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Registros recuperados: 8
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AN OPTION PERSPECTIVE ON GENERATING AND MAINTAINING PLANT VARIETY RIGHTS IN CHINA AgEcon
Koo, Bonwoo; Pardey, Philip G.; Qian, Keming; Zhang, Yi.
Notwithstanding the ambiguous research and productivity promoting effects of plant variety protections (PVPs), even in developed countries, many developing countries have adopted PVPs in the past few years, in part to comply with their Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) obligations. Seeking and maintaining PVPs reserves options to an expected revenue stream from the future sale of protected varieties, the value of which varies for a host of reasons. In this paper we empirically examine the pattern of plant variety protection applications in China since its PVP laws were first introduced in 1997. We place those PVP rights in the context of China's present and likely future seed markets to identify the economic incentives and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Crop improvement; Option value; Seed markets; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/13779
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Effects of Bt Cotton in India During the First Five Years of Adoption AgEcon
Sadashivappa, Prakash; Qaim, Matin.
While previous research has analyzed the impacts of Bt cotton in India, most available studies are based on one or two years of data only. We analyze the technology’s performance over the first five years of adoption, using panel data with three rounds of observations. On average, Bt adopting farmers realize pesticide reductions of about 40%, and yield advantages of 30-40%. Profit gains are in a magnitude of US $60 per acre. These benefits have been sustainable over time. Farmers’ satisfaction is reflected in a high willingness to pay for Bt seeds. Nonetheless, in 2006 Indian state governments decided to establish price caps at levels much lower than what companies had charged before. This intervention has further increased farmers’ profits, but the impact...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Bt cotton; Genetically modified crops; Farm survey; India; Seed markets; Technology adoption; Willingness to pay (WTP); Environmental Economics and Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O32; O33; Q16; Q55; Q58.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49947
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Farmer Willingness to Pay for Seed-Related Information: Rice Varieties in Nigeria and Benin AgEcon
Horna, J. Daniela; Smale, Melinda; von Oppen, Matthias.
A typical private good is defined by its excludability and rivalry characteristics. Information embodied in a technology might not generate rivalry among its users. By contrast, excludability is certainly a characteristic of this kind of information and its delivery can generate incentives for private participation. This study examines farmers’ preferences for seed of new rice varieties and their willingness to pay for seed-related information in villages of Nigeria and Benin. Conjoint analysis is used to estimate the structure of farmers’ preferences for rice seed given a set of alternatives. Farmers are considered to be consumers of seed as a production input, preferring one variety over another based on the utility they obtain from its attributes, which...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Seed-related information; Conjoint analysis; Rice attributes; Farmers’ preferences; Technology; Seed markets; Willingness to pay (WTP); Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58587
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Local seed systems for millet crops in marginal environments of India: industry and policy perspectives AgEcon
Nagarajan, Latha; Pardey, Philip G.; Smale, Melinda.
Changes in India’s seed regulations during the 1990s favored the growth of privately- as compared to publicly-funded sectors. Most advances have been made in the major millet crops, sorghum and pearl millet, as compared to finger millet and other minor millet crops, which in many ways dependent on local markets for seed purposes. In this study, we have analyzed the evolving interactions between formal systems related to the delivery of modern varieties and informal systems for maintaining traditional seeds in the semi-arid regions of India. It is evident that in these marginal environments, crop and variety use decisions, and the crop biodiversity levels take place within the context of local seed markets and a national seed industry. The outcome of the...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Seed systems; Seed industry and trade; Seed markets; Biodiversity; Local markets; Formal seed sector; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55420
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Policies to Promote Cereal Intensification in Ethiopia: A Review of Evidence and Experience AgEcon
Byerlee, Derek R.; Spielman, David J.; Alemu, Dawit; Gautam, Madhur.
Despite more than a decade of policies placing high priority on cereal intensification, backed by one of the highest rates of public expenditures on agricultural in Africa, Ethiopia has yet to see payoffs in terms of higher and more stable cereal yields, reduced dependency on food aid, improved food security, and lower consumer prices for staples. There is understandable concern about the performance, efficiency and sustainability of the agricultural sector, specifically in terms of the current systems for providing extension services, improved seed, fertilizer, and credit. This paper aims to illuminate possible solutions available to improving the prospects for cereal intensification in Ethiopia. The paper traces the largely state-led policies that have...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural development; Agricultural extension; Fertilizer; Seed markets; Ethiopia; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42406
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The Economics of Generating and Maintaining Plant Variety Rights in China AgEcon
Koo, Bonwoo; Pardey, Philip G.; Qian, Keming; Zhang, Yi.
Notwithstanding the ambiguous research and productivity promoting effects of plant variety protections (PVPs), even in developed countries, many developing countries have adopted PVPs in the past few years to comply with their Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) obligations. Seeking and maintaining PVPs reserves options to an expected revenue stream from the future sale of protected varieties, the value of which varies for a host of reasons. In this paper we empirically examine the pattern of plant variety protection applications in China since its PVP laws were first introduced in 1997. We place those PVP rights in the context of China’s present and likely future seed markets to identify the economic incentives and institutional...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Crop improvement; Option value; Seed markets; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q16; Q18; O32; O34.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57908
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THE SEED INDUSTRY IN U.S. AGRICULTURE: AN EXPLORATION OF DATA AND INFORMATION ON CROP SEED MARKETS, REGULATION, INDUSTRY STRUCTURE, AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AgEcon
Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge.
The unprecedented growth in crop yields and agricultural total factor productivity over the past 70 years owes much to a series of biological innovations embodied in seeds, beginning with the development of hybrid crops in the United States in the early part of the 20th century, continuing with the adoption of high-yielding varieties during the Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, and more recently, modern biotechnology. Throughout this period, the seed industry evolved, as small businesses gave way to larger enterprises that integrated plant breeding, production, conditioning, and marketing functions. The industry was further shaped by widespread mergers and acquisitions in the latter part of the century, rapid growth - in private research and...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Seed markets; Seed costs and prices; Regulation; Plant breeding; Field crops; Research and development; Industry concentration; Biotechnology; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33671
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Trading Millet and Sorghum Genetic Resources: Women Vendors in the Village Fairs of San and Douentza, Mali AgEcon
Smale, Melinda; Diakite, Lamissa; Dembele, Brahima; Traore, Issa Seni; Guindo, Oumar; Konta, Bourema.
In Mali, liberalization of seed markets for sorghum and millet, the staple food crops, has not advanced at the same rate or with the same measurable success as liberalization of grain markets. Most seed of these crops is uncertified and continues to be supplied to farmers by farmers, according to clan and ethno-linguistic group. After poor harvests or when replanting after a dry spell, farmers rely on local markets for grain as sources of seed. This paper summarizes the findings of a vendor survey conducted in two marketsheds during weekly fairs. No certified seed is sold. Almost all vendors are women who are also farmers. Variety integrity is maintained particularly for millet seed in the marketshed of the Sahelian zone, where the range of variety...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural development; Informal sector; Seed markets; Traders; Landraces; Millet; Sorghum; Women; Mali; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42352
Registros recuperados: 8
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