Sabiia Seb
PortuguêsEspañolEnglish
Embrapa
        Busca avançada

Botão Atualizar


Botão Atualizar

Ordenar por: RelevânciaAutorTítuloAnoImprime registros no formato resumido
Registros recuperados: 27
Primeira ... 12 ... Última
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
A reassessment of the phytogeographic characterization of Temperate Pacific South America RChHN
SANTELICES,BERNABE; MENESES,ISABEL.
In 1980, a study of geographic distribution patterns and geographic affinities of benthic algae of temperate Pacific South America (5-55 ºS) provided a first characterization of these coasts. High endemism and limited floristic exchange with the Tropical Pacific and with islands in the South Pacific at various distances from the continent were two outstanding features of the marine flora. A partial blockage of species exchange partially accounted for a peculiar latitudinal pattern of species richness that increases with increasing latitudes. In contrast, there was reduced species richness in comparison with other climatically equivalent regions that have contact with more effective routes of migration. Over the last two decades, more than 30 taxonomic and...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Benthic phytogeography; Isolation; Latitudinal patterns; Seaweeds; Temperate South America.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2000000400005
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
A taxonomic, phylogenetic and biogeographic study of the genus Acanthophora (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) Naturalis
Jong, Yde S.D.M. de; Hitipeuw, Creusa; Prud’homme van Reine, Willem F..
A cladistic analysis, based on a taxonomic revision is carried out for 7 Acanthophora species using 19 characters. Hypotheses on species affinities are based primarily on morphological characters. Because most species show only few distinctive characters, emphasis was placed on features of spine development, either in relation to vegetative or to reproductive structures. Global distribution of 7 Acanthophora species: viz. A. aokii, A. dendroides, A. muscoides, A. nayadiformis, A. pacifica, A. ramulosa, and A. spicifera, shows a discontinuous pattern. Although widely distributed species are present (A. muscoides and A. spicifera), a disjunct distribution of other species occurs in the Pacific (A. aokii), Indian Ocean (A. dendroides), East-Atlantic region...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Rhodomelaceae; Rhodophyta; Biogeography; Phylogenetics; Seaweeds; Taxonomy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/525490
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Alterações na composição florística das algas da Praia de Boa Viagem (Niterói, RJ) Rev. Bras. Bot.
TAOUIL,ANDRÉ; YONESHIGUE-VALENTIN,YOCIE.
A Baía de Guanabara no decorrer da ocupação de suas margens sofreu uma continua degradação, levando-a a grandes modificações em seu entorno e a inúmeros danos ambientais. Além de uma significativa alteração paisagística, ocorreu também uma queda na qualidade de suas águas, devido ao lançamento de grande quantidade de efluentes não tratados (domésticos e industriais). Este trabalho teve como objetivo inventariar a flora algácea da praia de Boa Viagem (Niterói, RJ), compará-la com levantamentos realizados há três décadas. Os resultados mostraram desaparecimento de 30 táxons (49%) outrora existentes no início da década de 70 e o aparecimento de 14 espécies (23%). A flora atual é dominada por Ulva fasciata Delile e Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Nees, espécies...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Benthos; Flora; Guanabara Bay; Organic pollution; Seaweeds.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-84042002012000004
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Benthic marine algae from the insular areas of Paraná, Brazil: new database to support the conservation of marine ecosystems Biota Neotropica
Pellizzari,Franciane Maria; Bernardi,Juliane; Silva,Elzi Manoelle; Silva,Michelle Cristine; Yokoya,Nair S..
This study describes the diversity of benthic marine algae from insular areas of the southern Brazilian coast. Algal samples were collected between 2006 and 2010 during the winter and the summer seasons at three sites in the coastal waters of Paraná, Brazil: Ilha do Mel, Currais Archipelago and Ilha do Farol. The samples were collected along parallel transects on the coast. In this survey, Paraná marine phycoflora comprised 139 taxa (90 Rhodophyta, 27 Chlorophyta and 22 Phaeophyceae). Fifty-two species represent new records for the state, and 14 taxa are present at all sampling sites and in both seasons. Higher diversities of rhodophytes and chlorophytes were observed at Ilha do Mel, while phaeophytes were more diverse at Currais Archipelago. Lower algal...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Seaweeds; Inventory; Paraná Coast; Southern Atlantic.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1676-06032014000200113
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Biochemical composition of some Egyptian seaweeds with potent nutritive and antioxidant properties Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment.
ISMAIL,Gehan Ahmed.
Abstract The present study investigated the biochemical composition of three seaweeds; Ulva fasciata (Chlorophyta), Sargassum linifolium (Phaeophyta) and Corallina officinalis (Rhodophyta). Total chlorophyll content was maximum in U. fasciata (34.06mg/g dry wt.) while carotenoid content was the highest in C. officinalis (3.8 mg/g dry wt.). The uppermost level of carbohydrates was (27.98% of dry wt.) in C. officinalis and proteins were maximum (14.89%) in S. linifolium. Aspartic, glutamic, alanine, leucine and proline were common amino acids in the three tested species. The polyunsaturated ω6 and ω3 essential fatty acids were recorded in S. linifolium (3.28%) and in U. fasciata (3.18%). The results showed that U. fasciata contained the highest amounts of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Seaweeds; Biochemical composition; Elemental analysis; Antioxidant activity.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200294
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Cultivo piloto de macroalgas rojas (Rhodophyta) en Bahía Portete, La Guajira, Colombia OceanDocs
Delgadillo-Garzón, O.; Newmark, F..
Se realizó un cultivo piloto de macroalgas en bahía Portete, La Guajira, Colombia, entre julio de 2005 y junio de 2006, con el fin de evaluar la factibilidad de implementarlo como alternativa productiva para las comunidades costeras de la región. Se sembraron 114 kg de las algas rojas Gracilaria cervicornis, Hydropuntia cornea, Hypnea musciformis y Grateloupia sp. sobre cuerdas de polipropileno y mallas cilíndricas en dos lugares de la bahía. La especie G. cervicornis tuvo tasas de crecimiento relativo (TCR) entre 0.1 % día-1 y 1.22 % día-1, con promedio de 0.44 % día-1, fuerte epifitismo y altas tasas de pérdida. La especie H. cornea presentó un promedio de TCR de 0.91 % día-1 y osciló entre 0.02 % día-1 y 3.5 % día-1 en el sitio uno, mientras que en el...
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Seaweeds; Seaweed culture; Seaweed culture; Seaweeds; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_6914; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_14154.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/3485
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Epiphytic marine pigmented bacteria: A prospective source of natural antioxidants BJM
Pawar,Ravindra; Mohandass,Chellandi; Sivaperumal,Elakkiya; Sabu,Elaine; Rajasabapathy,Raju; Jagtap,Tanaji.
Awareness on antioxidants and its significance in human healthcare has increased many folds in recent time. Increased demand requisite on welcoming newer and alternative resources for natural antioxidants. Seaweed associated pigmented bacteria screened for its antioxidant potentials reveals 55.5% of the organisms were able to synthesize antioxidant compounds. DPPH assay showed 20% of the organisms to reach a antioxidant zone of 1 cm and 8.3% of the strains more than 3 cm. Pseudomonas koreensis (JX915782) a Sargassum associated yellowish brown pigmented bacteria have better activity than known commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) against DPPH scavenging. Serratia rubidaea (JX915783), an associate of Ulva sp. and Pseudomonas argentinensis...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Antioxidant; Epiphytic; Pigmented bacteria; Seaweeds.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822015000100029
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Estimation du stock naturel de l’algue brune <Padina pavonica> (l.) thivy en Tunisie septentrionale OceanDocs
Ksouri, J.; Elferjani, H.; Mensi, F..
L’identification d’un principe actif servant en thérapie osseuse a propulsé l’algue brune Padina pavonica au rang des algues à intérêt économique très prisées à l’échelle mondiale et en Tunisie. L’évaluation des potentialités de cette espèce au niveau d’un site atelier, Cap Zebib (Nord-Est de la Tunisie), a été initiée pour éclairer les décideurs sur l’état du stock, afin que l’autorisation pour la collecte d’un certain tonnage de cette algue soit accordée en connaissance de cause. A Cap Zebib, l’espèce en question étant localisée dans la zone comprise entre 0 et 10 m, la biomasse naturelle disponible est évaluée à 112,5 tonnes de matière fraîche, soit 25 tonnes de matière sèche (22,2%). Le rendement global est de 0,850 t/ha. Mais, comme la majeure partie...
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Biomass; Commercial species; Seaweed products; Seaweeds; Stock assessment.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/4251
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Etude saisonnière de la contamination métallique des macroalgues de la lagune nord de Tunis OceanDocs
Chouba, L.; Ajjabi-Chebil, L.; Herry, S..
Dans le but de démontrer la capacité de bioaccumulation métallique des macroalgues et sa variation temporelle, on s’est intéressé à la détermination de la gamme de concentrations en métaux traces (Plomb, Cadmium, Fer, Manganèse et Zinc) dans trois macroalgues vertes (Ulva rigida, Chaetomorpha linum, Caulerpa prolifera) au niveau de la lagune nord et du canal de navigation de Tunis sujettes à d’importants rejets anthropiques. Des collectes saisonnières ont été faites dans la lagune de Tunis durant la période d’avril 2009 au février 2010. Les teneurs métalliques déterminées par spectrophotométrie d’absorption atomique ont montré des variations significatives selon l’espèce et la saison de prélèvement. Les résultats ont montré que les teneurs en différents...
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Heavy metals; Algae; Seaweeds; Bioaccumulation; Green algae.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/4733
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Herbicides with natural and synthetic biostimulants in spring wheat Ciência Rural
Matysiak,Kinga; Miziniak,Wojciech; Kaczmarek,Sylwia; Kierzek,Roman.
ABSTRACT: Although the knowledge on agricultural using of biostimulants increases, there is still little information on their interactions with other chemicals i.e. herbicides. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of popular herbicides (MCPA + dicamba, dicamba + triasulfuron, florasulam+2,4-D) used with and without biostimulants based on seaweed extract (Kelpak) and nitrophenols (Asahi) on weed control efficiency, yield and quality of the crop. Field trial was carried out in the years 2014 and 2015 in the Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute in Poznan (Poland). The experiment was established on spring wheat cv.‘Torridon’, in 4 replications, using randomized block design. In the experiment two variants of application were...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Biostimulant; Seaweeds; Algae extract; Herbicides; Tank mixtures; Wheat.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782018001100204
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
In vitro potential activity of some seaweeds as antioxidants and inhibitors of diabetic enzymes Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment.
ISMAIL,Gehan Ahmed; GHEDA,Saly Farouk; ABO-SHADY,Atef Mohamed; ABDEL-KARIM,Omnia Hamdy.
Abstract In this study crude extracts of Turbinaria decurrens, Padina pavonica, Sargassum muticum and Sargassum acinarium (Phaeophyta); Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) and Pterocladia capillacea (Rhodophyta) seaweeds were tested to evaluate their antioxidant properties and antidiabetic potential on α-amylase and α-glucosidase starch hydrolyzing enzymes. The results showed that all analyzed seaweeds exhibited antioxidant effects using DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), reducing power and total antioxidant capacity assays in addition to antidiabetic activity that all depended on the species and the extract solvent. Among the tested extracts, acetone extract of Turbinaria decurrens showed the highest antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects for α-amylase...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Seaweeds; Antioxidant; Antidiabetic; Cytotoxicity; GC-MS analysis.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612019005031120
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
La rhodophycée Gelidium spinosum (s.g. Gmelin) p.c. Silva, des cotes de Monastir : lumière sur quelques aspects hydro-biologiques OceanDocs
Romdhane, M.S.; Ben Said, R.; El Abed, A.; M'Rabet, R..
في هذه الدراسة تمت متابعة الطحلب الأحمر Gelidium spinosum على سواحل المنستير منذ سبتمبر 2000 إلى أوت 2001 و أبرزت النتائج المتحّصل عليها أن الوزن الأقصى تم تسجيله في ماي وهو حوالي 37غ أما الطول الأقصى (11 صم) فقد تم الحصول عليه في شهر جوان . و أما الكتلة الحيوية الأعلى فقد تم التحصل عليها في شهر ماي (حوالي 7 كغ/م2) . أما نسبة الخصوبة فتراوحت بين 0 و 100% . كل هذه النتائج بينت لنا أن الطحلب Gelidium spinosum هو نبتة معمرة لكن حضورها متميز أكثر في الربيع والصيف .
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Gelidiales Gelidium spinosum Rhodophyta; Biomass; Fertility; Length; Seaweeds; Weight; Biomass; Length; Fertility; Seaweeds; Weight; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_926; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_4260; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_2862; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_14154; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_8349.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/4285
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Les consequences de l'echouement de l'Amoco Cadiz" sur les peuplements algaux exploitables ArchiMer
Kaas, Raymond.
Introduction. The amount of hydrocarbons dumped into the sea is currently estimated at 6 to 16 million tons per year. This pollution comes from various sources: Chronic discharges associated with human activity such as oil tanker deballasting or discharges from coastal petroleum processing facilities; natural chronic discharges; accidental discharges like leaks coming from drilling well heads or oil tanker accidents. Natural spills happen, in general, in a relatively unobtrusive way and their effects are quickly diminished by significant dilution and rapid degradation of the various components. Oil spills, however, are characterised by a massive and occasional supply of hydrocarbons. The "Amoco Cadiz" shipwreck fits in with this last case and has seemed...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Seaweeds; Pollution Effects; Marine Pollution; Oil Spill.
Ano: 1980 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1980/publication-1950.pdf
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Macroalgas de la plataforma insular cubana como fuente de extractos bioactivos. OceanDocs
Valdés-Iglesias, O.; Díaz, N.; Cabranes, Y.; Acevedo, M.E.; Areces, A.J.; Graña, L.; Díaz, C..
Cuarenta y cinco especies de algas marinas cubanas colectadas en 2 macrozonas en las costas norte y sur del archipiélago cubano, fueron evaluadas a partir de la preparación de 63 extractos con relación a su toxicidad frente al ensayo alternativo con nauplios de Artemia salina (Mitchael et al, 1956) y la prueba de intercalante de ADN (Miravet et al, 1989). Del total de extractos resultaron muy tóxicos el 33.8 % y moderadamente tóxicos el 52,3 %. El resto resultó no tóxico. De ellos respondieron positivamente a la prueba de intercalantes del ADN, sólo 11 extractos, fundamentalmente los extractos etanólicos, posibles candidatos para ser evaluados como antitumorales. La composición química de los extractos crudos fue analizada con referencia al contenido de...
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Seaweeds; Seaweeds; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_14154.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/2918
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Mise en place d'une base de données informatisée sur les macroalgues de Tunisie OceanDocs
Langar, H.; Ktari, L..
TunAlgoBase is a computerized database aiming to list tunisian macroalgae and store at the same place different species information such as taxonomy, biology, ecology, geographical distribution and potential use. Geographical distribution data are most complet for the 414 species in the database. The other headings such as taxonomy, biology, ecology,... are in continual enhancement and completed for some species.
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Biodiversity; Data collections; Seaweeds; Check lists; Biological data; Geographical distribution; Algae; Geographical distribution; Biodiversity; Seaweeds; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_5083; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_33949; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_14154.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/1170
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Native species exploited by marine aquarium trade in Brazil Biota Neotropica
Gurjão,Lívio Moreira de; Lotufo,Tito Monteiro da Cruz.
Abstract: Brazil has an important role in marine ornamental trade, exploiting native species for both international and domestic market. A few works have previously assessed wild species exploited by the Brazilian marine aquarium industry and most of them focused solely on fish. Hence, the present paper intends to address an information gap regarding the species currently traded in the country, as well as concerning their conservation statuses. Thus, different sources of information were investigated and each species was categorized in accordance with existing lists of threatened species. A wide variety of native species was identified in Brazilian marine aquarium trade, including not only fish but also invertebrates, seaweeds and macrophytes. Some of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Marine aquarium fish; Marine invertebrates; Seaweeds; Marine macrophytes; Illegal trade; Threatened species.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1676-06032018000300209
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Notas sobre las species del orden Gigartinales (Rhodophyceae) en la Costa Atlántica de Colombia. OceanDocs
Schnetter, R.; Schnetter, M.L..
Se informa sobre la presencia de unas especies de los géneros Agardhiella, Gigartina, Gracilaria, Gymnogongrus y Hypnea en las regiones de Santa Marta, Puerto Colombia y Cartagena. (Costa Atlántica de Colombia). Algunas de las especies mencionadas (Gigartina acicularis [Wulfen] Lamouroux, Gracilaria sjoestedtii Kylin, Gymnogongrus tenuis [J. Agardh] J. Agardh) no eran conocidas en la literatura como crecientes en la región examinada.
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Seaweeds; Seaweeds; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_14154.
Ano: 1967 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/3278
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Organic micropollutants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides) in seaweeds of the lagoon of Venice ArchiMer
Pavoni, B; Caliceti, M; Sperni, L; Sfriso, A.
Samples of seven genera of seaweeds (Ulva, Gracilaria, Porphyra, Grateloupia, Undaria, Fucus and Cystoseira), which can be used as environmental biomonitors and in several applications like human alimentation, animal feeding and cosmetics, were collected in four sampling sites in the Lagoon of Venice in spring and autumn 1999 with the aim of determining the contamination due to organic micropollutants (polychlorinated biphenyls. PCBs; chlorinated pesticides; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs). On an average, most of the considered species were contaminated especially by PAHs (up to 56 ng g(-1) dry wt. (dw)) whereas concentrations of PCBs and pesticides in macroalgal tissues were significantly correlated and did not exceed 5 ng g-1 dw. Among the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Macro-algues; Lagune de Venise; HAP; PCB; Pesticides; Seaweeds; Venice Lagoon; PAHs; PCBs; Pesticides.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00321/43250/42981.pdf
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Posidonia Oceanica meadows along the eastern coast of Tunisia: feature and health status OceanDocs
Sghaier, Y.R.; Zakhama-Sraieb, R.; Charfi Cheikhrouha, F..
La structure, la phénologie et la croissance des faisceaux des herbiers à Posidonia oceanica ont été étudiées dans quatre sites au niveau du centre Est de la Tunisie (Hergla, El Kantaoui, Monastir et Mahdia). La densité des faisceaux, le recouvrement et les paramètres phénologiques présentent une différence significative entre les sites et les profondeurs en relation avec l’intensité des activités humaines. Les herbiers les plus denses (441 à 984 faisceaux m-²) et les indices foliaires les plus élevés (8,5 à 13m2 m-²)) ont été enregistrés à Mahdia. Le nombre moyen des feuilles produites annuellement ne montre pas de différence significative entre les sites et les profondeurs étudiées. La croissance du rhizome de Posidonia oceanica est considérablement plus...
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Seagrass; Seaweeds.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/4738
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Première signalisation de "Caulerpa taxifolia" (vahl) j . Agardh en Tunisie OceanDocs
Langar, H.; Djellouli, A.; Ben Mustapha, K.; El Abed, A..
Depuis sa parution en Méditerranée nord occidentale en 1984, l’algue verte d’origine tropicale Caulerpa taxifolia n’a pas cessé de progresser le long du littoral septentrional de la Méditerranée. Le présent travail signale pour la première fois la présence de cette algue sur le littoral oriental de la Méditerranée et plus précisément dans la rade de Sousse (Tunisie), en face du port, par 17 mètres de profondeur. L’arrivée de Caulerpa taxifolia à Sousse, n’est certainement pas le résultat d’une progression naturelle à partir d’anciennes station, l’hypothèse la plus probable expliquant son existence dans la rade serait son introduction liée à un transport de boutures par des embarcations ayant auparavant jeté l’encre dans des zones déjà envahies par l’espèce.
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: New records; Algae; Geographical distribution; Seaweeds; Caulerpa taxifolia; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_49499.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/4289
Registros recuperados: 27
Primeira ... 12 ... Última
 

Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária - Embrapa
Todos os direitos reservados, conforme Lei n° 9.610
Política de Privacidade
Área restrita

Embrapa
Parque Estação Biológica - PqEB s/n°
Brasília, DF - Brasil - CEP 70770-901
Fone: (61) 3448-4433 - Fax: (61) 3448-4890 / 3448-4891 SAC: https://www.embrapa.br/fale-conosco

Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional