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Registros recuperados: 15
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Apport d'un programme de génétique à une filière de production aquacole : l'exemple de l'ostréiculture ArchiMer
Lapegue, Sylvie; Bedier, Edouard; Goyard, Emmanuel; Degremont, Lionel; Baud, Jean-pierre; Gerard, Andre; Goulletquer, Philippe; Boudry, Pierre.
Two oyster species are currently present along the French coasts : the indigenous European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis), and the Pacific cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas), that has been introduced from Japan since the beginning of the 70ies. The flat oyster successively suffered from two protozoan diseases during the 60ies and its production decreased from 20 000 tons/year by that time to 1 500 tons/year nowadays. Consequently, the oyster production is principally (99%) based upon the Pacific oyster species with approximately 150 000 tons/year among which 90% are grown from the natural spat. However, the hatchery production of this species is developing and was estimated to 400 to 800 millions spat in 2002. Moreover, strengthened relationships between...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Growth; Selection; Genetic breeding; Genetic; Ostrea edulis; Crassostrea gigas; Oysters; Croissance; Sélection; Amélioration génétique; Génétique; Ostrea edulis; Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2003/acte-3491.pdf
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Bilan énergétique de l'huître creuse (Crassostrea gigas) durant la période de forte croissance en mai en Baie de Marennes-Oléron (France) ArchiMer
Soletchnik, Patrick; Heral, Maurice; Razet, Daniel; Bougrier, Serge; Geairon, Philippe.
Ecophysiological study was conducted on the japanese oyster (Crassostrea gigas) reared in Marennes-Oléron bay (France), during May 1992. Most of the somatic growth of the oyster occured during that month. The measurements were achieved from a removable laboratory stated in Le Chapus for 3 days at different tide level (coefficient of 49, 57, and 88). The food conditions were monitored through a computer with a continuous record of the turbidity during aIl the tidal cycle. In spite of an important variation between the food conditions in mean seston load, from 13,5 to 54,6 mg/!, the available organic matter ranged from 3 to 4,9 mg/l. The rate of organic matter in the water ranged 22 % to 9 %. The organic selection efficiency was significantly higher for the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Energetic budget; Selection efficiency; Filtration; Crassostrea gigas; Budget énergétique; Sélection; Consommation; Crassostrea gigas.
Ano: 1993 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1993/acte-3068.pdf
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Caractérisation précoce de la mortalité des lignées divergentes de Crassostrea gigas (G2) ArchiMer
Degremont, Lionel; Soletchnik, Patrick; Doner, Anne.
2001 shows how important the "R" and "S" biological families are for experimentation as well as the need to "preserve" these families from mortality during the first year. The "experimental nursing" conditions do not allow the conservation of dozens of families with many members for 6 to 8 months. Precocious characterisation at around 4-5 months enables a first selection of the biological material, as well as a first answer to the "in lab" genetical selection of the families. After the first results in 2001 (Céline de Ambroggi, LCPC, L. Degremont), two "precocious characterisation of mortality" experiments are carried out in 2002 on the divergent lineage of some genetical families (LGP production). Two 15 day long experiments are conducted in la Tremblade...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mortalités; Sélection; Physiologie; Genetique; Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2002/acte-3406.pdf
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Caractérisation sur estran et en laboratoire des 3 séries produites en troisième génération : G3SD - G3C1 - G3C2 ArchiMer
Degremont, Lionel; Fortin, Adeline; Boudry, Pierre.
Dans le cadre du programme MOREST, une première génération d'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas (G1) a été réalisée en 2001 à partir d'un plan de croisement hiérarchisé par les mâles. La caractérisation sur estran de 44 familles de plein-frères réparties en 17 familles de demi-frères a permis d'estimer l'héritabilité de la survie des naissains en période estivale. La valeur obtenue (h2 = 0,81 ± 0,29) indique que la majorité de la variance phénotypique est d'origine génétique. A partir de familles G1 sélectionnées pour les performances de survies, une sélection divergente visant à améliorer ou diminuer la survie du naissain en période estivale a été réalisée en 2002 et constitue la seconde génération (G2). La sélection divergente comprend deux séries de...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Huître creuse; Crassostrea gigas; Génétique; Sélection; Estran.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00035/14668/11970.pdf
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Déclin de la taille-aux-âges des sardines (Sardina pilchardus) : diminution de la croissance et/ou disparition sélective des individus à croissance rapide ArchiMer
Gentil, Claire.
In many exploited species, we see a decrease of size-at-ages. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain this decline: a decline in growth and the selective mortality of the individuals with fast growth both being due to environmental changes or/and to fishing. The sardine Sardina pilchardus of the Bay of Biscay is a good model for the study of this phenomenon because of its high sensitivity to the environmental variations and it sustains two large French and Spanish fisheries. The aim of this study is to measure the changes in the growth of sardines, by the reading of otoliths, and to understand mechanisms involved in this process. The main stages of this study are described in this report: extraction of otoliths during PELGAS, otoliths...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Sardina pilchardus; Golfe de Gascogne; Otolithes; Croissance; Mortalité; Sélection; Sardina pilchardus; Bay of Biscay; Otoliths; Growth; Mortality; Selection.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00459/57038/58942.pdf
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Domestication en phase larvaire chez l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas. Effets sélectifs des conditions environnementales appliquées en écloseries sur la diversité génétique ArchiMer
Sauvage, Christopher.
L'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas est, aujourd'hui, la première espèce ostréicole française avec une production de 140000 tonnes par an. Parallèlement au recrutement naturel, les écloseries produisent aujourd'hui 20% du naissain mis en élevage. Cette production est réalisée dans des conditions assurant une productivité maximale (température supérieure à 25°C, ration alimentaire optimale et tamisage sélectif). Peu de travaux se sont intéressés à l'impact génétique de ces pratiques d'élevage intensif au stade larvaire. Notre étude porte sur l'effet de la température appliquée lors de l'élevage larvaire sur la croissance et la survie et leurs composantes génétiques. Un croisement factoriel de 4 femelles et 12 mâles a été réalisé, en choisissant les géniteurs...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crassostrea gigas; Ecloseries; Croissance; Survie; Température; Microsatellites; Larves; Sélection.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00033/14418/11713.pdf
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Domestication, sélection et comportement du bar: variabilité des aptitudes comportementales et de la tolérance au stress de groupes génétiquement distincts de bar, Dicentrarchus labrax ArchiMer
Millot, Sandie.
The culture of aquatic species has grown much more rapidly in recent years than that of terrestrial species. Consequently, aquatic livestock welfare is a growing concern for society. However, unlike the many studies of terrestrial animal welfare, few scientific data exist concerning fish welfare. It is generally recognized that the aquaculture environment exposes fish to many repeated stress factors which affect their health, growth, reproductive performance and feeding behaviour. Even if stress responses do not highlight all welfare disturbances, it is generally admitted that they reveal a poor welfare. Among the solutions investigated to reduce fish stress, domestication and selection appear to be the favoured approaches. However, selection has generally...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Personality; Physiological status; Growth; Swimming behaviour; Feeding behaviour; Stress tolerance; Adaptation; Welfare; Chronic stress; Acute stress; Selection; Domestication; Dicentrarchus labrax; Personnalité; Statut physiologique; Croissance; Comportement natatoire; Comportement alimentaire; Tolérance au stress; Adaptation; Bien être; Stress chronique; Stress aigu; Sélection; Domestication; Dicentrarchus labrax.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/these-6272.pdf
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Double résistance aux infections dues aux organismes pathogènes Vibrio aestuarianus et OsHV-1 chez l’huître creuse Crassostrea gigas – DORE. Rapport scientifique final de l’étude DORE, convention DPMA-Ifremer 2016 ArchiMer
Degremont, Lionel; Maurouard, Elise; Godfrin, Yoann; Travers, Marie-agnes; Morga, Benjamin; Lamy, Jean-baptiste; Benabdelmouna, Abdellah.
Depuis 2012, le nombre de cas de mortalités d’huîtres creuses adultes (Crassostrea gigas) rapportés dans le cadre des réseaux de surveillance de l’Ifremer, et dans lesquels la bactérie Vibrio aestuarianus a été isolée, a fortement augmenté. Les objectifs de cette étude étaient (1) d’étudier la sensibilité des huîtres C. gigas à une infection à V. aestuarianus pour des lots diploïdes et triploïdes et (2) déterminer la réponse à la sélection pour une meilleure résistance à V. aestuarianus pour des huîtres C. gigas. Neuf stocks ont été utilisés, répartis en trois niveaux de sélection, chacun étant donc répliqué par trois pontes. Pour chaque stock, un lot diploïde (2n), un lot triploïde (3n_chim) produit par la rétention d’un globule polaire, et trois lots...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Vibrio aestuarianus; OsHV-1; Sélection; Résistance; Triploïdes; Huître creuse; Crassostrea gigas; Vibrio aestuarianus; OsHV-1; Selective breeding; Disease resistance Pacific oyster; Crassostrea gigas; Triploids.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00404/51530/52140.pdf
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Genetic improvement and selection in shellfish : a review based on oyster research and production ArchiMer
Boudry, Pierre; Barre, Marc; Gerard, Andre.
Despite the economic importance of shellfish, genetic improvement has not yet had a great impact on these species. Shellfish farming is traditionally based on wild species whose natural populations are often overexploited and do not fulfil market demand. Up to now, the most effective answer 10 disease problems or for the improvement of productivity has been the introduction of new species. However, the introduction of new species is constrained by their ecological impact and is also limited by the availability 01 suitable species. Genetic improvement of local species should therefore be of great importance as a viable alternative for the long term sustainability 01 the shellfish Industry. The different approaches 10 genetic improvement include...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Selective breeding; Hybridization; Polyploidy; Introduction; Oyter; Sélection; Hybridation; Polyploïdie; Introduction; Huîtres.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1998/publication-2740.pdf
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Génétique des huîtres ArchiMer
Gras, Marie-paule; Gras, Paul.
Following the high mortality which killed the Portuguese oysters Crassostrea angulata cultivated on the French coasts, the massive establishment of Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas, resisting the disease and the creation of artificial deposits for the latter was decided. In most culture areas, the mortality was estimated at more than 80 % of the stock, but, in some regions, some small populations of Crassostrea angulata subsisted and kept on reproducing. A genetic control of the spawner stocks had to be made. The first step was to know if the oysters living in the same areas were of the same species in order to foresee the next generations and try to improve them (selection).
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Sélection; Determination; Crassostrea gigas; Crassostea angulata; Huîtres; Génétique.
Ano: 1977 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1977/acte-6579.pdf
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Impact génétique de la production intensive d'huîtres en écloserie : processus de dérive et de sélection liés aux pratiques d'élevage larvaire ArchiMer
Taris, Nicolas; Sauvage, Christopher; Boudry, Pierre.
Oysters, like many other marine bivalves, are characterized by high fertility and low survival rates during the precocious stages. Hatchery reproduction, realised in very different conditions than in their natural habitat (density, food, temperature, etc.), tends to optimize the production of larvae and juveniles. As a consequence, slow growing larvae are systematically culled. Previous results suggest the existence of a genetic variability linked to precocious development. Our approach consists in studying the evolutionary process (genetic drift and selection) linked with hatchery reproduction. Thanks to microsatellite markers enabling us to analyse the relatedness in "mixed" cultivated families, we studied the variability of breeding success in...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres; Marqueurs microsatellites; Reproduction; Sélection; Dérive génétique; Variabilité génétique; Génétique.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2004/acte-3481.pdf
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Les apports de la génétique dans la filière ostréicole française ArchiMer
Lapegue, Sylvie; Renault, Tristan.
The most known and certainly the most important contribution of genetics to the oyster indus try is the development of the triploid cupped oyster. Released for the first time in the 1980s, the triploid oyster has triplets of  chromosomes instead of pairs. Currently, triploid oysters are obtained by crossing diploid and tetraploid oysters. These oysters are characterized by a near lack of milt in summer, which makes them generally popular with consumers, and by a faster growth, allowing a shorter production cycle. In parallel, the exploitation of natural resistance in the diversity of French oysters has been considered to improve the health of farmed populations which is a  major challenge for the sustainability of aquaculture farms. Currently, the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Huître creuse; Triploïdie; Sélection; Maladies; Ostréiculture; Cupped oyster; Triploidy; Selection; Disease; Shellfish farming.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00498/60931/64326.pdf
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Mortalités estivales et croissance du naissain de l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas : étude de familles sélectionnées ArchiMer
Degremont, Lionel; Boudry, Pierre; Bedier, Edouard; Ropert, Michel; Soletchnik, Patrick; Huvet, Arnaud; Moal, Jeanne; Samain, Jean-francois.
In the scope of the Morest program, 3 series of bi-parental families of cupped oyster consisting of full and half-sib have been created in 2001, and then studied on a regular basis on several sites over the summer period. In October, major survival differences had been demonstrated between the 3 families. The average survival rate for the half-sib families monitored on the three sites varies from 17 to 97 %. Some of them showed high mortality for the three sites, indicating a strong genetic basis (h2 = 0.81 - 0.29) to the variations observed regarding survival. To a lesser extent, growth differences between the studied half-sib families indicate a weaker heritability for this character. ....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Physiologie; Génétique; Naissain; Sélection; Croissance; Survie; Huîtres; Crassostrea gigas.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2003/acte-3490.pdf
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Pathologie des invertébrés marins d'intérêt aquacole. Contribution et stratégies de recherches ArchiMer
Mialhe, Eric.
Les productions d'invertébrés sont prépondérantes en aquaculture marine qui est économiquement très importate pour un grand nombre de pays, notamment de la zone Sud. Cette activité est confrontée à de nombreux problèmes des pathologie qui remettent en cause sa périnnité et son développment. Jusque dans les années quatre-vingt, les travaux relatifs à la pathologie des mollusques et des crevettes ont essentiellement porté sur la description des agents pathogènes. La création en 1985 par l'ISTPM/IFREMER d'un laboratoire pourvu de tous les équipements nécessaires aux techniques de pathologie a permis de mettre en place un programme de recherches orienté vers le contrôle des maladies. Une double stratégie de travail a été alors défine pour apporter  à...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pathologie; Immmunologie; Génétique; Mollusque; Crevette; Diagnostic; Epidémiologie; Traitement; Sélection; Transformation génétique.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00443/55479/57009.pdf
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Sélection des mollusques : bilan et nouvelles perspectives concernant la croissance, la qualité et les résistances aux maladies ArchiMer
Naciri, Yamama.
In the case of molluscs, the implementation of selection programs with a precise evaluation of the available genetic variability and the estimate of the transmissibility of the characters as well as their correlations, face two main obstacles: the first one, specific, derives from the existence of some reproduction systems that are sometimes complex and still imperfectly mastered as for the flat oyster plate Ostrea edulis; the other, more general, is directly dictated by the importance of the infrastructures needed to keep a large number of differentiated families in controlled farming conditions. Despite these obstacles, a number of programs have been developed over the last twenty years with encouraging results.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Marqueurs; Hybridation; Croissance; Sélection; Huîtres; Mollusques; Génétique.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1994/acte-6525.pdf
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