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A message from magic to science: seeing how the brain can be tricked may strengthen our thinking Ecology and Society
Scheffer, Marten; Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University; Marten.Scheffer@wur.nl; Westley, Frances R; Waterloo Institute for Social Innovation and Resilience, University of Waterloo; fwestley@uwaterloo.ca; van Esso, Miguel L.; College of Agriculture, Buenos Aires University; vanesso@agro.uba.ar; Miller, John; Gray Jay Graphics, Wisconsin; grayjayart@charter.net; Bascompte, Jordi; Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich; jordi.bascompte@ieu.uzh.ch.
Scientific discoveries rely on creative thinking, and several authors have explored similarities in and differences between creativity in the sciences and that in the arts. Here we explore possible ways in which science can learn from the arts, focusing specifically on experiences derived from the art of magic and on the limitations of human cognition. Generations of stage magicians or “illusionists” have made sophisticated use of the weaknesses in human systems of perception and interpretation. We highlight three important principles of magic tricks, including: (1) the audience see what it expects, (2) it is blind to all but the focus of attention, and (3) ideas spring predictably from a primed mind. These principles highlight a number...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Art; Cognitive capacity; Cognitive limitations; Conclusion errors; Confirmation bias; Creative thinking; Illusion; Illusionist; Inattentive blindness; Magic; Magician; Priming; Science; Scientific discovery; Selective attention.
Ano: 2015
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Addressing surprise and uncertain futures in marine science, marine governance, and society Ecology and Society
Thrush, Simon F; Institute of Marine Science, The University of Auckland; School of Environment, The University of Auckland; simon.thrush@auckland.ac.nz; Lewis, Nick; School of Environment, The University of Auckland; n.lewis@auckland.ac.nz; Le Heron, Richard; School of Environment, The University of Auckland; r.leheron@auckland.ac.nz; Fisher, Karen T; School of Environment, The University of Auckland; k.fisher@auckland.ac.nz; Lundquist, Carolyn J; Institute of Marine Science, The University of Auckland; National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New Zealand; carolyn.lundquist@niwa.co.nz; Hewitt, Judi; National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New Zealand; Judi.Hewitt@niwa.co.nz.
On an increasingly populated planet, with decreasing biodiversity and limited new opportunities to tap unexploited natural resources, there is a clear need to adjust aspects of marine management and governance. Although sectarian management has succeeded in addressing and managing some important threats to marine ecosystems, unintended consequences are often associated with overlooking nonlinear interactions and cumulative impacts that increase the risk of surprises in social-ecological systems. In this paper, we begin to untangle science-governance-society (SGS) interdependencies in marine systems by considering how to recognize the risk of surprise in social and ecological dynamics. Equally important is drawing attention to our state of preparedness,...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Governance; Management; Marine ecosystems; Regime shift; Resilience; Science; Society.
Ano: 2016
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Administração de ciência e tecnologia: dez anos de estudos. Repositório Alice
QUIRINO, T. R.; BAIÃO, M. S..
O crescimento da nova área de pesquisa; A estratégia do estudo; Considerações sobre a abordagem teórica; O conteúdo do estudo; Os resultados; Conclusão.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Ciencia; Administracao; Tecnologia; Science; Administration; Management; Technology.
Ano: 1987 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/84414
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Agri S&T: technology information for development. Infoteca-e
EMBRAPA..
Tracing cattle, Soybean with a new flavor, in the age of functional genome, Electronic tongue, Opinion Alberto Portugal.
Tipo: Outras publicações técnicas (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Agricultural; Science; Techonology.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1033836
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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH: BENEFITS AND BENEFICIARIES OF ALTERNATIVE FUNDING MECHANISM AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E.; Just, Richard E..
The United States has developed a very successful R&D system for agriculture. It is a system with shared cost/financing and performance by the federal and state governments and by the private sector. The paper presents an economic analysis of alternative organization, management, incentive, and funding mechanisms for agricultural research under budget constraints, including some emphasis on the kinds of benefits that are generated and the groups that receive them. We conclude that the private sector should be permitted to carry out research that it finds profitable to undertake with minimal competition from the public sector. The public research institutions should focus on general and pretechnology science programs that complement private R&D...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research; R&D; Funding; Innovations; Science; Agriculture; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18259
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Agricultural science and technology policy for growth and poverty reduction AgEcon
Omamo, Steven Were; Naseem, Anwar.
This paper argues that the largely unrealized potential of agricultural science and technology (S&T) in promoting growth and poverty reduction in developing countries results from deeply rooted incompatibility among policy environments, institutional arrangements, and micro conditions and behavior in agricultural research and development (R&D). Achieving growth and poverty reduction based on greater agricultural productivity therefore means achieving greater compatibility among these three dimensions of agricultural innovation systems. Research is sorely needed to build understanding of (1) the “big picture” influencing agricultural S&T policy design and implementation in developing countries, (2) strategies for sustainable funding and delivery...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Science; Technology; Policy; Institutions; Poverty reduction; Agricultural technology; Agricultural science; Policy research; Food Security and Poverty; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59694
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Default and Inference Options: Use in Recurrent and Ordinary Risk Decisions AgEcon
Wilson, James D..
How "default options" should be used in health risk assessment divides the risk analysis profession. Some argue that these should be "hard": set by policy, generally biased to be "health protective" and requiring a substantial body of evidence to replace by decision-specific alternatives. Others argue that they should be science-based, identified by consensus of the professional community, replaced by whatever decision-specific information may be available to the analyst. This paper shows that both positions have validity, and that both are incomplete. Each kind of construct has a useful role to play, but in different kinds of decisions. Because the two are different, we suggest giving them different names, "default option" being assigned to the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Risk; Regulation; Decision making; Default options; EPA; FDA; Science; Policy; Public participation; Risk analysis; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10712
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Impact of science on rice: papers presented at the Multilevel Symposium on Rice Research International Rice Research Institute
International Rice Research Institute.
xviii, 303 p. : ill.
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Economics; Science; Research.
Ano: 1985 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/316
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O futuro sem fome. Infoteca-e
FLORES, M. X.; SILVA, J. de S..
Agricultura e C&T em perspectiva histórica; A globalização do sistema agroalimentar; A agricultura em um plano de Nação; Educação e C&T agropecuária em um plano de Nação; A matriz institucional pública agrícola.
Tipo: Livro técnico (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Agricultura; Desenvolvimento; Projeto; Setor rural; Ciência; Tecnologia; Plano; Fome; Agriculture; Development; Project; Rural sector; Science; Technology; Plan.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/94502
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Post-Moratorium EU Regulation of Genetically Modified Products: Trade Concerns AgEcon
Viju, Crina; Yeung, May T.; Kerr, William A..
Trade in genetically modified (GM) products remains a major issue in agricultural trade policy. In particular, the European Union has sought to deny market access to GM-products. In the wake of a WTO case brought by Canada and the US, among others, against an import ban imposed on genetically modified agricultural products by the European Union (EU) – which the EU lost – the import ban was dropped and the EU put in place a new regulatory regime for GM-products. The EU suggests that the post-moratorium regulatory regime is compliant with its WTO obligations. As of June 2011, the operation of this new import regime has not been formally assessed. The first GM-crops are just now working their way through the post-moratorium regulatory system and an assessment...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: EU regulatory regime; Genetically Modified (GM) products; Science; SPS; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116848
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Riverina high school students’ views of biotechnology Electron. J. Biotechnol.
Cavanagh,Heather; Hood,Jennie; Wilkinson,Jenny.
A survey investigating the knowledge and perception of biotechnology by high school students living in the rural Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia, was undertaken. Data relating to the student’ preferred and trusted information sources was also gathered. This study has demonstrated that at least two-thirds of students had a good knowledge of medical biotechnology issues, however, a significant proportion of the students did have concerns about the use and/or safety of biotechnology. Nearly 90% of the respondents would like further information on biotechnology. In agreement with other surveys, the students reported an apparent lack of trust in articles from the lay press (newspapers, television, radio) and yet still report that these media as...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Education; Science; Secondary school.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-34582005000200001
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Some considerations about the theory of intelligent design Biol. Res.
CARREÑO,JUAN E; HANSEN,FERNANDO; IRARRÁZABAL,MATÍAS; PHILIPPI,RODOLFO; CORREA,MATÍAS; BORJA,FRANCISCO; ADRIASOLA,CRISTÓBAL; SILVA,FRANCISCO; SERANI,ALEJANDRO.
The so-called theory of intelligent design (ID) has gained a growing reputation in the Anglo-Saxon culture, becoming a subject of public debate. The approaches that constitute the core of this proposal, however, have been poorly characterized and systematized. The three most significant authors of ID are certainly Michael Behe, William Dembski and Stephen Meyer. Beyond the differences that can be distinguished in the work of each of them, the central fact in their arguments is the complexity of living organisms, which according to these authors, escapes any kind of natural explanation. In effect, according to the authors of ID, the irreducible complexity that can be detected in the natural world would allow to infer design in a scientifically valid way,...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Epistemology; Evolution; Intelligent design; Science.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602009000200011
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The place of technology transfer processes in the system of methods for researching the area of Science -Technology-Innovation AgEcon
Wisniewska, Joanna.
The growing importance and scope of technology transfer processes undertaken all over the world settles the question of the necessity for their proper identification. The multi-aspect character and complexity of these phenomena create specific problems in conducting analytic work. Although technology transfer is an element of the Science-Technology-Innovation (STI) system, it does not have a proper place in the existing methodology system of this area. The aim of this article is to point out the necessity to create a proper, complex and comprehensive methodology for researching technology transfer processes, which would contribute to better understanding of the processes themselves and at the same time enable their proper development.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Science; Technology; Innovation; Technology transfer; Methodology; Research.; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O33.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94612
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The Politics of Scale, Position, and Place in the Governance of Water Resources in the Mekong Region Ecology and Society
Lebel, Louis; USER, Chiang Mai University; louis@sea-user.org; Garden, Po; USER, Chiang Mai University; po@sea-user.org; Imamura, Masao; USER, Chiang Mai University; masao@sea-user.org.
The appropriate scales for science, management, and decision making cannot be unambiguously derived from physical characteristics of water resources. Scales are a joint product of social and biophysical processes. The politics-of-scale metaphor has been helpful in drawing attention to the ways in which scale choices are constrained overtly by politics, and more subtly by choices of technologies, institutional designs, and measurements. In doing so, however, the scale metaphor has been stretched to cover a lot of different spatial relationships. In this paper, we argue that there are benefits to understanding—and actions to distinguish—issues of scale from those of place and position. We illustrate our arguments with examples from the...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Governance; Institutions; Knowledge; Mekong; Politics; Scale; Science; Water resources.
Ano: 2005
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The Quality of Stakeholder-Based Decisions: Lessons from the Case Study Record AgEcon
Beierle, Thomas C..
The increased use of stakeholder processes in environmental decision-making has raised concerns that the inherently "political" nature of such processes may sacrifice substantive quality for political expediency. In particular, there is concern that good science will not be used adequately in stakeholder processes nor be reflected in their decision outcomes. This paper looks to the case study record to examine the quality of the outcomes of stakeholder efforts and the scientific and technical resources stakeholders use. The data for the analysis come from a "case survey," in which researchers coded information on over 100 attributes of 239 published case studies of stakeholder involvement in environmental decision-making. These cases reflect a diversity of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Public participation; Stakeholder; Science; Alternative dispute resolution; Consensus building; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10686
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The universe, the evolution of the perverse, and a rice problem International Rice Research Institute
Sheehy, J.E..
18 p. : ill. IRRI Discussion Paper Series no. 37
Tipo: Technical Report Palavras-chave: Science; Evolution; Yields; IRRI.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10269/153
Registros recuperados: 16
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