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Registros recuperados: 17
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Anomalies des coquilles d'huîtres creuses Crassostrea gigas observées sur le littoral français en mai-juin 1989 dues au ver Polydora et aux peintures antisalissures ArchiMer
Catherine, Martial; Blateau, Dominique; Mazurie, Joseph; Le Bec, Claude.
La recrudescence du ver Polydora dans les coquilles d'huîtres creuses observée dès l'été 1988 a pour principale conséquence le développement parfois très important de formations variqueuses et des chambres à vase à l'intérieur des huîtres, ce qui est très préjudiciable à leur qualité commerciale. Le bilan de l'infestation des coquilles d'huîtres par le ver Polydora sur le littoral normand et atlantique en mai et juin 1989 montre que les secteurs ostréicoles les plus touchés se situent à proximité de la Loire et de la Vilaine. Divers traitements des huîtres contre le Polydora sont possibles. Les meilleurs résultats sont obtenus par la combinaison de l'action de la saumure et d'un assec de 24 heures. L'examen du chambrage à gel colloïdal dans les huîtres...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Polydora; Huîtres creuses; Chambrage; Galeries; Traitement; Peintures marines; TBT; Réglementation.
Ano: 1990 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00104/21491/19072.pdf
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Are SPS-TBT regulations in the European Union discriminating agricultural trade from Africa? The case of live plants and cut flowers Inra
Drogué, S.; Gozlan, E..
Cet article a pour but d'apporter un éclairage qualitatif sur le caractère restrictif des mesures sanitaires et phytosanitaires (SPS) et des règlementations techniques aux échanges (TBT) imposées par l'UE pour les exportations agricoles de pays en développement. A partir d'estimations spécifiques d'équivalents ad valorem, les auteurs comparent les secteurs pour lesquels les flux d'échange observés sont significativement inférieurs aux flux prédits avec ceux pour lesquels une mesure SPS ou TBT est notifiée dans la base de données TRAINS. Le secteur des plantes ornementales répondant à ces deux critères, elles étudient en détail les mesures SPS et TBT qui s'appliquent à l'entrée du marché de l'UE, ainsi que les tendances récentes concernant la généralisation...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: ACCORD PHYTO-SANITAIRE; NORME PRIVEE SPS AGREEMENT; TBT.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2009e642c03&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2010/01/
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Bilan 1997 de la contamination des eaux côtières françaises par les composés organostanniques. ArchiMer
Michel, Pierre; Averty, Bernard.
Il y a quinze ans, la France prenait des mesures réglementaires pour restreindre l'usage des composés organostanniques dans les peintures antisalissures utilisées pour la protection des coques de bateaux. Il s'agissait alors d'une réaction d'urgence face au problème vital posé à l'ostréiculture française. La France était le premier pays à prendre de telles dispositions. Depuis, la réglementation a été confirmée à plusieurs reprises, en dernier lieu par le décret n°92-1074 du 2 octobre 1992. Quinze ans plus tard, où en sommes nous ? La campagne de mesure des composés organostanniques dans l'eau de mer, conduite par l'IFREMER de juillet à septembre 1997 a permis de faire le point de la situation. La contamination des côtes françaises reste préoccupante. Pour...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Composés organostanniques; Tributyl étain; TBT; Peintures antisalissures; Eaux côtières; Organotin compounds; Ributyltin; TBT; Antifouling paints; Coastal waters.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00104/21557/19136.pdf
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Contamination par le tributylétain (TBT) du Bassin d'Arcachon évaluée à l'aide d'un indicateur biologique : l'imposex chez Ocenebra erinacea. Résultats préliminaires ArchiMer
Fernandez-castro, Nora; His, Edouard; Cantin, Christian.
The Bay of Arcachon has been particularly affected by the impact of organotin-based antifouling paints (His, 1996). Boring gastropods, Ocenebra erinacea, have completely disappeared from the Bay, because of the castration induced by these compounds, from 1980 to 1990. There have been no studies on imposex effects in the Bay of Arcachon since the investigations of Poli (1972) who first described the phenomenon, and of Féral (1982) who attributed it to TBT. Recently, Sarradin & al. (1991) demonstrated the persistence of TBT and its degradation products in the sediments of the Bay, the latter being a potential source of pollution; Stroben & al. ( 1995) have conceived a contamination scale based on the VDSI (Vas Deferens Sequence Index) in prosobranch...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bassin d'Arcachon; Imposex; Ocenebra erinacea; TBT; Bay of Arcachon; Imposex; Ocenebra erinacea; TBT.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00038/14898/12224.pdf
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Disentangling the Demand-enhancing Effect and Trade-cost Effect of Technical Measures in Agricultural Trade among OECD countries AgEcon
Xiong, Bo; Beghin, John C..
Domestic technical measures such as SPS and TBTs can enhance import demand via information disclosure and quality improvement, or hamper foreign export supply via imposing sizeable compliance costs, or both. The traditional gravity equation model estimates the net effect of these measures on international trade with a loss of useful inference on separate effects. We stipulate a generalized gravity equation model to disentangle the two effects. We apply the augmented approach to agricultural trade among OECD countries in 2004. We find that technical measures in agriculture often jointly enhance import demand and hinder export supply with the net effect of promoting the propensity to trade. Further disaggregated data analysis reveals heterogeneity across...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Sanitary and phytosanitary; SPS; Technical measures; NTM; TBT; Standards; Gravity equation; Protectionism; OECD; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116898
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Effect of orgnotin compounds (TBT) used in antifouling paints on cultured marine molluscs - a literature study ArchiMer
Heral, Maurice; Alzieu, Claude; Deslous-paoli, Jean-marc.
Organotin salts, used as antifouling substances have a deleterious effect on the environment particularly on molluscs and especially on the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas. A synthesis of the effects of tributyltin (TBT) on cultured molluscs reveals the following effects: 1) acute and chronic toxicity to the adults; 2) accumulation in the flesh 01 the adults; 3) perturbation 01 reproduction particularly fertility, mortality 01 offspring and decrease in larval growth rate; 4) decrease in the growth rate 01 juveniles and thickening 01 the shell; and 5) modification 01 the physiology al sublethal levels.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: TBT; Crassostrea gigas; Oyster; Marine molluscs; Organotin.
Ano: 1989 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1989/publication-3016.pdf
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Essai de réimplantation de Crassostrea angulata en France. Résistance au chambrage et comportement des hybrides C. angulata - C. gigas ArchiMer
Bougrier, Serge; Raguenes, Gerard; Bachere, Evelyne; Tige, Gilbert; Grizel, Henri.
The inability to rear the oysters C. gigas and O. edulis in certain Brittany waters has prompted us to conduct breeding trials with C. angulata C. gigas and their hybrids. Results have revealed that all the strains tested were sensitive to Tributyl tin (TBT), showing atnormal shell thickness and their growth was lower than C. gigas. In addition, C. angulata was still affected by the presence of the Iridovirus in France.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: TBT; Breeding trials; Hubrids; Crassostrea gigas; Crassostrea angulata; TBT; Chambrage; Croisement; Hybrides; Crassostrea gigas; Crassostrea angulata.
Ano: 1986 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1986/acte-3102.pdf
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First record of butyltin body burden and imposex status in Hexaplex trunculus (L.) along the Tunisian coast ArchiMer
Lahbib, Youssef; Abidli, Sami; Chiffoleau, Jean-francois; Averty, Bernard; El Menif, Najoua Trigui.
We have assessed for the first time the current status of tributyltin (TBT) contamination in Hexaplex trunculus along Tunisian coastal waters. Two sampling campaigns have been performed in July 2004 and July 2007 at seven different sites. The snails were analyzed for imposex status, i.e. Imposex incidence, Relative Penis Length Index (RPLI) and Vas Deferens Sequence Index (VDSI), followed by the quantification of butyltins in their tissues. Imposex was detected in six populations from the 2004 samples and in five populations from the 2007 samples. The imposex incidence ranged from 0 (no imposex) to 100%, the RPLI from 0 to 56.7 and the VDSI from 0 to 4.4. TBT was also detected in six populations in 2004 and five populations in 2007. The concentrations...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Tunisia; Imposex; Hexaplex trunculus; TBT; Tributyltin.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/publication-6499.pdf
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International Harmonization and the Gains from Trade AgEcon
Kerr, William A..
International harmonization of standards and regulations is often a goal expressed in trade agreements because it is expected to yield gains from trade. Absence of progress toward harmonization is often interpreted as being motivated by protectionism, with differences in standards and regulations seen as non-tariff barriers. While protectionism may well be the source of resistance to harmonization, there may be other reasons it is not pursued. These alternative explanations have not received much attention from economists. In this article some of these alternatives are outlined - demand effects from altering standards, switching costs, proprietary technologies. The article concludes that proposals for international harmonization need to be scrutinized...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Demand effects; Harmonization; Regulation; Standards; Switching costs; TBT; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23843
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Nontariff Barriers AgEcon
Beghin, John C..
Nontariff barriers (NTBs) refer to the wide range of policy interventions other than border tariffs that affect trade of goods, services, and factors of production. Most taxonomies of NTBs include market-specific trade and domestic policies affecting trade in that market. Extended taxonomies include macro-economic policies affecting trade. NTBs have gained importance as tariff levels have been reduced worldwide. Common measures of NTBs include tariff-equivalents of the NTB policy or policies and count and frequency measures of NTBs. These NTB measures are subsequently used in various trade models, including gravity equations, to assess trade and/or welfare effects of the measured NTBs.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Externality and trade; Nontariff barrier; NTB; Protectionism; Sanitary and phytosanitary; SPS; Standards; TBT; Technical barrier to trade; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18436
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Quantification of Sanitary, Phytosanitary, and Technical Barriers to Trade for Trade Policy Analysis AgEcon
Beghin, John C.; Bureau, Jean-Christophe.
This paper presents promising methodologies for modeling and quantifying nontariff barriers (NTB) to trade in the agricultural and food sectors. We limit the analysis to sanitary, phytosanitary, and technical regulations that can have an impact on trade and to methods that provide some quantitative estimates of the impact of such barriers on market equilibrium, trade flows, economic efficiency, and welfare. Given the heterogeneous nature of these regulations, a unifying methodology does not exist. Quantification of the effects of such measures has focused on a particular product and has relied on methods that belong to different fields of the economic literature. We provide a concise description and evaluation of the various methods available for a more...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Non-tariff barriers; NTB; Policy; Sanitary and phytosanitary; SPS; TBT; Technical barriers to trade; Trade; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18620
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RNO. Surveillance du Milieu Marin. Travaux du Réseau National d'Observation de la qualité du milieu marin. Edition 1999 ArchiMer
Ifremer.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Méthyl-mercure; TBT; Organoétains; Sédiments; Mollusques; Milieu marin; Contamination chimique.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00314/42564/41934.pdf
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Suivi environnemental de l'estuaire de l'Aber Wrac'h dans le cadre des travaux d'extension du port de Landéda. Deux premières années d'études / juillet 2005 - septembre 2007 ArchiMer
Piriou, Jean-yves; Bedier, Edouard.
As part of the extension of the port in Landeda, an environmental monitoring program of the Aber Wrac'h estuary was commissioned by the Spatial Planning Unit of the city of Brest (BMA), the administrative body that oversees port construction. The goal of this programme was to monitor the potential impact of the construction on the nearby marine environment. Surveys were carried out from July 2005 to September 2007 and provided the following results...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Biométrie; Métaux lourds; HAP; TBT; Echerichia coli; Huîtres.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/rapport-4362.pdf
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Tariff Equivalent of Technical Barriers to Trade with Imperfect Substitution and Trade Costs AgEcon
Yue, Chengyan; Beghin, John C.; Jensen, Helen H..
The price-wedge method yields a tariff-equivalent estimate of technical barriers to trade (TBT). An extension of this method accounts for imperfect substitution between domestic and imported goods and incorporates recent findings on trade costs. We explore the sensitivity of this revamped TBT estimate to its key determinants (substitution elasticity, preference for home good, and trade cost). We use the augmented approach to investigate the ongoing US-Japan apple trade dispute and find that removing the Japanese TBT would yield limited export gains to the United States. We then draw policy implications of our findings.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Apple; Japan; SPS; TBT; Technical barriers to trade; Trade cost; Trade dispute; WTO; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18338
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The Tariff Equivalent and Forgone Trade Effects of Prohibitive Technical Barriers to Trade AgEcon
Yue, Chengyan; Beghin, John C..
We derive a method to econometrically estimate the tariff equivalent and foregone trade effects of a prohibitive technical barrier to trade (TBT) based on Wales and Woodland’s Kuhn-Tucker approach to corner solutions in consumer choice. The method overcomes the lack of observed data on bilateral trade flows and accounts for differentiated goods by place of origin. We apply the derived random utility model to international trade in apples to identify the tariff equivalent of prohibitive nontariff trade barriers imposed by Australia on potential imports of New Zealand apples. We estimate the forgone apple trade between the two countries, the implied trade injury imposed by Australia on New Zealand, and the welfare loss to Australia. The removal of the TBTs...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corner solution; Kuhn-Tucker model; New Zealand apples; Nontariff barrier; NTB; Prohibitive; Random utility; TBT; Technical barrier to trade; International Relations/Trade; F13; Q17.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7351
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The Tariff Equivalent and Forgone Trade Effects of Prohibitive Technical Barriers to Trade AgEcon
Yue, Chengyan; Beghin, John C..
Replaced by revised version of paper 05/05/08. (Former title: How to Estimate a Technical Barrier to Trade When There Is No Trade)
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Corner solution; Kuhn-Tucker model; New Zealand apples; NTB; TBT; Technical barrier to trade; Nontariff barrier; Prohibitive; Random utility; International Relations/Trade; F13; Q17.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10000
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Trade-distorting SPS and TBT regulations in the EU? A qualitative assessment from the market for live plants and cut flowers. AgEcon
Drogue, Sophie; Gozlan, Estelle.
Using specific estimation of ad-valorem equivalents, the paper compares sectors where observed trade flows are significantly lower than predicted flows, with sectors where a SPS/TBT measure is notified in the TRAINS database. Only three sectors are found where a significant negative coefficient matches a notified regulation. Focusing on the market for live plants and cut flowers, the paper provides a description of existing EU import requirements and discusses recent trends in relevant private standards and certification schemes. The trade-restrictiveness of EU and private standards is then assessed based on the results of a survey conducted among exporters of flowers in developing countries.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: SPS; TBT; Private standards; Trade in ornamental products; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7216
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