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A New Measure of the Producer Welfare Effects of Technological Change AgEcon
Bullock, David S..
It is well recognized that the statistical reliability of the conventional method of estimating the effects of technological change on producer welfare is often quite poor. I present a method that enhances the statistical reliability of such estimates. I emphasize that when measuring the welfare effects of technological change, valuable information can be gleaned from data on input prices and quantities. This type of data is often available, but the conventional measure typically does not take full advantage of its availability. Letting T0 be some initial level of technology and T1 be a subsequent level, the conventional measure of producer welfare change due to a technology change is the change in the “triangle” area under the price and behind the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Technological change; Producer welfare; Applied welfare economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; O30; O33.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103834
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A spatial bio-economic modelling approach on the trade-offs between global bioenergy demand, agricultural intensification, expansion, and trade AgEcon
Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander; Beringer, Tim; Muller, Christoph; Lucht, Wolfgang.
Increased future demands for food, fibre and fuels from biomass can only be met if the available land and water resources on a global scale are used and managed as efficiently as possible. The main routes for making the global agricultural system more productive are through intensification and technological change on currently used agricultural land, land expansion into currently non-agricultural areas, and international trade in agricultural commodities and processed goods. In order to analyse the trade-offs and synergies between these options, we present a global bio-economic modelling approach with a special focus on spatially explicit land and water constraints as well as technological change in agricultural production. For a given bioenergy demand...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land use change; Spatial modelling; Technological change; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Land Economics/Use; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C61; F15; Q24; Q25.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51458
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Agroeconomic evaluation of food production in conversion systems to organic farming in Orizona, Goias State, Brazil. Repositório Alice
SILVA, O. F. da; WANDER, A. E.; ALCANTARA, F. A. de..
The study proposes to describe two profiles of producers, evidently different in their production base, to guide actions of technology transfer, respecting the way of making of these producers, bringing them to the base of scientific knowledge, with some agricultural and management practices to increase food production through the sustainable use of available resources, such as the conservation of soil, water and biodiversity.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Agroecologia; Orizona-GO; Agricultura Orgânica; Agricultura Familiar; Agroecology; Technological change; Family farms.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1096223
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Algoritmo como ferramenta de apoio à decisão para avaliação de sustentabilidade na introdução de novas tecnologias agrícolas. Repositório Alice
VALOIS, M.; HITZSCHKY, K. R. e de J..
Resumo: A avaliação dos impactos das tecnologias agrícolas pode ser uma aliada do processo de decisão. Este trabalho apresenta uma metodologia para a avaliação dos impactos de inovações tecnológicas com adequações para a avaliação integrada das tecnologias agrícolas e suas aplicações, fornecendo informações organizadas de acordo com critérios e indicadores nas diversas dimensões onde os impactos da liberação ou utilização da tecnologia agrícola podem ser percebidos. O método consiste de um sistema que permite a análise do cenário no qual a tecnologia será introduzida, a partir da geração do índice de significância e a avaliação do desempenho da inovação, pela análise dos indicadores de impactos que irão compor o índice de magnitude. Este sistema conta com...
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Avaliação de impactos; Tecnologia agrícola; Mudança tecnológica; Agricultura sustentável; Innovation adoption; Technological change; Environmental impact; Social impact; Economic impact.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/917070
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Avaliação de impactos ambientais de sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária-floresta conforme contexto de adoção. Infoteca-e
RODRIGUES, G. S.; OLIVEIRA, P. de; NOVAES, R. M. L.; PEREIRA, S. E. M.; NICODEMO, M. L. F.; SENA, A. L. dos S.; BELCHIOR, E. B.; ALMEIDA, M. R. M. de; SANTI, A.; WRUCK, F. J..
Resumo: Procedimentos de avaliação de impactos têm sido realizados para analisar e promover estratégias de integração lavoura-pecuária-floresta (ILPF) adotadas em Unidades de Referência Tecnológica (URTs) no âmbito da ?Rede de Fomento ILPF?. A abordagem, baseada no método multicritério Ambitec-Agro, foi realizada em seis URTs em colaboração com equipes da Embrapa e parceiros em todo o país. Estes estudos de caso incluíram desde empresas rurais de grande porte até estabelecimentos familiares, e desde complexos esquemas de integração até simples integração lavoura-pecuária voltada apenas à reforma de pastagens. Devido ao seu típico efeito de intensificação, a ILPF resultou em importantes ganhos de produtividade e de eficiência no uso de recursos naturais,...
Tipo: Documentos (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Inovações tecnológicas agropecuárias; Sustentabilidade; Desempenho ambiental; Avaliação multicritério; Ambitec-Agro; Agrossilvicultura; Impacto ambiental; Impacto econômico; Impacto social; Agricultura sustentável; Inovação; Mudança tecnológica; Agroforestry; Technological change; Innovation adoption; Environmental assessment; Environmental performance.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1070414
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Changing role of BRIC countries in technology-driven international division of labor AgEcon
Gryczka, Marcin.
In contemporary international division of labor the importance of ICT technologies and social capital is increasing, and allows the economy to be more competitive due to arising many connections to the global information networks. The major goal of this article was analyzing (mostly in descriptive manner) and comparing the recent trends in GDP growth and its composition and international trade of high-technology manufactures and services for developed and BRIC countries. The results of conducted statistical data analysis justify the conclusion that some developing economies, especially China and India, are in fact gaining on importance in international trade of high-tech products and knowledge-intensive business services, even having become more effective...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International division of labor; Technological change; Creative economy.; Labor and Human Capital; O33.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95975
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Dinâmica da ocupação e da qualificação da mão de obra na agropecuária brasileira AgEcon
Maia, Katy; Rodrigues, Rossana Lott; Souza, Solange de Cassia Inforzato de; Moretto, Antonio Carlos; Kureski, Ricardo.
The article analyses the effect of trade liberalization, of final consumption and of technological change on employment structure of Brazil and sector agro cattle raising, by skill level, between 1985 and 2003. Therefore, were used input-output and PNAD data of respective years. The results obtained show important change on the employment structure of sector agro cattle raising in this period, in favor the skilled workers, yet that in less proportion relative to others economic sectors, caused by technological change and trade foreign. The agro cattle raising sector revealed dynamic in its employment structure, benefiting more the skill labor with raised labor productivity
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Trade liberalization; Agro cattle raising sector; Skilled workers; Technological change; Labor productivity; Agribusiness; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114177
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Does Intellectual Property Protection Spur Technological Change? AgEcon
Kanwar, Sunil; Evenson, Robert E..
Of the diverse factors motivating technological change, one factor that has received increasing attention in the recent past has been the protection of intellectual property rights. Given fairly recent changes in the international policy ethos where a regime of stronger intellectual property protection has become a fait accompli for most developing countries, it is of some significance to ask whether more stringent protection of intellectual property does indeed encourage innovation. And this is the question which this paper examines, utilising cross-country panel data on R&D investment, patent protection and other country-specific characteristics spanning the period 1981-1990. The evidence unambiguously indicates the significance of intellectual...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Technological change; Economic growth; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O34; O31.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28432
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Dynamics of Structural Transformation: An Empirical Characterization in the Case of China, Malaysia, and Ghana AgEcon
Badibanga, Thaddee Mutumba; Diao, Xinshen; Roe, Terry L.; Somwaru, Agapi.
The paper develops a metric of structural transformation that can account for the production of new varieties of goods embodying advancements in technological know-how and design. Our measure captures the dynamics of an economy’s transformation and can be viewed as an extension of Hausmann and Klinger’s static measure. We apply our measure to four-digit-level SITC trade data of China, Malaysia, and Ghana over the period 1962–2000. The results show that two important factors characterize the rapid transformation of the Chinese economy: the high proximity of its export basket to three main industrial clusters—capital goods, consumer durable goods, and intermediate inputs—and the increase in the values of the new goods belonging to those three clusters....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Structural transformation; Discovery; Technological change; International Development; F19; O14; O33; O40.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50004
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Effects of Carbon Policies and Technology Change AgEcon
MacAuley, Molly K.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang.
We develop and estimate an index-based measure of expected consumer welfare under various carbon emissions control policies in the electricity generation sector. This approach estimates welfare effects by a somewhat less data intensive methodology than econometric approaches or more complex modeling. We include anticipated technological change in the production of renewable and nonrenewable power generation during the next two decades. We estimate welfare improvements from 2000 to 2020 as renewable energy technologies continue to be improved and gradually adopted, compared with a counterfactual scenario allowing for continual improvement of nonrenewable generation technology. We formally incorporate uncertainty. We evaluate the model under alternative...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon emissions control; Electricity generation; Technological change; Consumer welfare; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q40; Q42; O33.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10620
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Electricity Restructuring: Consequences and Opportunities for the Environment AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Heintzelman, Martin.
The universal theme of deregulation of the electricity industry is the dismantling of the exclusive franchise, opening up some segments of the industry to competition. Technological changes in generation have helped eliminate the perception that generation is a natural monopoly, but this change has not occurred in transmission and distribution services. Marketing functions have also been opened up to competition in many places. This paper includes a brief overview of the different approaches to restructuring that have been adopted in selected countries around the world. It also surveys the existing literature that explores various aspects of how electricity restructuring is likely to affect the environment. The effect of restructuring on the environment...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity restructuring; Air quality; Incentive-based regulation; Technological change; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; L51; L94.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10854
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Evaluación del cambio tecnológico en Pinus: una aplicación en la región sur de Brasil. Repositório Alice
ALENCAR, J. R. de..
Esta tesis tiene por objetivo evaluar los beneficios económicos derivados de la inversión pública en la investigación y desarrollo de un sistema informatizado para la realización de simulaciones de crecimiento y de productividad de poblaciones y repoblaciones de Pinus, en la Región Sur de Brasil, denominado SISPLAN. Este sistema permite generar criterios para la planificación de la producción y la gestión de las repoblaciones forestales, disminuyendo incertidumbres, principalmente, en el momento de la planificación de la actividad forestal. La metodología consistió en identificar los costes y beneficios económicos derivados de la generación, utilización y mantenimiento de la tecnología analizada. El marco conceptual dentro del que se desarrolló la...
Tipo: Tese/dissertação (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Mudança tecnológica; Gestão florestal; Avaliação econômica; Simulação de manejo florestal; Pinus; Technological change; Forest management; Economic valuation.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/7380
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Farm Level Nonparametric Analysis of Profit Maximization Behavior with Measurement Error AgEcon
Zereyesus, Yacob Abrehe; Featherstone, Allen M.; Langemeier, Michael R..
This paper tests the farm level profit maximization hypothesis using a nonparametric production analysis approach allowing for measurement error in the input and output variables. All farms violated Varian’s deterministic Weak Axiom of Profit Maximization (WAPM). The magnitude of minimum critical standard errors required for consistency with profit maximization, convex technology production was smaller after allowing technological change during the sample period. Results indicate strong support for the presence of technological change during the sample period.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Nonparametric analysis; Profit maximization; Measurement error; Technological change; Production Economics; D24.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46829
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FUNDAMENTAL AND INDUCED BIASES IN TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN CENTRAL CANADIAN AGRICULTURE AgEcon
Clark, J. Stephen; Klein, Kurt K.; Kerr, William A..
A new procedure is developed to estimate innovation possibility frontiers and test for biases in technological change. Using data on four inputs (land, machinery, chemicals and labour) from central Canada (Ontario and Quebec) over the period 1926-1985, we find that the innovations possibilities frontier shifts neutrally over time. This is consistent with Ahmad's model of induced innovations, but is not consistent with de Janvry's application of Ahmad's model to the historical development of Argentine agriculture. Agricultural research in Canada has been conducted with the objective of developing cost minimizing technologies. Empirical support was found for this notion in the development of the innovation possibilities frontier.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Innovation possibility frontier; Technological change; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25874
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GROWTH THEORY AND ACCOUNTING FOR GROWTH OF THE TAIWANESE ECONOMY AgEcon
Lin, Pei-Chien; Roe, Terry L..
A growth accounting and an econometric exercise are used to provide insights into the evolution of the Taiwanese economy over the period 1966-96. The approach links the GDP function of a multiple sector neoclassical growth model to growth accounting and, subsequently to the estimation of the parameters of this function. The growth accounting results show that the contribution of total factor productivity (TFP) to growth in GDP averaged about 32 percent over the period, and this contribution increased as the economy approached its long-run equilibrium during the decade of the 1980s, with evidence of some departure during 1991-96. Growth in TFP increased output growth in industry and services while growth in skilled labor benefited all sectors. Growth in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic growth; Productivity; Technological change; International Development; Productivity Analysis; O3; O4; O5.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12968
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Immigrant Workers and Technological Change in U.S. Agriculture: A Profit Maximization Approach of Induced Innovation AgEcon
Napasintuwong, Orachos; Emerson, Robert D..
This paper analyzes changes in U.S. agricultural technology during 1960-1999, emphasizing the role of immigrant workers on farm mechanization. The rates and directions of biased technological change based on the induced innovation theory are compared before and after the passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 which was intended to reduce employment of unauthorized workers. Unlike previous studies of induced innovation, this paper develops a new theoretical and empirical model of induced innovation using a profit maximization approach. The contribution of the profit maximization approach is that it allows changes in output combinations as a result of technological change. We found that the technology was biased against hired and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Immigrant workers; Farm mechanization; Technological change; Induced innovation; Profit function model; Labor and Human Capital; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; J43; J6; O3; Q55.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25505
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IMPACTOS DAS MUDANÇAS TECNOLÓGICAS E ORGANIZACIONAIS NA FORÇA DE TRABALHO DO SETOR AGROINDUSTRIAL DE MINAS GERAIS AgEcon
Fonseca, Maria Leila Rezende do Vale; Alencar, Edgard; Barbosa, Josue Humberto.
This article analyzes the impacts of the changes motivated by the opening process of the Brazilian economy in the composition of manpower and in the demand of workers' training with technical formation at the high school level in three agroindustrial companies of Minas Gerais State. It was used the method of historic-organizational case study to collect data and conduct a comparative analysis accomplishing the period from 1990 to 1998. It was observed that the researched companies passed for processes of technological and administrative restructuring, investing in installations, equipment, release of new products, as well as sticking to new methods and administrative practices, of production and marketing. As a result of that restructuring, they also...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Globalization; Technological change; Organizational change; Manpower..
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43531
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Inducing Low-Carbon Investment in the Electric Power Industry through a Price Floor for Emissions Trading AgEcon
Brauneis, Alexander; Loretz, Michael; Roland, Mestel; Palan, Stefan.
Uncertainty about long-term climate policy is a major driving force in the evolution of the carbon market price. Since this price enters the investment decision process of regulated firms, this uncertainty increases the cost of capital for investors and might deter invest-ments into new technologies at the company level. We apply a real options-based approach to assess the impact of climate change policy in the form of a constant or growing price floor on investment decisions of a single firm in a competitive environment. This firm has the opportunity to switch from a high-carbon “dirty” technology to a low-carbon “clean” technology. Using Monte Carlo simulation and dynamic programming techniques for real market data, we determine the optimal CO2 price...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon price; Price floor; Technological change; Investment decision; Real option approach; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D81; O38; Q55.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119096
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Innovation, Productivity Growth, and the Survival of the U.S. Copper Industry AgEcon
Tilton, John E.; Landsberg, Hans H..
Mining is widely viewed as an old industry with mature and stable technologies. Companies and countries with the best deposits are the most productive and efficient producers. As these deposits are depleted, mining shifts to countries with the next best deposits. This tendency to exploit poorer quality ores tends to push productivity down and the prices of mineral commodities up over time. Copper mining in the United States, however, calls into question this conventional view. After leading the world in output for decades, the U.S. industry lost its ability to compete and suffered a major decline during the 1970s and early 1980s. In the face of predictions of complete collapse, it staged a remarkable revival, and today mines more copper than in 1970. A...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Copper industry; Productivity; Technological change; Comparative advantage; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q30; L72; O31; F14.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10534
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Is the Green Revolution Vanishing? Empirical Evidence from TFP Analysis for Rice AgEcon
Adlas, J.; Achoth, Lalith.
A serious concern has been raised recently on the long run sustainability of the productivity effects of Green Revolution technologies in the light of decelerating trend in the yield growth of rice since the mid 1980s under irrigated ecosystem. However, the changes in physical yield are not true measures of productivity from efficiency perspective. Total factor productivity (TFP) is a true measure of economic efficiency of any technology impact. The paper addresses the crucial issue of "is green revolution vanishing" empirically by analyzing TFP for rice in India. Results suggest that various modern technologies (such as modern cultivars) adopted by the farmers over the period have continued to make considerable impact on rice productivity growth-as...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Technological change; Productivity; Rice; India; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O3.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25561
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