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Registros recuperados: 18
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Allocation of CO2 Emissions Allowances in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade Program AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Kahn, Danny.
Cap-and-trade programs for air emissions have become the widely accepted, preferred approach to cost-effective pollution reduction. One of the important design questions in a trading program is how to initially distribute the emissions allowances. Under the Acid Rain program created by Title IV of the Clean Air Act, most emissions allowances were distributed to current emitters on the basis of a historic measure of electricity generation in an approach known as grandfathering. Recent proposals have suggested two alternative approaches: allocation according to a formula that is updated over time according to some performance metric in a recent year (the share of electricity generation or something else) and auctioning allowances to the highest bidders....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Allowance allocations; Electricity; Air pollution; Auction; Grandfathering; Generation performance standard; Output-based allocation; Cost-effectiveness; Greenhouse gases; Climate change; Global warming; Carbon dioxide; Sulfur dioxide; Nitrogen oxides; Mercury; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q25; Q4; L94.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10650
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Ancillary Benefits of Reduced Air Pollution in the United States from Moderate Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Policies in the Electricity Sector AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Krupnick, Alan J.; Palmer, Karen L.; Paul, Anthony; Toman, Michael; Bloyd, Cary.
This paper considers how moderate actions to slow atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel use also could reduce conventional air pollutants in the United States. The benefits that result would be "ancillary" to greenhouse gas abatement. Moreover, the benefits would tend to accrue locally and in the near term, while benefits from reduced climate change mostly accrue globally and over a time frame of several decades or longer. The previous literature suggests that changes in nitrogen oxides (NOx) would be the most important consequence of moderate carbon policies. We calculate these changes in a detailed electricity model linked to an integrated assessment framework to value changes in human health. A tax of $25 per metric ton of carbon...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate change; Greenhouse gas; Ancillary benefits; Air pollution; Co-control benefits; Nitrogen oxides; Sulfur dioxide; Carbon dioxide; Particulates; Health; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; I18; Q48.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10664
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Association of sulfur dioxide exposure with circulatory system deaths in a medium-sized city in Brazil BJMBR
Amancio,C.T.; Nascimento,L.F.C..
There is a demonstrable association between exposure to air pollutants and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of exposure to sulfur dioxide on mortality due to circulatory diseases in individuals 50 years of age or older residing in São José dos Campos, SP. This was a time-series ecological study for the years 2003 to 2007 using information on deaths due to circulatory disease obtained from Datasus reports. Data on daily levels of pollutants, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, temperature, and humidity were obtained from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency. Moving average models for 2 to 7 days were calculated by Poisson regression using the R software. Exposure to SO2 was...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Air pollution; Sulfur dioxide; Cardiovascular diseases; Mortality; Air pollutants; Stroke.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2012001100013
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Economics of Pollution Trading for SO2 and NOx AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Evans, David A.; Krupnick, Alan J.; Palmer, Karen L.; Toth, Russell.
For years economists have urged policymakers to use market-based approaches such as cap-and-trade programs or emission taxes to control pollution. The SO2 allowance market created by Title IV of the 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments represents the first real test of the wisdom of economists' advice. Subsequent urban and regional applications of NOx emission allowance trading took shape in the 1990s in the United States, culminating in a second large experiment in emission trading in the eastern United States that began in 2003. This paper provides an overview of the economic rationale for emission trading and a description of the major U.S. programs for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). We evaluate these programs along measures of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sulfur dioxide; Nitrogen oxides; Emission trading; Power plants; Air pollution; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; Q25; Q28; D78.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10488
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Efficient Emission Fees in the U.S. Electricity Sector AgEcon
Banzhaf, H. Spencer; Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L..
This paper provides new estimates of efficient emission fees for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions in the U.S. electricity sector. The estimates are obtained by coupling a detailed simulation model of the U.S. electricity markets with an integrated assessment model that links changes in emissions with atmospheric transport, environmental endpoints, and valuation of impacts. Efficient fees are found by comparing incremental benefits with emission fee levels. National quantity caps that are equivalent to these fees also are computed, and found to approximate caps under consideration in the current multi-pollutant debate in the U.S. Congress and the recent proposals from the Bush administration for the electricity industry. We also...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Emission fees; Air pollution; Cost-benefit analysis; Electricity; Particulates; Nitrogen oxides; NOx; Sulfur dioxide; SO2; Health benefits; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q4; D61.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10505
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Estimating the average length of hospitalization due to pneumonia: a fuzzy approach BJMBR
Nascimento,L.F.C.; Rizol,P.M.S.R.; Peneluppi,A.P..
Exposure to air pollutants is associated with hospitalizations due to pneumonia in children. We hypothesized the length of hospitalization due to pneumonia may be dependent on air pollutant concentrations. Therefore, we built a computational model using fuzzy logic tools to predict the mean time of hospitalization due to pneumonia in children living in São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil. The model was built with four inputs related to pollutant concentrations and effective temperature, and the output was related to the mean length of hospitalization. Each input had two membership functions and the output had four membership functions, generating 16 rules. The model was validated against real data, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Air pollutants; Fuzzy logic; Pneumonia; Particulate matter; Sulfur dioxide.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2014001100977
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Evaluation of SO2 dry deposition over short vegetation in Portugal IPB - Escola Superior Agrária
Feliciano, Manuel; Pio, Casimiro; Vermeulen, Alex.
SO2 dry deposition was studied over short vegetation, in Portugal, by means of the concentration gradient method. The experimental study involved one first phase of long-term measurements carried out in a grassland and, subsequently, a second period of several 1997 intensive field campaigns performed in three places representing different climate and surface conditions. Temporal and spatial patterns of dry deposition parameters show that downward fluxes of SO2 are by some extent affected by surface processes. Median Rc varied from 140 s cm-1 to values around 200 s cm-1, in a wide range of environmental conditions. Stomatal uptake is an important sink when vegetation is biologically active, but its contribution is effectively low when compared with...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Sulfur dioxide; Dry deposition; Vegetation; Portugal.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10198/3233
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Influence of distillation time and sample mass on sulfur dioxide analysis in passion fruit juice through Monier-Williams method Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment.
Takahashi,Anita Akiko; Martins,Maristela Satou; Della Torre,Jussara Carvalho de Moura; Oliveira,Camila Cardoso de; Granato,Daniel.
AbstractThis study aimed to evaluate the effect of the distillation time and the sample mass on the total SO2 content in integral passion fruit juice (Passiflora sp). For the SO2 analysis, a modified version of the Monier-Williams method was used. In this experiment, the distillation time and the sample mass were reduced to half of the values proposed in the original method. The analyses were performed in triplicate for each distilling time x sample mass binomial, making a total of 12 tests, which were performed on the same day. The significance of the effects of the different distillation times and sample mass were evaluated by applying one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). For a 95% confidence limit, it was found that the proposed amendments to the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Sulfur dioxide; Analytical methods; Passion fruit juice; Sulfites; Design of experiments.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612015000300434
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Investment in Electricity Transmission and Ancillary Environmental Benefits AgEcon
Bloyd, Cary; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Burtraw, Dallas.
Planning of the electricity transmission system generally focuses on the pros and cons of providing generation close to the source of the power demand versus remote generation linked via the transmission system. Recent electricity supply problems in the western United States have renewed interest in the role of transmission in assuring the reliability of electricity supply. Recently, the Western Governors' Association led the development of a planning exercise that examined the tradeoffs over the next 10 years between locating new natural gas powered generation close to the load centers versus new coal, wind, hydro, and geothermal generation in remote areas. Although the analysis concentrated on the direct system costs, the choice of new generation will...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity; Transmission; Air pollution; Ancillary benefits; Nitrogen oxides; Sulfur dioxide; Carbon dioxide; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; L94; Q25; Q41.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10519
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Methods to evidence mechanical injuries on "Packham's Triumph" pears. Repositório Alice
PASINI, J.; BENDER, R. J.; ANTONIOLLI, L. R..
2016
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Triphenyl-tetrazoliu m chloride; Triphenyl tetrazolium; Produtos frescos (Pêra); Deterioração pós-colheita (pêra); Triunfo de packham (pêra); Ensacamento (pêras); Lesões mecanicas (pêras); Pera; Pyrus communis; Sulfur dioxide.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1052562
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Standardization of sodium metabisulfite solution concentrations and immersion time for farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Ciência Rural
Andrade,Luciana Trigueiro de; Araújo,Nkarthe Guerra; Ventura,Ana Paula Moraes; Lira,Andréa de Lucena; Magnani,Marciane; Cavalheiro,José Marcelino de Oliveira.
Sodium metabisulfite is the main additive used in the prevention of melanosis in shrimp; however, it has currently been employed with great variation in concentration by producers. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between the concentration of the sodium metabisulfite solution and immersion time of the whole shrimp to obtain the concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the edible muscle of farmed shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in accordance with the limit established by law. For this, solutions of sodium metabisulfite at different concentrations (1%, 2 %, 3 %, 4% and 5%) were prepared and samples of L. vannamei shrimp (100g) were immersed during 10, 20 or 30 minutes at temperature of 7°C. For all treatment assayed the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Sulfur dioxide; Edible muscle; Farmed shrimp.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782015000300499
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State-Level Policies and Regulatory Guidance for Compliance in the Early Years of the SO2 Emission Allowance Trading Program AgEcon
Lile, Ronald D.; Burtraw, Dallas.
The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 instituted a historic experiment in emission allowance trading for sulfur dioxide (SO2). A necessary requirement for evaluating this experiment is an understanding of how the cost recovery rules and other guidance given to firms by state-level public utility commissions (PUCs) and elected bodies has affected compliance behavior. From the onset of the CAAA, there has been varied response by state policy-makers toward SO2 compliance. This paper presents a compilation of these actions as they took shape in states that were affected by the SO2 program. Our primary interest is on the proposals that emerged during the embryonic years of the allowance program, from 1990 to 1993, when investment plans for utilities...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Clean Air Act Amendments; Sulfur dioxide; Allowance trading; Regulation; Electricity; Public utility commissions; Environmental Economics and Policy; H43; Q2; Q4.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10828
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Sulfites in beer: reviewing regulation, analysis and role Scientia Agricola
Guido,Luis F..
ABSTRACT Beer is an extremely complex mixture of more than 3,000 different compounds in an aqueous environment. Thus, it is perhaps not surprising that the maintenance of beer quality throughout its lifetime has been a considerable challenge for brewers. Whilst it is inevitable that chemical changes will occur in beer with the passage of time, it is the formation of flavor-active components which is of immediate concern to an overview of beer shelf life stability. Sulfur dioxide has long been recognized by brewers as the most important factor in delaying flavor staling, and prolonging the shelf life of beer. However, nowadays, sulfur dioxide and sulfites are considered allergens and concerns about the safety of their use as food additives have been on the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Beer flavour; Sulfur dioxide; Legislation toxic effects; Antioxidants.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162016000200189
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Sulfur Dioxide Control by Electric Utilities: What Are the Gains from Trade? AgEcon
Carlson, Curtis; Burtraw, Dallas; Cropper, Maureen L.; Palmer, Karen L..
Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) established a market for transferable sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission allowances among electric utilities. This market offers firms facing high marginal abatement costs the opportunity to purchase the right to emit SO2 from firms with lower costs, and is expected to yield cost savings compared to a command and control approach to environmental regulation. This paper uses econometrically estimated marginal abatement cost functions for power plants affected by Title IV of the CAAA to evaluate the performance of the SO2 allowance market. Specifically, we investigate whether the much-heralded fall in the cost of abating SO2, compared to original estimates, can be attributed to allowance trading. We demonstrate...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Acid rain; Sulfur dioxide; Air pollution; Clean Air Act; Title IV; Permit trading; Environmental Economics and Policy; H43; Q2; Q4.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10790
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The Costs and Benefits of Reducing Acid Rain AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Krupnick, Alan J.; Mansur, Erin T.; Austin, David H.; Farrell, Deirdre.
Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments initiated a dramatic reduction in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides by electric power plants. This paper presents the results of an integrated assessment of the benefits and costs of the program, using the Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF) developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Although dramatic uncertainties characterize our estimates especially with respect to the benefits of the program, many of which we have modeled explicitly, we find that the benefits can be expected to substantially outweigh the costs of the emission reductions. The lion's share of benefits result from reduced risk of premature mortality, especially through reduced exposure to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Acid rain; Sulfur dioxide; Nitrogen oxides; Cost-benefit analysis; Clean Air Act; Title IV; Environmental Economics and Policy; H43; Q2; Q4.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10692
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The Effects of Trading and Banking in the SO2 Allowance Market AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Mansur, Erin T..
The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments initiated a dramatic reduction in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides by electric power plants. This paper provides an evaluation of the environmental and public health consequences of the trading and banking provisions of Title IV. A sizable shift in the geographic location of emissions under Title IV (in some states of over 20 percent of emissions after Title IV is implemented) is attributable to trading and/or to banking. There has been considerable concern that this shift in emissions would cause harm to downwind areas due to long-range transport of pollution. We find the resulting change in atmospheric concentrations and deposition of pollutants, and the change in monetized health benefits, are most...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Acid rain; Sulfur dioxide; Trading; Benefit-cost analysis; Clean Air Act; Environmental Economics and Policy; H43; Q2; Q4.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10630
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The Paparazzi Take a Look at a Living Legend: The SO2 Cap-and-Trade Program for Power Plants in the United States AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L..
For years economists have urged policymakers to use market-based approaches such as cap-and-trade programs or emission taxes to control pollution. The SO2 allowance market created by Title IV of the 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) presents the first real test of the wisdom of economists' advice. This paper provides an overview of the origins, design, and performance of the U.S. acid rain program, and an analysis of its specific features and its adaptability as a model for addressing other pollution problems, such as control of NOX or CO2 emissions. The program also has resulted in innovation through changes in organizational technology, in the organization of markets, and through experimentation at individual boilers, much of which arguably would...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emission trading; Cap and trade; Air pollution; Cost-benefit analysis; Electricity; Particulates; Sulfur dioxide; SO2; Health benefits; Acid rain; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; Q4; D62; Q28.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10665
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Tillandsia recurvata L. as a bioindicator of sulfur atmospheric pollution Ecología austral
Graciano,Corina; Fernández,L V; Caldiz,D O.
Tillandsia recurvata L. is an epiphyte that absorbs nutrients from the air, so it could be used as a bioindicator of atmospheric sulfur pollution. In order to test this idea, Tillandsia recurvata samples were seasonally collected for two years at three sites of La Plata, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in a suburban park and in a rural area 60 km away from the city. Macro- and microscopic observations were carried out and chlorophyll and sulfur concentrations of the tissue were measured to evaluate if this epiphyte shows morphological or physiological damage in the most polluted sites or if it accumulates sulfur in the tissues when sulfur in the air increases. No micro- or macroscopic damage was observed, and chlorophyll content seemed not to be related...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Tillandsia recurvata; Sulfur dioxide; Atmospheric pollution; Bioindicator.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1667-782X2003000100002
Registros recuperados: 18
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