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A Framework for Analyzing Technical Trade Barriers in Agricultural Markets AgEcon
Roberts, Donna; Josling, Timothy E.; Orden, David.
Technical trade barriers are increasingly important in the international trade of agricultural products. Designing technical trade measures that can satisfy the growing demand for food safety, product differentiation, environmental amenities, and product information at the lowest cost to the consumer and to the international trading system requires an understanding of the complex economics of regulatory import barriers. This report proposes a definition and classification scheme to frame discussion and evaluation of such measures. Open-economy models that complement the classification scheme are developed graphically to highlight the basic elements that affect the economic impacts of changes in technical trade barriers.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Technical trade barriers; Sanitary and phytosanitary; Agricultural trade policy; Environmental trade measures; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33560
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Cost-Benefit Analysis of a WTO Dispute AgEcon
Javelosa, Josyline C.; Schmitz, Andrew.
Since the WTO's inception in 1995, the number of cases it has dealt with has exceeded the number of disputes under the GATT. This suggests that Members have found the WTO dispute settlement system a useful means to pursue their interests. In this paper, we analyze an ongoing WTO dispute to illustrate the economic and political costs and benefits that accrue to parties when they engage themselves into the formal dispute process. We draw on the Philippine-Australian case, which challenges the latter's quarantine policy on fresh fruit and vegetables, to understand further how the WTO dispute settlement system affects state behavior and litigation patterns. This particular case is also of keen interest to a number of countries, including the EC, US, Canada,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: WTO dispute settlement; Sanitary and phytosanitary; Banana; Cost-benefit analysis; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15648
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Disentangling the Demand-enhancing Effect and Trade-cost Effect of Technical Measures in Agricultural Trade among OECD countries AgEcon
Xiong, Bo; Beghin, John C..
Domestic technical measures such as SPS and TBTs can enhance import demand via information disclosure and quality improvement, or hamper foreign export supply via imposing sizeable compliance costs, or both. The traditional gravity equation model estimates the net effect of these measures on international trade with a loss of useful inference on separate effects. We stipulate a generalized gravity equation model to disentangle the two effects. We apply the augmented approach to agricultural trade among OECD countries in 2004. We find that technical measures in agriculture often jointly enhance import demand and hinder export supply with the net effect of promoting the propensity to trade. Further disaggregated data analysis reveals heterogeneity across...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Sanitary and phytosanitary; SPS; Technical measures; NTM; TBT; Standards; Gravity equation; Protectionism; OECD; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116898
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Nontariff Barriers AgEcon
Beghin, John C..
Nontariff barriers (NTBs) refer to the wide range of policy interventions other than border tariffs that affect trade of goods, services, and factors of production. Most taxonomies of NTBs include market-specific trade and domestic policies affecting trade in that market. Extended taxonomies include macro-economic policies affecting trade. NTBs have gained importance as tariff levels have been reduced worldwide. Common measures of NTBs include tariff-equivalents of the NTB policy or policies and count and frequency measures of NTBs. These NTB measures are subsequently used in various trade models, including gravity equations, to assess trade and/or welfare effects of the measured NTBs.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Externality and trade; Nontariff barrier; NTB; Protectionism; Sanitary and phytosanitary; SPS; Standards; TBT; Technical barrier to trade; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18436
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Quantification of Sanitary, Phytosanitary, and Technical Barriers to Trade for Trade Policy Analysis AgEcon
Beghin, John C.; Bureau, Jean-Christophe.
This paper presents promising methodologies for modeling and quantifying nontariff barriers (NTB) to trade in the agricultural and food sectors. We limit the analysis to sanitary, phytosanitary, and technical regulations that can have an impact on trade and to methods that provide some quantitative estimates of the impact of such barriers on market equilibrium, trade flows, economic efficiency, and welfare. Given the heterogeneous nature of these regulations, a unifying methodology does not exist. Quantification of the effects of such measures has focused on a particular product and has relied on methods that belong to different fields of the economic literature. We provide a concise description and evaluation of the various methods available for a more...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Non-tariff barriers; NTB; Policy; Sanitary and phytosanitary; SPS; TBT; Technical barriers to trade; Trade; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18620
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U.S. AGRICULTURE AND THE FREE TRADE AREA OF THE AMERICAS AgEcon
The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), a free trade area under negotiation among the United States and 33 countries in the Western Hemisphere, will progressively liberalize trade and investment in the region. It is scheduled to become effective by the end of 2005. The FTAA will lead to a 6-percent increase in annual U.S. agricultural exports to the Hemisphere and a 3-percent increase in annual U.S. agricultural imports from the Hemisphere. The FTAA will increase annual U.S. agricultural exports and imports worldwide by about $1 billion each. The expansion of U.S. agricultural trade due to the FTAA will result from both the direct effect of trade liberalization and the indirect effect of accelerated economic growth in increasing agricultural demand in...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Free Trade Area of the Americas; Regional integration; Preferential trade arrangements; WTO; Sanitary and phytosanitary; Tariffs; Foreign direct investment; Environment; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33995
Registros recuperados: 6
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