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Accommodating Imperfect Competition in A Model of World Peanut Trade AgEcon
Fletcher, Stanley M.; Nadolnyak, Denis A..
In this paper, we make an attempt to rationalize the strategic behavior of major peanut exporting and importing countries in the framework of imperfectly competitive markets with the focus on the global and inter-American peanut trade. This study is motivated by the fact that liberalizing imperfectly competitive and often distorted markets can have unorthodox effects, in particular increase the incentives to overuse certain trade policies. The results suggest that the South American peanut producers stand to benefit from the reductions in the U.S. peanut production supports but, paradoxically, preservation of a tariff may still be mutually welfare enhancing. In the broader context of global peanut trade, multi-lateral tariff reduction increases the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade; Peanuts; Strategic behavior; Tariffs; TRQs; Subsidies; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19460
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Determinants of World Demand for U.S. Corn Seeds: The Role of Trade Costs AgEcon
Jayasinghe, Sampath; Beghin, John C.; Moschini, GianCarlo.
The United States is a large net exporter of corn seeds. Seed trade, including corn, has been expanding but its determinants are not well understood. This paper econometrically investigates the determinants of world demand for U.S. corn seeds with a detailed analysis of trade costs impeding exports flows to various markets. Trade costs include costs associated with distance, tariffs, and sanitary-phytosanitary (SPS) regulations imposed by foreign countries on U.S. corn seed exports. SPS policy information comes from the Excerpt data base of USDA-APHIS. The analysis relies on a gravity-like model based on an explicit specification of derived demand for seed by foreign corn producers. A SPS count variable is incorporated as a shifter in the unit cost of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Seeds; Corn; SPS; Phytosanitary; Exports; Trade cost; Technical barriers; Tariffs; TBT.; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6402
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Do Sensitive Products Undermine Ambition? AgEcon
Vanzetti, David; Peters, Ralf.
The long-running WTO negotiations remain unresolved. Agriculture is the main stumbling block. Members have agreed to linear tariff reductions within bands, but proposed exemptions for sensitive products, while providing for much needed flexibility, threaten to undermine the ambition. A detailed partial equilibrium global agricultural trade model is used to analyse the likely impact of exemptions from the formula tariff reductions. Applying one third of the formula cuts to the five per cent of lines with the highest tariffs increases the final developed country average agricultural tariff from 16 to 24 per cent but the negative impacts on trade and welfare are less dramatic.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Trade; Tariffs; WTO; International Relations/Trade; F13; Q17.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6044
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Economic Impacts of Pink Hibiscus Mealybug in Florida and the United States AgEcon
Ranjan, Ram.
Replaced with revised version of paper 12/15/05.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Invasive Species; Political Economy; Tariffs; Bargaining; Interest Groups; International Relations/Trade; H23; Q17; Q58.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19172
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ECONOMICS OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ADMINISTRATION AgEcon
Skully, David W..
The 1996 Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture was a step toward free trade. The Agreement lifts bans and quotas on imports, but allows their conversion into tariff-rate quotas (TRQs), which function like quotas. At present, many of the 1,300 TRQs increased market access to imports, but some have preserved pre-Agreement levels of protection. The World Trade Organization's intent as to the administration of TRQs is open to interpretation. This report analyzes seven administrative methods in light of the principle of nondiscrimination. We conclude that auctions are the best way to administer a TRQ. First-come, first-served and license-on-demand methods present a moderate risk of biased trade. State trading organizations and producer groups that directly...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Tariff-rate quotas; Quantitative restrictions; Trade barriers; Tariffs; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33576
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Effects of Japanese Import Demand on U.S. Livestock Prices: Comment AgEcon
Kinnucan, Henry W..
A recent study of Miljkovic, Marsh, and Brester estimates that reductions in the Japanese tariff-rate quota between 1993 and 2001 increased U.S. beef prices by $1.03 per cwt and yen depreciation between 1995 and 1998 reduced U.S. hog prices by $0.99 per cwt. Relaxing the assumption that U.S. beef and hog supplies are fixed cuts the total elasticities underlying these estimates by 50% or more. The upshot is that shocks in the Japanese market have little effect on U.S. beef and pork prices. Hence, producers may be better off focusing on domestic issues such as dietary concerns over red meat consumption.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Elasticities; Exchange rates; Import demand; Income; Supply response; Tariffs; Q17; F14; C32.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43432
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Effects of Tariffs and Sanitary Barriers on High- and Low-Value Poultry Trade AgEcon
Peterson, Everett B.; Orden, David.
A competitive partial-equilibrium spatial model with heterogeneous goods is constructed to evaluate effects of the removal of tariffs, tariff-rate quotas, and sanitary regulations on world poultry trade. The model distinguishes between "highvalue" (mostly white meat) and "low-value" (mostly dark meat) poultry products and simulates the trade flows among eight exporting and importing countries and regions. Removing all barriers simultaneously has a larger impact on trade than removing only tariffs and tariff-rate quotas. Imposition of sanitary barriers against U.S. products by Russia shifts trade flows, but does not have large net impacts on U.S. producers.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Poultry trade; Sanitary barriers; Tariffs; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30785
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Effects of Trade Liberalization on Agriculture in the Philippines: Commodity Aspects AgEcon
Mangabat, Minda C..
This book analyzes commodity aspects of the effects of trade liberalization on agriculture in the Philippines. The study describes the effects of trade liberalization on selected commodities namely rice, and corn, at the national level and the farm level. The analysis includes ex-ante and ex-post welfare gain and loss at the national level and profitability at the farm level.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Production; Marketing; International trade; Rice; Zea Mays; Tariffs; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/32689
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EU market access for Mediterranean fruit and vegetables: A gravity model assessment AgEcon
Emlinger, Charlotte; Lozza, Emmanuelle Chevassus; Jacquet, Florence.
Since 1995, a liberalization process - the so- called Barcelona Process - has begun in the Mediterranean area. It aims at establishing a free trade area for 2010 in the Mediterranean Basin. For the moment the full liberalization concerns industrial product s trade whereas agriculture remains sensitive. Among agricultural product s, the fruit and vegetables (F&V) sector is essential for Mediterranean countries and the EU is their first trading partner. In this context, two questions arise: Firstly, to what extent protection influence trade for the med countries, compared to the other countries? Secondly, what would be the impacts of a greater liberalization on F&V trade between the EU and Mediterranean Countries? Our model, based on the new...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Fruit and Vegetables; EU-Med agreement; Gravity models; Transport cost; Tariffs; International Relations/Trade; Marketing.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10098
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Food Import Refusals: Effects and Implications for Seafood Trade AgEcon
Baylis, Katherine R.; Nogueira, Lia; Pace, Kathryn.
Replaced with revised version of poster 07/20/11.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Non-tariff barriers; Tariffs; European Union; Seafood; Import notifications; Import rejections; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103250
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Food Protection for Sale AgEcon
Lopez, Rigoberto A.; Matschke, Xenia.
This article tests the Protection for Sale (PFS) model using detailed data from U.S. food processing industries from 1978 to 1992 under alternative import demand specifications. All empirical results support the PFS model predictions and previous empirical work qualitatively. Although welfare weights are very sensitive to import demand specification, a surprising result is that we obtain weights between 2.6 and 3.6 for domestic welfare using import slopes or elasticities derived from domestic demand and supply functions. In contrast, results based on import slopes or elasticities from directly specified import demands (including the Armington model) yield the usual, unrealistically large estimates for the domestic welfare weight. We contend that the latter...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Trade protection; Tariffs; Lobbying; Political economy; Food manufacturing; Agricultural and Food Policy; Political Economy; F13; F1; L66; C12.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25195
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Fruit Policies in Japan AgEcon
Ito, Kenzo; Dyck, John H..
Government programs and subsidies regulate and support Japan’s large fruit-production sector, bolstering farm incomes and output levels. Supply-management programs that target annual production levels for some fruits, in order to maintain market prices, contribute to higher prices for consumers, although other programs aim to increase fruit consumption. Japan’s tariffs and phytosanitary measures also create barriers to fruit consumption and limit imports. Producers in the United States, a major fruit supplier to Japan, could benefit from reduced barriers.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Japan; Fruits; Policies; Production; Subsidies; Insurance; Farm markets; Tariffs; Phytosanitary measures; U.S. Department of Agriculture; USDA; Economic Research Service; ERS; FTS-341-01; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92336
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Growth and Equity Effects of Agricultural Marketing Efficiency Gains in India AgEcon
Landes, Maurice R.; Burfisher, Mary E..
Agriculture is the largest source of employment in India, and food accounts for about half of consumer expenditures. Moving agricultural products from the farm to consumers more efficiently could result in large gains to producers, consumers, and India’s overall economy. This analysis uses a computable general equilibrium model with agricultural commodity detail and households disaggregated by rural, urban, and income class to study the potential impacts of reforms that achieve efficiency gains in agricultural marketing and reduce agricultural input subsidies and import tariffs. More efficient agricultural marketing generates economywide gains in output and wages, raises agricultural producer prices, reduces consumer food prices, and increases private...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: India; Agriculture; Policy reform; Marketing efficiency; Tariffs; Subsidies; Households; Computable general equilibrium model.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade; Marketing.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55959
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Invasive Species Management through Tariffs: Are Prevention and Protection Synonymous? AgEcon
Ranjan, Ram.
Replaced with revised version of paper 12/15/05.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Invasive Species; Political Economy; Tariffs; Bargaining; Interest Groups; International Relations/Trade; H23; Q17; Q58.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19515
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Invasive Species Management Through Tariffs: Are Prevention and Protection Synonymous? AgEcon
Ranjan, Ram.
This Paper designs a political economy model of invasive species management in order to explore the effectiveness of tariffs in mitigating the risk of invasion. The revenue interests of the government together with the interests of the lobby group competing with the imported agricultural commodity, that is believed to be the vector of invasive species, are incorporated in a Nash Bargaining game. The government, however, also considers the impact of tariffs on long run risks of invasion and decides optimal tariffs based upon its welfare in the pre and post-invasion scenarios. Along with the size of the lobby group, which is a function of the slope of the demand and supply curves, the weights assigned to the various components in the government welfare...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Invasive species; Political economy; Tariffs; Bargaining; Interest groups; Political Economy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; H23; Q17; Q58.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15642
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Is Protection for Sale in U.S. Food Industries? AgEcon
Lopez, Rigoberto A.; Hathie, Ibrahima.
This article tests the Grossman-Helpman Protection for Sale model using panel data from U.S. food processing industries with endogenous protection, imports, and political organization of industries. The results support the key predictions of the model: organized industries are granted higher protection that decreases with import penetration and the price elasticity of imports, but in unorganized industries protection increases with import penetration. In spite of substantial differences in data sets and empirical procedures, the estimated weight on aggregate welfare is strikingly similar those found by Goldberg and Maggi (1999) and Gawande and Bandopadhyay (2000), implying that protection is not for sale in these industries. Furthermore, the presence of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Trade protection; Tariffs; Lobbying; Political economy; Food manufacturing; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25182
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JAPANESE IMPORT DEMAND FOR U.S. BEEF AND PORK: EFFECTS ON U.S. RED MEAT EXPORTS AND LIVESTOCK PRICES AgEcon
Miljkovic, Dragan; Marsh, John M.; Brester, Gary W..
Japanese import demand for U.S. beef and pork products and the effects on domestic livestock prices are econometrically estimated. Japan is the most important export market for U.S. beef and pork products. Results indicate foreign income, exchange rates, and protectionist measures are statistically significant. The comparative statistics quantify the effects of recent economic volatility. For example, the 1995-1998 depreciation in the Japanese yen (39%) reduced U.S. slaughter steer and hog prices by $1.29 per cwt and $0.99 per cwt, respectively, while the 1994-1998 reduction in tariffs (14%) increased slaughter steer and hog prices by $0.49 per cwt and $0.33 per cwt, respectively. Livestock producers will continue to have a vested interest in Asian...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Elasticities; Exchange rates; Import demand; Income; Tariffs; Demand and Price Analysis; Q17; F14; C32.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15072
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NAFTA AND U.S.-MEXICAN BEEF TRADE: LONG-RUN IMPLICATIONS FOR CHANGES IN TRADE FLOWS FROM TECHNOLOGY TRANSFERS AgEcon
Melton, Bryan E.; Huffman, Wallace E..
This study examines potential long-term impacts on the U.S. and Mexican beef industries of the reduction in trade barriers under NAFTA and likely associated international technology transfers (of beef cattle, feeding methods, and meat packing) and foreign capital investments. The beef industry is represented as four subsectors: cow-calf production, post-weaning beef production, meat packing, and leather production. The analysis is accomplished through a multi-sector model of the U.S. and Mexican beef industries, estimation of key parameters, and simulation of long-run outcomes under three alternative scenarios. Our results show that Mexico will dramatically expand the size of its cow herd. The expanded supply and lower post-slaughter processing cost in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: North American Free Trade Agreement; Beef industry; Meat packing; Technology transfer; Tariffs; United States; Mexico; International Relations/Trade; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18256
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Non-Tariff Barriers as a Test of Political Economy Theories AgEcon
Levy, Philip I..
This paper provides a rough test of a broad and prominent class of political economy of trade models and finds them wanting. The class features governments with weighted social welfare functions, including the prominent model of Grossman and Helpman. Whether the government is the single domestic player or there are other players involved (as with the lobbies in the Grossman-Helpman case) the government ultimately acts as a unitary player in international dealings. Recent work has shown that such unitary actors care exclusively about terms of trade in international negotiations. This paper pursues the implication that governments’ choice of trade instruments may offer a better test of the unitary government framework than existing empirical work. We use the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Trade policy; Lobbying; Tariffs; Political economy; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; D72; F13.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28526
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Nothing to Declare: Duty-free access to imports from LDCs AgEcon
Vanzetti, David; Peters, Ralf.
Developed countries have agreed to provide duty free and quota free access to imports from LDCs covered by 97 per cent of tariff lines. However, LDCs would like to extend the agreement to 100 per cent coverage, since 3 per cent of tariff lines can cover a substantial proportion of LDC exports. Products of major interest include textiles and clothing and agricultural goods such as rice, oilseeds, sugar and bananas. The potential trade and welfare impacts of expanding the coverage are analysed using a global general equilibrium model. Updated estimates indicate LDCs stand to gain $4.2 billion in additional exports, the bulk of which accrues to Bangladesh, Cambodia and West Africa. A further $1.8 billion increase in exports could be obtained if LDCs had duty...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: WTO negotiations; Trade; Tariffs; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124469
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