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A fajtacsoport szerepe az alföldi juhászatok eredményeiben AgEcon
Monori, Istvan.
A vizsgált juhászatok a hazai átlagtól eltérő fajtaösszetételűek és nagyobb nyájméretűek, de a nagyobb állományokhoz korszerűtlen technológia társul, ami korlátozza a potenciális hozamok elérését. A költségek szerkezetéből kitűnik, hogy a takarmányköltségek mellett a személyi jellegű költségek aránya igen magas a vizsgált gazdaságok állománykoncentrációja ellenére is, ami utal az évtizedek óta elavult tartástechnológiára is. A fajtacsoportonkénti bevételekben szembetűnő a tejelő juhászatok kimagasló teljesítménye, míg a húshasznú és keresztezett fajtáknál ez alig haladja meg a merinó fajtacsoportét. A méretcsoportok szerinti árbevétel a 300–600 anyajuh/nyáj méretű gazdaságokban jelentősen meghaladja a kisebb és nagyobb méretkategóriába tartozó juhászatok...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Juhászat; Technológia; Árbevétel; Támogatás; Sheep farming; Technology; Revenue; Subsidy; Livestock Production/Industries; Production Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99186
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A Real Options Framework for Analyzing Program Participation as Human Capital Investments: The Case of the Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE) Program AgEcon
Mitchell, Paul D.; Rejesus, Roderick M.; Coble, Keith H.; Knight, Thomas O..
We develop a real options framework to model producer participation in a subsidy program as a human capital investment to learn how the stochastic subsidy affects returns and how to adapt production activities to new program incentives, formally linking the framework to a multinomial logit specification for empirical applications. Analysis of farmer intentions for participation in the ACRE program created by the 2008 Farm Bill finds that reluctance to participate was driven largely by risk aversion and perceptions about income risk from yield and price variability, consistent with the theory that uncertainty creates an option value discouraging human capital investments.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural Policy; Commodity Programs; Farm Bill; Multinomial Logit; Real Options Theory; Subsidy; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q12; Q18.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92896
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A Welfare Analysis of the U.S. Ethanol Subsidy AgEcon
Du, Xiaodong; Hayes, Dermot J.; Baker, Mindy L..
Based on a transparent analytical model of multiple markets including corn, ethanol, gasoline, and transportation fuel, this study estimates the welfare changes for consumers and producers resulting from ethanol production and related support polices in 2007. The welfare estimation takes into account the second-best gain from eliminating loan deficiency payments. The results suggest the total social cost is about $0.78 billion for given market parameters. We validate the model’s underlying assumption and test for the results’ sensitivity to assumed parameters.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Consumer surplus; Deadweight loss; Ethanol; Subsidy; Substitution.; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44538
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AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THOROUGHBRED BREEDER/OWNER INCENTIVE POLICIES AgEcon
Neibergs, J. Shannon; Thalheimer, Richard.
Thoroughbred incentive programs are subsidy policies funded from state parimutuel tax revenue designed to promote regional race horse breeding and ownership. At issue is an ongoing debate concerning the effectiveness of alternative policies. Empirical results indicate that incentive programs have a positive economic effect, but gains to Thoroughbred breeders can be obtained by reallocating tax revenue to non-restricted purses. A policy allocating tax revenue ton non-restricted purses shifts yearling demand and increases prices, while breeder subsidies shift only the supply function and therefore lower prices. Consequently, breeder revenues increase in response to a policy that favors non-restricted purses over subsidies.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Incentive programs; Parimutual horse racing; Subsidy; Tax; Thoroughbred; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15157
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An Evaluation of Canadian and U.S. Policies of Log and Lumber Markets AgEcon
Devadoss, Stephen.
The recent lumber trade war between Canada and the United States deals with Canadian stumpage policies, Canada’s log export controls, and U.S. retaliatory duty. This study determines the appropriate level of U.S. countervailing duty (CVD) by employing a vertically interrelated log–lumber model. The theoretical results show that the U.S. CVD can be greater (will be less) than the Canadian subsidy for a vertically related log–lumbermarket (for lumber market only). Empirical results support the theoretical findings in that the U.S. CVD for the log–lumber market (lumber market alone) is 1.55 (0.91) times the Canadian subsidy.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Countervailing duty; Dispute; Log; Lumber; Subsidy; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; F13.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45517
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An on-line advisor for sizing and economic analysis of anaerobic digestion plants CIGR Journal
Busato, Patrizia; Berruto, Remigio; Sopegno, Alessandro; Cornelissen, Renè.
A web-based service was deployed to appropriately size bio-gas plant capacity and perform its economic viability and return on investment based on biomass availability.  The tool is based on accepted biogas plant engineering design practice, incorporating the effects of incentives resulting from energy policies for member nations of the European Union participating in the Bioenergy Farm IEE and EU funded project.  The service provides a comprehensive database that allows consultants and farmers to analyze anaerobic digestion systems at different levels of granularity.  It also included multilingual support.  An adoption program was conducted to increase awareness on the availability of the service and ensure appropriate use and interpretation of its...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering; Information Technology Biogas; Bioenergy; Feasibility; Viability; Subsidy; Web application; Free.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2714
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Assessing the Market for Poultry Litter in Georgia: Are Subsidies Needed to Protect Water Quality? AgEcon
Mullen, Jeffrey D.; Bekchanov, Ulugbek; Karali, Berna; Kissel, David; Risse, Mark L.; Rowles, Kristin; Collier, Sam.
Concerns about nutrient loads into our waters have focused attention on poultry litter applications. Like many states with a large poultry industry, Georgia recently designed a subsidy program to facilitate the transportation of poultry litter out of vulnerable watersheds. This paper uses a transportation model to examine the necessity of a poultry litter subsidy to achieve water protection goals in Georgia. We also demonstrate the relationship between diesel and synthetic fertilizer prices and the value of poultry litter. Results suggest that a well functioning market would be able to remove excess litter from vulnerable watersheds in the absence of a subsidy.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Fertilizer; Phosphorous; Poultry litter; Subsidy; Transportation model; Water quality; Environmental Economics and Policy; Marketing; Q12; Q13; Q25; Q53.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117948
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Az EU-s támogatások és a tagállamok közigazgatásának kapcsolata AgEcon
Toth, Tamas; Naar-Toth, Zsuzsanna.
Az Európai Unió regionális politikájának intézményi háttere jogszabályokban került lefektetésre. Az intézményrendszer felállítása és működtetése az EU-tárgyalásoknak is kiemelt témája volt. A megkövetelt végrehajtási rendszer minden tagállamban – akár régi, akár újonnan csatlakozott – a meglévő közigazgatási rendszerre épült. Ugyanakkor nem lényegtelen, hogy míg az ún. régi tagállamok, és ezért maga az EU-szabályozás is már az elmúlt 25-35 évben a „New Public Management” eszméjében élt és fejlődött, addig az újonnan csatlakozók még az ezredfordulón is inkább egy bürokratikus közigazgatást működtettek, és kevésbé volt jelen a szolgáltatói szemlélet, illetve eredményorientáció. Annak ellenére, hogy az új tagállamok jelentős időnyomásra állították fel...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Támogatás; Közigazgatás; Forrásfelhasználás; Subsidy; Public administration; Utilisation of funds; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Development.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92510
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Carbon Emissions, Renewable Electricity and Profits: Comparing Alternative Policies to Promote Anaerobic Digesters on Dairies AgEcon
Key, Nigel D.; Sneeringer, Stacy E..
Biogas recovery systems that use methane from manure to generate electricity have not been widely adopted in U.S. mainly because the costs of constructing and maintaining these systems have exceeded the value of the benefits provided. Climate change mitigation and renewable energy policies could increase profits for the operators of such systems thereby making digester adoption more widespread. For the U.S. Dairy sector, we examine digester adoption rates, emissions reductions, net returns, electricity generation, and program costs under different policy scenarios. We find that 3% or fewer dairies would need to adopt digesters to meet the policy goals of reducing 25% of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy manure or generating one million megawatt hours...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Anaerobic digester; Methane; Dairy; Renewable electricity; Subsidy; Carbon offsets; Climate change; Environmental Economics and Policy; Livestock Production/Industries; Q5.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103440
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COMPARISON OF AGRICULTURAL FARM EFFICIENCY IN SLOVAK REGIONS BEFORE AND AFTER EU ACCESSION AgEcon
Sojkova, Z.; Kropkova, Z.; Kovae, S..
This paper presents results of stochastic parametric approach used in estimation of farm technical efficiency. The estimation of output oriented technical efficiency was based on Stochastic Frontier analysis with Cobb-Douglas production function. Model specification for empirical application were employed Battese and Coelli 1995 model specification, where technical inefficiency effects are explicitly expressed as a function of a vector of firm-specific variables and random error and integrated in the stochastic frontier model. Model also included dummy variable which expressed production conditions in which Slovak farms are operating. We divided farms into two groups of production conditions: productive regions (PR) and less favorable area (LFA) regions....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Less favorable area (LFA); Subsidy; Stochastic production frontier; Panel data; Output – oriented technical efficiency; Cobb-Douglas production function; Production Economics; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6462
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Competitiveness of dairy farms in three countries: the role of CAP subsidies AgEcon
Zhu, Xueqin; Demeter, Robert Milan; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M..
This paper investigates the impact of CAP subsidies on the competitiveness of dairy farms in Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Technical efficiency results show that coupled subsidies have negative impacts in Germany and the Netherlands, but no significant impacts in Sweden. Decoupled subsidies negatively affect technical efficiency in each country and to a larger extent than coupled subsidies. Relative productivity results indicate that Dutch technology leads to the highest output, followed by technologies in Germany and Sweden. Dutch farms can improve their competitiveness by exploring their current production potential. Besides improving efficiency, German and Swedish farms may have options to improve their production technology.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Technical efficiency; Output distance function; Dairy farm; Subsidy; Relative productivity; Agricultural and Food Policy; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44143
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DETERMINE THE KEY FACTORS OF THE AGRARIAN ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE 21TH CENTURY IN HUNGARY AgEcon
Czarl, Adrienn.
Economic growth is the top economic and political priority of world leaders. Countries with significant rate of development are higher ranked and serve as models for the developing countries and for the economies in transition. As an EU member, Hungary needs to close up the gap also in case of the agriculture. After analysing the period 1994-2004 the major factor among supports influencing growth is investment subsidies ahead of current flow supports such as Supports to reduce the cost of agricultural production. Irrespective of the alternating periods, the gradients established in the statistical analyses and the results from the study of elasticity along the period justify one of the basic tenets of modern economics: in order to achieve the bigger...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Economic growth; Agriculture; Influence; Subsidy; EU; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58901
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Economic Factors and Body Weight: An Empirical Analysis AgEcon
Schroeter, Christiane; Lusk, Jayson L..
With this study, we investigate the effects of changes in economic factors on body weight by constructing a utility theoretic model. The model is empirically estimated by combining data on individuals’ body weight, demographic and physical activity information, and statelevel measures pertaining to the prices of food away from home, food at home, and wages. By combining these data sources, we aim to estimate directly the weight effects of price and income changes. The empirical analysis suggests that decreasing the price of food at home could decrease body weight, a finding which has important public policy implications.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Body mass index; Body weight; Obesity; Subsidy; Tax; Agribusiness; Consumer/Household Economics; D11; D12; I18; H20; R22.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46991
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Efficiency Costs of Subsidy Rules for Crop Insurance AgEcon
Wang, H. Holly; Hanson, Steven D.; Black, J. Roy.
Participation in federal crop insurance programs has been encouraged through premium subsidies. The current subsidy depends on contract features as well as coverage levels. This type of subsidy rule causes farmers to choose contract designs and coverages that are not efficient for managing risk, in order to capture subsidy. Farmers are found to be as well off with a flat subsidy that is up to 25% less than the value of the current regressive proportional subsidy.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Crop insurance; Futures; Risk management; Subsidy; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30717
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Efficiency of a Biofuel Subsidy Policy in the Presence of Environmental Externalities AgEcon
Bayramoglu, Basak.
The object of this paper is to analyze, in a general equilibrium setting with four markets, the efficiency of a biofuel subsidy policy. The analysis takes into account environmental externalities associated both with the production and the consumption of biofuels, as well as associated with the production of agricultural raw material. Our preliminary numerical results, applied to the biodiesel subsidy policy in France, first show that this policy increases the utility of the representative consumer compared to the laissez-faire solution. The same policy action leads, however, to an increased level of agricultural and GHG emissions, in comparison with the laissez-faire solution.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Subsidy; Environment; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44399
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Em busca de um novo paradigma para o seguro rural no Brasil AgEcon
Ozaki, Vitor Augusto.
The implementation of a crop insurance program is an old requirement of the agricultural sector. After the failure of the National Crop Insurance Company (CNSA), in the period of 1954 through 1966, the federal government started to stimulate the agricultural insurance market. Aiming increase the crop insurance operations the Government approved Law n. 10.823 which subsidize part of the premium paid by farmers. The nature of this work is essentially analytical, such that any quantitative model has been established. Over the years, government risk management tools, such as, Proagro and some private insurance companies have had unsatisfactory financial results suggesting that the current crop insurance model presents signals of decline. This article shows the...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Crop insurance; Paradigm; Subsidy; Agribusiness; Q19.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61274
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Ethanol Trade between Brazil and the United States AgEcon
Devadoss, Stephen; Kuffel, Martin.
The United States has used tax credit and mandate to promote ethanol production. To offset the tax credit availed by the imported ethanol, the United States instituted an import tariff. This study ascertains the appropriate U.S. ethanol import tariff corresponding to the U.S. domestic policies by setting the policy-induced ethanol price equal to the free market price. The theoretical results from a horizontally-related ethanol-gasoline partial equilibrium model of three countries (the United States, Brazil, and the Rest of the World) show that the United States should provide an import subsidy rather than impose a tariff. The empirical results quantify that this import subsidy is $0.10, instead of a $0.57 import tariff, per gallon of ethanol.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Ethanol imports; Mandate; Subsidy; Tariff; Tax credit; International Relations/Trade; F13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60889
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Evaluation and Prospects of Policies for Less Favoured Areas in Japan AgEcon
Hashiguchi, Takuya.
Since 2000, ‘The System of Direct Payment of Subsidies to Farmers in Hilly and Mountainous Areas’ is in operation in Japan. The objective of this paper is to evaluate and survey Japan’s policy for less favoured areas. This system has two characteristics: ‘coverage subsidies for disadvantage’ and ‘subsidies for rural community activation’. Given these characteristics, the subsidy system can be evaluated to have exhibited high effectiveness. I have statistically analyzed the outcomes of this system. But I conclude that it does not have a promising future because subsidies are inadequate for maintaining household finances of farmers.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural Policy; Direct Payment; Less Favoured Areas; Subsidy; Japan; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Q18.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95302
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Farm Policies and Added Sugars in US Diets AgEcon
Beghin, John C.; Jensen, Helen H..
Major changes in the use of US sweeteners have occurred since 1970, in both the amount and composition. Increased consumption of caloric sweeteners, especially in beverages, has been linked to excess energy intake and lower-quality diets. We examine how US farm policies (specifically agricultural research and development [R&D] expenditures and commodity programs) have affected the consumption and composition of sweeteners in the US diet. R&D expenditures have lowered the unit cost of most commodities and increased their use in food production, ceteris paribus, although corn has benefited more than sugar crops in the technical progress. Commodity programs have raised the price of sugar and decreased the price of corn; high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Added sugar; Agricultural policy; Caloric; Corn; Diet; Farm policies; HFCS; Subsidy; Sugar; Sweetener; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Production Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6308
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Investment in irrigation technology: an application of real options analysis AgEcon
McClintock, Anthea.
Investment in irrigation infrastructure and technologies, particularly those that reduce on-farm water use have become a major focus of government programs both at a State and Commonwealth level. Particular attention has been given to increasing the uptake of water “saving” technologies among irrigators. The design of programs capable of achieving government objectives at least cost requires an understanding of farm level investment decisions. In this context, the influence of uncertainty on decisions to invest in irrigation technology and infrastructure is examined. The potential for uncertainty to influence investment decisions via strategies to manage risk is demonstrated using the method of real options valuation. The approach is applied to case...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Investment; Irrigation technology; Real options; Uncertainty; Subsidy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47934
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