer aislamiento se obtuvieron seis consorcios bacterianos: BQT1, BQT2, BQT3, BQT4, BQT6 y BQT6 , a partir de CMBQ. Por su alta capacidad para degradar...
Tipo: Tesis Palavras-chave: Rumen; Quitina; Caparazón de camarón; Bacterias quitinolíticas; 16S rARN; Rumen; Quitina; Caparazón de camarón; Bacterias quitinolíticas; 16S rARN; Rumen; Chitin; Shrimp shell waste; Chitinolytic bacteria; 16S r RNA.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/1170
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Aislamiento y caracterización de bacterias quitinolíticas ruminales Colegio de Postgraduados
Piloni Martini, Javier.
Los principales objetivos del presente estudio fueron aislar y seleccionar bacterias ruminales quitinolíticas con alta capacidad para degradar quitina pura y caparazón de camarón in vitro, e identificar genéticamente a las bacterias seleccionadas usando secuencias de su gen 16S rARN amplificado mediante PCR. El aislamiento de las bacterias ruminales se inicio con un cultivo mixto liofilizado de bacterias quitinolíticas (CMBQ) obtenido de borregos alimentados con una dieta con 25% de caparazón de camarón. Se requirieron tres aislamientos progresivos para obtener dos bacterias ruminales puras. En el primer aislamiento se obtuvieron seis consorcios bacterianos: BQT1, BQT2, BQT3, BQT4, BQT6 y BQT6 , a partir de CMBQ. Por su alta capacidad para...
Palavras-chave: Rumen; Quitina; Caparazón de camarón; Bacterias quitinolíticas; 16S rARN Rumen; Chitin; Shrimp shell waste; Chitinolytic bacteria; 16S r RNA.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/810
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Aislamiento y caracterización de Streptococcus bovis y estudio inicial para el aislamiento de su bacteriófago Colegio de Postgraduados
López Garrido, Serafín Jacobo.
El objetivo del presente estudio fue obtener un cultivo puro de la bacteria ruminal Streptococcus bovis a partir de líquido ruminal de ovinos alimentados con una dieta alta en sorgo (70 % en base seca). Además, se analizó su actividad fermentativa (producción de AGV y lactato) y el proceso de liofilizado como método de conservación, y se realizaron ensayos para expresar su bacteriófago. Para el aislamiento se usó un medio comercial para Streptococcus spp. (Merck) preparado bajo anaerobiosis. Para la identificación se usó el sistema API 20 Strep, reacción catalasa, morfología celular y tinción de Gram. Con la prueba API 20 Strep se comprobó que la bacteria aislada pertenece a la especie S. bovis. Esta bacteria tiene forma esférica a ovoide, de 0.8...
Tipo: Tesis Palavras-chave: Rumen; Streptococcus bovis; Aislamiento; Iiofilización; Bacteriófago; Doctorado; Ganadería; Isolation; Lyophilization; Bacteriophage.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/1402
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Caracteristicas digestivas del heno de alfalfa (Medicago sativa), producida en el valle de Mexicali durante dos épocas de corte Colegio de Postgraduados
Rosales Martínez, Gerardo Noé.
El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las características de digestión ruminal y el flujo de nutrientes a duodeno e íleon del heno de alfalfa (Medicago sativa) de dos épocas de corte (verano e invierno) en novillos Holstein. Se usaron cuatro novillos Holstein (240±KgPV) con cánulas en rumen, duodeno e íleon. Los tratamientos fueron heno de alfalfa de verano (HAV) y heno de alfalfa de invierno (HAI), en un diseño cross over. Los datos se analizaron con PROC GLM de SAS y se usó la prueba de Tukey para comparar las medias. Se analizó la composición del heno y se midieron variables de digestión. El flujo a duodeno de MS, MO, FDN, FDA y NN, al igual que el flujo a íleon de MS, MO, FDN, y FDA fue mayor (P!0.10) para el HAV en comparación al HAI. La...
Tipo: Tesis Palavras-chave: Heno de alfalfa; Rumen; Digestibilidad; Flujo; Maestría; Ganadería; Alfalaf hay; Digestibility; Flow.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/1511
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Effect of an energy-deficient diet on populations of ciliate protozoans in bovine rumen Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec.
Soares,P.C.; Martinele,I.; D'Agosto,M.; Maruta,C.A.; Sucupira,M.C.A.; Antonelli,A.C.; Mori,C.S.; Ortolani,E.L..
Ten young rumen-cannulated crossbred steers were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (C; n=4), which was fed a balanced diet for daily weight gain of 900g; and a pronounced energy-deprived group (PED; n=6), receiving 30% less of the required energy for maintenance. After 140 days of these alimentary regimes, rumen fluid and urine samples were collected for biochemical and functional tests, before feeding and at 1, 3, 6, and 9 hours after feeding. The energy-deprivation diet caused a significant reduction in the number of Entodinium, Eodinium, Isotricha, Dasytricha, Eremoplastron, Eudiplodinium, Metadinium, Charonina, Ostracodinium, and Epidinium protozoa. There was no effect of the time of sampling in both groups on the total number of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Bovine; Rumen; Energy deprivation; Ruminal metabolism.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-09352008000100021
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Effect of sorghum tannins in sheep fed with high-concentrate diets Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec.
Cabral Filho,S.L.S.; Abdalla,A.L.; Bueno,I.C.S.; Gobbo,S.P.; Oliveira,A.A.M..
The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of three sorghum cultivars with different concentrations of condensed tannins in sheep diets. Six adult sheep (LW=56kg) with rumen and duodenal fistulas were assigned to experimental groups using two 3x3 Latin Square designs. The diets were formulated using three sorghum cultivars: LTC (low-tannin cultivar), MTC (medium-tannin cultivar) and HTC (high-tannin cultivar). Microbial nitrogen (MN) concentration in the duodenum was measured using a 15N trace technique. LTC, MTC and HTC diets presented values of 788, 722 and 747 (SE=20.6) g kg-1 for dry matter digestibility and 633, 535 and 530 (SE=35.8) g/kg for crude protein digestibility. The LTC diet was significantly different from the other diets...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Feed evaluation; Microbial protein; Nitrogen balance; Rumen.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-09352013000600025
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Effect of whey fermented by Enterococcus faeciumin consortium with Veilonella parvulaon ruminal bacteria in vitro R. Bras. Zootec.
Bezerra,Higor Fábio Carvalho; Oliveira,Juliana Silva de; Santos,Edson Mauro; Queiroz,Augusto César de; Mantovani,Hilário Cuquetto; Pinho,Ricardo Martins Araujo; Oliveira Junior,Jurandir Queiroz de; Costa,Elizabete Cristina Batista da.
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of whey fermented by Enterococus faecium in consortium with Veilonella parvula in vitro on ruminal microorganisms in different substrates, with or without monensin. The first experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, in a 6 × 3 factorial arrangement (six substrates × three whey levels) with two replicates. In experiment two, a 2 × 3 × 4 factorial arrangement (with and without monensin, three foods and four levels of fermented whey) was used, in a randomized design with four replicates, totaling 24 treatments. There was no interaction among the wheys and the substrates in the variable for pectin, starch, and carboxymethyl cellulose. There was a greater growth of amylolytic and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Ammonia; Fermentation; Microbial protein; Monensin; Rumen; Ruminal pH.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982014000500259
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Evaluación de dos compuestos comerciales con cromo+selenio quelatados y Saccharomyces cerevisiae en dietas para ovinos en engorda. Colegio de Postgraduados
Reséndiz Hernández, Miriam.
El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de dos fuentes orgánicas queladas comerciales, Cr-levadura y Se-levadura, y de Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC), en la digestibilidad in situ de la MS, FDN, FDA y PC; pH, AGV y N-NH3 en el rumen; consumo de MS, ganancia diaria de peso (GDP), conversión alimenticia (CA), peso y contenido de grasa de la canal de borregos. Los tratamientos fueron: 1) testigo (T; sin Cr, Se, ni SC); 2) T + Cr + Se; 3) T + SC; y 4) T + Cr + Se + SC, los cuales se asignaron al azar a 20 borregos criollos (29.88 ± 2.98 kg) en finalización para el experimento de variables productivas; y en un cuadro latino 4 x 4 con cuatro borregos machos (30 ± 2 kg) con cánula ruminal para evaluar degradación in situ y variables de fermentación...
Palavras-chave: Cromo; Selenio; Levadura; Ovinos; Digestibilidad; Rumen; Chromium; Selenium; Yeast; Sheep; Digestibility; Maestría; Ganadería.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/750
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Evaluation of whey fermented by Enterococcus faecium in consortium with Veilonella parvula in ruminant feeding R. Bras. Zootec.
Oliveira,Juliana Silva de; Queiroz,Augusto César de; Mantovani,Hilário Cuquetto; Bayão,Geraldo Fábio Viana; Detmann,Edenio; Santos,Edson Mauro; Silva,Thiago Carvalho da.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the whey fermented by Enterococcus faecium in consortium with Veilonella parvula on the in vitro growth of ruminal bacteria and as a supplement in the cattle diet. In the in vitro experiment, a randomized design, with the following combinations was used: ruminal bacteria; ruminal bacteria and inactive whey; ruminal bacteria and active whey; and active whey. In the in vivo experiment, five fistulated Zebu Holstein-Zebu crossbred heifers were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Supplements were formulated without the addition of whey, with the addition of two levels of unfermented whey (2.5 and 5 L/day) or two levels of fermented whey (2.5 and 5 L/day). A positive effect of the whey fermentation was detected on...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Lactate; Organic acids; Propionic acid; Rumen.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100025
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In situ degradability of corn stover and elephant-grass harvested at four stages of maturity Scientia Agricola
Silva,Luis Felipe Prada e; Cassoli,Laerte Dagher; Roma Júnior,Luiz Carlos; Rodrigues,Ana Carolina de Oliveira; Machado,Paulo Fernando.
Among tropical forages, corn silage is largely used by farmers trying to explore the maximum genetic potential from the animals. However, other tropical forages, such as elephant-grass (Pennisetum purpureum), are more productive and therefore cheaper to use than corn silage. Our objective was to compare the in situ degradability of elephant-grass with that from corn hybrids, all harvested at four stages of maturity. The experimental design followed a randomized block design with nested subplots. Two corn hybrids: AG5011, ZN8392 were harvested with 25, 30, 35, and 40% dry matter (DM) in the whole plant, and separated in stem + leaf sheath + leaf blade (stover), and cobs. Elephant-grass was harvested with 30, 40, 50 and 60 days after a leveling cut. Dried...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Pennisetum purpureum; Corn silage; Digestibility; Rumen; Tropical grass.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162008000600005
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In situ Rumen Degradation Kinetics of High-Protein Forage Crops in Temperate Climates Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Valderrama L.,Ximena; Anrique G.,René.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional value and in situ degradation kinetics of eight high protein forage crops: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), forage oat (Avena sativa L.), mixed pasture, and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pasture in early vegetative stages, two forage lupins (Lupinus albus L.) in early bloom stages, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and kale (Brassica napus var. pabularia (DC.) Rchb.) leaves at root maturity. Dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradation kinetics were evaluated by the nylon bag technique through the in situ procedure described by 0rskov and MacDonald (1979) using three ruminally cannulated sheep. Chemical composition of the forage crops showed on average 13.7% DM; 21.4% CP; 31.5% neutral...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Rumen; Forage; Rate of passage; Chemical composition; Degradability.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392011000400012
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In vitro effect of pH on resistance of ruminal bacteria to intracellular potassium depletion, and effect of pH and ionophores on ammonia and microbial protein production Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec.
Leopoldino,W.M.; Lana,R.P.; Borges,A.C.; Mantovani,H.C.; Teixeira,R.M.A.; Oliveira,J.S.; Jaremtchuk,A.R.; Eifert,E.C.; Martins,R.G.R..
Ruminal fluid from steers fed on pasture was incubated with artificial media at pH 5.5 and 7.0 in two experiments. In the first, the effect of monensin level on resistance of ruminal bacteria to potassium depletion was evaluated; in the second, effects of the ionophores monensin and lasalocid on ammonia and protein production were quantified. In experiment 1, culture media affected potassium level. The monensin concentration needed to cause half maximal potassium depletion was 2.77µM at pH 5.5 but was 0.056µM at pH 7.0, showing that bacteria incubated at pH 5.5 were more tolerant to monensin than those incubated at pH 7.0. Both ionophores as well as increased acidity caused decreased ammonia production. Both ionophores inhibited ammonia production by 56%,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Bacteria; Lasalocid; Monensin; PH; Rumen.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-09352005000600012
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In vitro evaluation of palm fronds as feedstuff on ruminal digestibility and gas production Animal Sciences
Khattab, Mostafa Sayed abd Ellatif; Abd El Tawab, Ahmed Mahmoud.
This study was carried out to evaluate using palm fronds only or supplemented with fibrolytic enzymes as alternative roughage on the ruminal nutrients digestibility and gas production. Treatments were: clover hay (Trifolium alexandrinum), palm fronds only and palm fronds plus fibrolytic enzymes (enzymes were mixed with palm fronds in rate of 4 g kg-1 of dry matter (DM). The results showed a reduction (p < 0.05) in gas production, ammoniac nitrogen (NH3-N, DM and organic matter (OM) digestibility in palm fronds compared with clover hay. While supplementing palm fronds with fibrolytic enzymes improved DM and OM digestibility compared with palm fronds only without (p < 0.05) differences with clover hay. Also, supplementing palm fronds with fibrolytic...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Ruminant nutrition fibrolytic enzymes; Gas production; Rumen; Nutrients digestibility..
Ano: 2018 URL: http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAnimSci/article/view/39586
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Indicadores do ambiente ruminal e suas relações com a composição do leite e células somáticas em diferentes períodos da primeira fase da lactação em vacas de alta produção Ciência Rural
Campos,Rómulo; González,Félix; Coldebella,Arlei; Cardoso,Felipe.
No atual sistema internacional de pagamento do leite por qualidade, têm-se valorizado dois aspectos fundamentais: a contagem de células somáticas (CCS) e o conteúdo de sólidos totais. O primeiro fator depende da saúde da glândula mamária e o segundo, de maior importância econômica para os laticínios, está relacionado com o manejo alimentar e a raça dos animais. O ambiente ruminal pode modificar a composição do leite, em especial o teor de gordura. A fonte principal de proteína nos ruminantes depende da síntese de proteína no rúmen. Os atuais sistemas de alimentação, usados em vacas de alta produção, predispõem os animais à apresentação de síndromes metabólicas o que direta ou indiretamente afeta a produção de leite. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Rumen; PH ruminal; Sólidos totais; Qualidade do leite.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782006000200025
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Molecular characterization of ruminal bacterial diversity in vitro - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4699 Animal Sciences
Freitas, Kárita Cláudia; PUCPR; Gabriel, Jane Eyre; PUCPR; Leite, Laudí Cunha; USP; Armas, Rafael Dutra de; USP; Lanna, Dante Pazzanese Duarte; USP; Madeira, Humberto Maciel França; PUCPR.
PCR analysis is a sensitive and specific tool to detect and monitor microorganisms in complex environmental samples. The amplification of 16S ribosomal DNA sequences followed by gel electrophoresis under denaturing gradient (DGGE) has been a powerful technique to genetically evaluate microbial ecosystems. Changes in rumen microbial populations were investigated in vitro using a basal diet with different lipid sources. PCRs were performed with two different sets of primers in order to amplify 16S rRNA sequences, and the amplified fragments were submitted to DGGE analysis. The findings presented in this study show that distinct microbial communities were present in each treatment. The presence of soybean oil seems to maximize growth of bacterial population,...
Palavras-chave: 5.04.03.00-1 Nutrição e Alimentação Animal 16S rRNA; DGGE; Rumen; Microbial diversity..
Ano: 2008 URL: http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAnimSci/article/view/4699
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New approaches, development, and improvement of methodologies for the assessment of B-vitamin requirements in dairy cows R. Bras. Zootec.
Girard,Christiane L..
ABSTRACT Studies on B-vitamin requirements of cattle, conducted more than 60 years ago, concluded that mature ruminants do not require B-vitamin supplements because the amounts of vitamins provided by the diet and synthesized by the ruminal microflora were sufficient to prevent emergence of deficiency symptoms. As a result, the impact of subclinical deficiency on maintenance of normal and efficient metabolism has been disregarded and very little research effort has been devoted at defining dairy cow requirements for B vitamins. However, emergence of deficiency symptoms is the last stage of the deficiency; deficiency appears as soon as the supply is inferior to the needs, leading to a loss of metabolic efficiency. As B vitamins play critical roles in...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: B-vitamin; Dairy cow; Metabolism; Requirement; Rumen.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982017000700614
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Nutritional strategies in mitigating rumen methane in livestock production Thai Agricultural
Metha Wanapat.
Tipo: PhysicalObject Palavras-chave: Livestock production; Nutritional manipulation; Rumen; Fermentation; Methan; Plant secondary compounds; Global warming; Greenhouse gas; การผลิตปศุสัตว์; การจัดการทางโภชนาการ; กระเพาะรูเมน; การหมัก; การลดก๊าซมีเทน; ภาวะโลกร้อน.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://anchan.lib.ku.ac.th/agnet/handle/001/5833
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Performance and development of gastric compartments of calves fed with cheese whey and transition milk Ciência Rural
Miranda,Maria Vivianne Freitas Gomes de; Morais,Michel Raony Paiva Teixeira de; Lima,Renata Nayhara de; Leite,Hélia Maria de Souza; Assis,Ana Paula Pinheiro de; Teófilo,Tiago da Silva; Fontenele Neto,José Domingues; Lima,Patrícia de Oliveira.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate whether cheese whey associated with transitional milk or not, could serve as a suitable alternative to whole milk for calf rearing. For this, twenty-four male calves of crossbred Holstein-Zebu, were distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments (8 calves per treatment) and fed for 60 days with one of the following liquid diets: i) 100% whole milk, ii) 50% whole milk and 50% cheese whey, and iii) 30% transitional milk and 70% cheese whey. There was no difference in food intake between treatments. The analysis showed that whole milk replacement did not alter the stomach weight or the ruminal cell proliferation when compared to treatment using 100% whole milk; however, the transitional milk/cheese...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Co-product; Liquid diet; Morphometry; Rumen.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782019000900601
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