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A Reappraisal of the Role of Agriculture in Economic Growth in Melanesian Countries AgEcon
Fleming, Euan M.; Fleming, Pauline.
Fortunes in the agricultural sectors of four of the largest South Pacific countries are traced in recent decades by estimating the single factoral terms of trade index. The single factoral terms of trade are measured for agriculture in four Melanesian countries-Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu-over the period, 1970 to 2002. This index provides a useful method to assess changes in returns to factors employed in agricultural production in these countries. Except in Solomon Islands, farmers experienced a deteriorating index, indicating that they have reaped progressively lower returns to their resources. In Solomon Islands, returns to resources are shown to have increased slightly. A sustained contribution by the agricultural sector to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Factoral terms of trade; Melanesia; Smallholders; Total factor productivity; International Development; D24; O12; O47; Q17.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25715
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Adoption of Transgenic Crops by Smallholder Farmers in Entre Rios, Argentina AgEcon
Paredes, Cecilia; Martin, Marshall A..
This is a study of the adoption of transgenic crops by 120 smallholder farmers interviewed in July 2005 in the communities of San Jose de Feliciano and La Paz in the Entre Rios Province of Argentina. Logistic regression results indicate that access to a planter is essential for smallholders to adopt Bt corn, while adopters of Roundup Ready™ soybeans have larger farms, access to credit, availability of all essential machinery, more years of schooling, and are primarily located in the La Paz community.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Transgenic crops; Technology adoption; Bt corn; Roundup Ready™ soybeans; Biotechnology; Argentina; Smallholders; Farm Management; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9996
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An Analysis of Scope Economies and Specialisation Efficiencies Among Thai Shrimp and Rice Smallholders AgEcon
Mekhora, Thamrong; Fleming, Euan M..
Smallholders increasingly combine shrimp culture with the more traditional rice enterprise in regions of Thailand suitable for raising shrimps. They can exploit cost complementarities in production by combining activities in these enterprises within their farming systems. At the same time, it makes them more susceptible to on-farm negative externalities between rice and shrimp production, in both directions, causing scope diseconomies. A stochastic input distance model is estimated using data on shrimp and rice production by 52 smallholder households. Results from the estimated model are used to establish whether scope economies or diseconomies exist and whether specialisation in either shrimp or rice production significantly influences technical...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Scope economies; Specialisation efficiencies; Input distance function; Thailand; Smallholders; Technical efficiency; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12914
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AS INOVAÇÔES TÉCNICAS NA TRANSIÇÂO AGROECOLÒGICA: O CASO DA ASSOCIAÇÂO DOS AGRICULTORES ECOLOGISTAS DE IPÊ E ANTÔNIO PRADO (AECIA) AgEcon
Moura, Luciane D. De; Diesel, Vivien.
A questão da constituição de uma estratégia adequada para a promoção da inovação constitui um dos elementos-chave para os atores sociais comprometidos com os processos de transição agroecológica. Embora do ponto de vista propositivo encontrem-se referências relativamente consolidadas, há pouco conhecimento sobre a configuração que assume o sistema de informação e conhecimento local que sustenta a transição agroecológica em experiências concretas. Nesse sentido, o presente trabalho propõe-se a investigar esta problemática no âmbito de atuação da Associação de Agricultores Ecologistas de Ipê e Antônio Prado (AECIA), no RS, recorrendo a consulta à documentos e outros estudos, observação participante e entrevistas à agentes de ongs e agricultores. Os...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultura sustentável; Agricultura familiar; Inovações; Experimentação participativa; Sustainable agriculture; Smallholders; Innovations; Participatory research; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/107927
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Breeding objectives and economic values for traits of low input family-based beef cattle production system in the State of Rio Grande do Sul R. Bras. Zootec.
Laske,Carlos Henrique; Teixeira,Bruno Borges Machado; Dionello,Nelson José Laurino; Cardoso,Fernando Flores.
The objectives of this study were to define breeding objectives and derive economic weights for production traits in family-based beef cattle systems, assess the sensitivity of these weights to changes in market and husbandry indicators and estimate the expected genetic changes in the selection criteria proposed. Based on data from the production systems, farms revenues and expenses, obtained from interviews and meetings with producers, a bioeconomic model was derived, relating biological traits of animals with the financial result of the production system based on calf-crop, selling male calves and culling cows for finishing. Traits considered in the model as breeding goals were weaning rate, weaning weight and cow weight. The economic weights, obtained...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Beef cattle; Breeding objectives; Economic weights; Selection; Smallholders.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000200010
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Commercialization of Smallholders: Is Market Participation Enough? AgEcon
Gebremedhin, Berhanu; Jaleta, Moti.
The literature on commercial transformation of smallholders makes little distinction between market orientation (production decision based on market signals) and market participation (sale of output). However, policy implications to enhance commercial transformation of subsistence agriculture drawn from the analysis of the determinants of household market participation alone could be inadequate, if in fact, the determinants of market orientation and market participation are not the same or not consistent with each other. This paper analyzes the determinants of market orientation and market participation in Ethiopia separately and examines if market orientation translates into market participation. Empirical results show that the determinants of market...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Commercialization; Smallholders; Market orientation; Market participation; Marketing; C21; C24; Q12; Q13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96159
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Contract Farming in China: Perspectives of Smallholders AgEcon
Guo, Hongdong; Jolly, Robert W..
This paper explores the current status of contract farming in China by examining data from a survey of Chinese householders. The survey indicates that the actual proportion of householders engaged in contract farming is relatively low and significantly less than the proportion of householders willing to produce under contract. The primary reason for householders not participating in contract farming is the absence of opportunities, particularly for small size farms. Householders identify price stability and market access as the key motivations to participate in contract farming. Middleman and agribusiness firms were the most important organizations for householders to contract with.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Contract farming; China; Smallholders; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management; Industrial Organization; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Public Economics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50105
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Crop-Specific EU Aid and Smallholder Food Security in Sierra Leone JARTS
Saravia-Matus, Silvia L.; Gomez y Paloma, Sergio; Mary, Sebastien.
The article analyses the viability of promoting crop-specific programs as a mean to improve smallholder net farm income and food security. The case study explores the relevance of European Union Stabilisation of Export Earnings (STABEX) funds in supporting Sierra Leone’s agricultural development agenda. By analysing the drivers of food security for a number of targeted smallholders in the two most important agricultural zones of Sierra Leone, it is possible to compare the suitability of crop-specific support (in rice, cocoa and coffee) versus general aid programs (public infrastructure, on and off farm diversification opportunities, sustainable practices, access to productive assets, etc.). The results indicate that crop diversification strategies are...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultultural economics EU aid policy; Food security; Smallholders; Sierra Leone; Crop specialisation; Crop diversification.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.jarts.info/index.php/jarts/article/view/2016100451027
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Development domains for Ethiopia: capturing the geographical context of smallholder development options AgEcon
Chamberlin, Jordan; Pender, John L.; Yu, Bingxin.
The choices that smallholder farmers are able to make are strongly conditioned by the geographic conditions in which they live. The importance of this fact for rural development strategy is not lost on policy makers. For example, the government of Ethiopia frequently frames policy discussions by broadly different geographical conditions of moisture availability, recognizing moisture reliable, drought prone and pastoralist areas. These conditions are seen as important criteria for determining the nature, extent and priority of development interventions for different parts of the country. There is considerable evidence, however, that other geographical factors also have important implications for rural development options. This paper uses agroecology, access...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Smallholders; Small farmers; Geographic conditions; Rural development strategies; Development policy; Agro-ecology; Market access; Livelihoods; Population density; International Development.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55410
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Diversification in Indian Agriculture towards High-Value Crops: The Role of Smallholders AgEcon
Birthal, Pratap Singh; Joshi, P.K.; Roy, Devesh; Thorat, Amit.
Agricultural diversification towards high-value crops can potentially increase farm incomes, especially in a country like India where demand for high-value food products has been increasing more quickly than that for staple crops. Indian agriculture is overwhelmingly dominated by smallholders, and researchers have long debated the ability of a smallholder-dominated subsistence farm economy to diversify into riskier high-value crops. Here, we present evidence that the gradual diversification of Indian agriculture towards high-value crops exhibits a pro-smallholder bias, with smallholders playing a proportionally larger role in the cultivation of vegetables versus fruits. The observed patterns are consistent with simple comparative advantage-based production...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Diversification; Smallholders; High-value agriculture; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42372
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Does Land Use Patterns Matter for Bt-Maize: The Case of Maize Farming System in Kenya AgEcon
Muhammad, Lutta; Owuor, George; De Groote, Hugo; Kimenju, Simon Chege.
Population pressures and the need to optimize the use of limited available land has led to increasing cropping affluence levels within the maize agro-ecologies in Kenya, and a shift from large to smallholder intensification and multiple cropping patterns. Using a geographic information system, this study relates cropping patterns, by area share, maize productivity and household incomes across maize agro-ecologies, with the purpose to establish a decision support system for optimizing land allocation and in priority setting for introduction of new technologies such as Bt maize varieties. Results show that land use patterns and maize productivity in maize farming systems differ between agroecological zones. The high potential areas experience high maize...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land use; Smallholders; Maize production; Food security; Kenya; Crop Production/Industries; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25609
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Farmers' Taxonomies as a Participatory Diagnostic Tool: Soil Fertility Management in Chihota, Zimbabwe AgEcon
Bellon, Mauricio R.; Gambara, Peter; Gatsi, Tendai; MacHemedze, Timothy E.; Maminimini, Obert; Waddington, Stephen R..
Soil infertility is a major constraint to food production in the communal areas of Zimbabwe. Smallholders in the region recognize the problems of low soil fertility and have devised ways of coping with them. This study describes the use of farmers’ taxonomies of themselves and their soils to identify and understand the options they have, and the constraints they face in managing poor soil fertility in Chihota, a sub-humid communal area of north central Zimbabwe. It is part of an effort by a group of agricultural researchers and extensionists working on improved soil fertility technologies, to better integrate their work with farmers in order to expose the latter to promising technologies, get feedback on the technologies merits and feasibility, and help...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Participatory methods; Soil fertility; Local taxonomies; Smallholders; Zimbabwe; Farm Management; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7677
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Food Safety Requirements in African Green Bean Exports and Their Impact on Small Farmers AgEcon
Okello, Julius Juma; Narrod, Clare A.; Roy, Devesh.
Many African countries have moved into the production of non-traditional agricultural products, in an effort to diversify their exports and increase foreign currency earnings. However, in order to access developed country markets and urban domestic markets, these products must meet food safety requirements, including protocols relating to pesticide residues, field and pack house operations, and traceability. Faced with stringent food safety requirements, companies that establish production centers in low-income countries might exclude poor farmers, thus negatively impacting the poor. We herein study this issue in the case of the green bean export sectors in three African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia. In the short-term, stringent food safety...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International food safety standards; Smallholders; Supply chains; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42362
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Horizontal coordination and free-riding in a group of certified organic crop growers: An empirical study of the Ezemvelo Farmers’ Organization in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa AgEcon
Gadzikwa, Lawrence; Lyne, Michael C.; Hendriks, Sheryl L..
This study investigated the prevalence and determinants of free-riding in the Ezemvelo Farmers’ Organization (EFO), a group of certified organic crop growers in South Africa, using data gathered in a census survey of its 151 partially and fully certified members. The computed free-riding index scores suggested that free-riding posed a serious threat to the group’s collective marketing efforts. Regression analysis showed that members who were male, poorly educated, aware of loopholes in the grading system, and who did not trust the buyer, were more likely to free-ride. In the longer term, the EFO should address institutionalized free-riding by issuing tradable ownership rights. In the short term, it must engage with the packhouse (buyer) to remove flaws in...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Smallholders; Organic crops; Collective marketing; Free-riding; Crop Production/Industries; Industrial Organization.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57014
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Jatropha cultivation in Malawi and Mozambique: impact on ecosystem services, local human well-being, and poverty alleviation Ecology and Society
von Maltitz, Graham P.; CSIR, South Africa; Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa; gvmalt@csir.co.za; Gasparatos, Alexandros; Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science (IR3S), University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; gasparatos@ir3s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Fabricius, Christo; Sustainability Research Unit, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa; christo.fabricius@nmmu.ac.za; Morris, Abbie; Independent development practitioner, Malawi; Chittock.abbie@gmail.com; Willis, Kathy J.; Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK; Royal Botanical Gardens Kew, UK; kathy.willis@zoo.ox.ac.uk.
Jatropha-based biofuels have undergone a rapid boom-and-bust cycle in southern Africa. Despite strong initial support by governments, donors, and the private sector, there is a lack of empirical studies that compare the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of Jatropha’s two dominant modes of production: large plantations and smallholder-based projects. We apply a rapid ecosystem services assessment approach to understand the impact of two Jatropha projects that are still operational despite widespread project collapse across southern Africa: a smallholder-based project (BERL, Malawi) and a large plantation (Niqel, Mozambique). Our study focuses on changes in provisioning ecosystem services such as biofuel feedstock, food, and woodland products...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Ecosystem services; Jatropha; Malawi; Mozambique; Smallholders.
Ano: 2016
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Jatropha in Mexico: Environmental and Social Impacts of an Incipient Biofuel Program Ecology and Society
Skutsch, Margaret; Centro de Investigaciones en Geografia Ambiental, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico; mskutsch@ciga.unam.mx; de los Rios, Emilio; REMBIO, Mexico; emiliodelos@gmail.com; Solis, Silvia; Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico; solis.sm@gmail.com; Riegelhaupt, Enrique; REMBIO, Mexico; riegelya@yahoo.com; Hinojosa, Daniel; Centro de Investigaciones en Geografia Ambiental, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico; idhinojosaf@gmail.com; Gerfert, Sonya; University of Twente, the Netherlands; s.gerfert@student.utwente.nl; Gao, Yan; Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico; yangao98@gmail.com; Masera, Omar; Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico; omasera@gmail.com.
Three case studies from Mexico are presented in which the impacts of the recent introduction of jatropha cultivation for biodiesel production are examined. In Chiapas and Michoacan, local social and environmental impacts were assessed using interviews with key informants and questionnaires directed at three groups of stakeholders: jatropha cultivators, farmers in the same areas who are not cultivating jatropha, and laborers on jatropha farms. Results show that the farmers are primarily motivated to participate by the subsidies offered in a government program in the first 2 years, rather than any proven economic benefit. Our farm budget study indicated that profits would be marginal for these farmers. However, no cases of land alienation were involved, and...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Biodiesel; Carbon balance; Estates; Smallholders; Sustainability.
Ano: 2011
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Localizing Demand and Supply of Environmental Services: Interactions With Property Rights, Collective Action and the Welfare of the Poor AgEcon
Swallow, Brent M.; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; van Noordwijk, Meine.
Payments for environmental services (PES) are increasingly discussed as appropriate mechanisms for matching the demand for environmental services with the incentives of land users whose actions modify the supply of those environmental services. While there has been considerable discussion of the institutional mechanisms for PES, relatively little attention has been given to the inter-relationships between PES institutions and other rural institutions. This paper presents and builds upon the proposition that both the function and welfare effects of PES institutions depend crucially on the co-institutions of collective action (CA) and property rights (PR). Experience from around the developing world has shown that smallholder land users can be efficient...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Payment for environmental services; Poverty reduction; Collective action; Property rights; Rural institutions; Smallholders; Welfare effects; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42488
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Market outlet choices in the context of changing demand for fresh meat: implications for smallholder inclusion in pork supply chain in Vietnam AgEcon
Lapar, Ma. Lucila A.; Toan, Nguyen Ngoc; Que, Nguyen Ngoc; Jabbar, Mohammad A.; Tisdell, Clement A.; Staal, Steven J..
This paper reports on the findings of a study to investigate market outlet choice decision-making of urban consumers in Vietnam with regards to fresh pork purchases and generate empirical evidence on factors that influence these choices. Data from a survey of 600 consumers in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City was used to estimate a multinomial logit model of market outlet choice based on three alternatives: traditional temporary market outlets, permanent open markets, and modern retail outlets. Results suggest that market outlet choice by consumers of fresh pork in urban cities of Vietnam is conditioned by factors related to mobility and level of affluence, time budgets, concerns about food safety and hygiene, proximity to market outlets, and geographical...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Market outlet choice; Pork supply chain; Smallholders; Vietnam; Agricultural and Food Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Livestock Production/Industries; Marketing; D01; C25.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51437
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Non-Traditional Export Crops and Household Livelihood Strategies: Panel Data Evidence from Guatemala AgEcon
Kilic, Talip; Carletto, Calogero.
This study uses a unique panel dataset that spans a 20-year period (1985-2005), and estimates the effect of household non-traditional agricultural export (NTX) adoption on changes in livelihood orientation and participation in non-farm employment in Santiago Sacatepéquez municipality of Guatemala. Given the heterogeneity in adoption patterns, it provides differential impact estimates based on a classification of households that takes into account the timing and duration of NTX adoption. Our findings suggest that over time, household reliance on off-farm income and access to non-farm employment, particularly self-employment and blue collar work, increased in the surveyed communities, irrespective of snow pea adoption. However, the extent of change varied...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Smallholders; Non-Traditional Export Crops; Long-Term Livelihood Changes; Consumer/Household Economics; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52838
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Non-Traditional Export Crops in Guatemala: Short-Term Tool or Long-Term Strategy for Poverty Alleviation? AgEcon
Carletto, Calogero; Kilic, Talip; Kirk, Angeli.
This study is the first to document the long-term welfare effects of household non-traditional agricultural export (NTX) adoption. We use a unique panel dataset, which spans the period of 1985-2005, and employ difference-in-differences estimation to investigate the long-term impact of NTX adoption on changes in household consumption status and asset position in Santiago Sacatepéquez municipality of Guatemala. Given the heterogeneity in adoption patterns, we differentiate the impact estimates based on a classification of households that takes into account the timing and duration of NTX adoption. Our results show that while, on average, welfare levels have improved for all households irrespective of adoption status and duration, the extent of improvement...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Smallholders; Non-Traditional Export Crops; Long-Term Welfare Effects; Consumer/Household Economics; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52866
Registros recuperados: 33
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