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Agricultural efficiency, malaria incidence and health expenses among Ugandan farmers AgEcon
Ulimwengu, John M.; Badiane, Ousmane.
The importance of health in promoting economic development has been forcefully stated by the World Health Organization’s Commission on Macroeconomics and Health. In this paper, we look at the impact of own household health expenses on malaria incidence and ultimately on agricultural efficiency. We use a non-parametric method to estimate agricultural efficiency, therefore avoiding the issue of identification of the proper household agricultural production function. In addition the simar-wilson approach followed in this paper accounts for bias induced by serial correlation among farmers. A Tobit model with endogenous health production function is used to estimate the impact of malaria incidence on agricultural efficiency. Data come from the 2006 National...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Malaria; Efficiency; Tobit; Health; Agriculture; Expenses; Household; Production; Agricultural and Food Policy; Health Economics and Policy; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103839
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Analysis of Country of Origin Labeling for Food Products in Taiwan Using Auction Experiment with Tasting AgEcon
Chern, Wen S.; Lin, Huei-Ching.
This study attempts to evaluate the economic benefits of the country of origin labeling (COOL) in Taiwan. A Vickrey second-price sealed-bid auction was conducted to estimate the consumer’s willingness to pay for Taiwan products vs. those from China and Vietnam. Our experiment was designed to investigate the impacts of product tasting on bidding behavior. The regression results show that tasting raised bids for Taiwan and China teas, but lowered bids for Vietnam tea. The econometric results show very high premiums for Taiwan products. Taiwanese consumers and food producers stand to benefit greatly with COOL.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Auction Experiment; Country of Origin Labeling; Tobit; Willingness to Pay; Bid Premium; Taiwan; China; Vietnam; Tea; Plum; Import; Food; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Q13; D12..
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103219
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Bootstrapping a conditional moments test for normality after tobit estimation AgEcon
Drukker, David M..
Categorical and limited dependent variable models are routinely estimated via maximum likelihood. It is well-known that the ML estimates of the parameters are inconsistent if the distribution or the skedastic component is misspecified. When conditional moment tests were first developed by Newey (1985) and Tauchen (1985), they appeared to offer a wide range of easy-to-compute specification tests for categorical and limited dependent variable models estimated by maximum likelihood. However, subsequent studies found that using the asymptotic critical values produced severe size distortions. This paper presents simulation evidence that the standard conditional moment test for normality after tobit estimation has essentially no size distortion and reasonable...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Conditional moment tests; Bootstrap; Tobit; Normality; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115956
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Consumer Demand for Ahi Poke (Raw Tuna Salad) in Hawaii AgEcon
Fernandes da Costa, Pedro M.; Hu, Wuyang; Pan, Minling.
Ahi poke (raw tuna salad) has significant role in Hawaii culture and economy. A consumer survey in Hawaii was used to examine consumers’ purchasing intentions of ahi poke. A censored analysis was conducted to analyze the demand and tie with various consumer characteristics. Results show that many consumer eat ahi poke frequently and different consumer profiles will lead to large differences in their demand. Information obtained in study may help producers and retailers to better target their marketing strategies and increase sales.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Ahi Poke; Demand; Hawaii; Tobit; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Marketing; Q13; D12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56346
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Consumer Interest in Environmentally Beneficial Chicken Feeds: Comparing High Available Phosphorus Corn and Other Varieties AgEcon
Pesek, John D., Jr.; Bernard, John C.; Gupta, Meeta.
One source of phosphorous pollution in areas of high chicken production is runoff from fields using fertilizer from these operations. A potential solution is to feed chicken high available phosphorus (HAP) corn, reducing phosphorus in manure. This study examined consumer purchase likelihood of chickens fed HAP, created traditionally or through genetic modification, and other genetically modified (GM) corn including Bt and Roundup-ready. Survey results from the Delmarva Peninsula found considerable interest in non-GM HAP corn, although GM HAP corn was not typically viewed as more acceptable than other GM varieties. Overall, the marketplace appears open to products geared toward environmental benefits.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Chicken; Conjoint analysis; Corn; Genetically modified; Heteroscedastic; Phosphorus pollution; Tobit; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q13; D12; C24.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117945
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Consumer Likelihood to Purchase Chickens with Novel Production Attributes AgEcon
Bernard, John C.; Pesek, John D., Jr.; Pan, Xiqian.
Typical supermarket chickens are produced with novel or controversial attributes. This continues despite contrasting growth in consumer interest in organic and natural foods. This study surveyed Delaware consumers’ likelihood to purchase chicken given different attributes: free range, given antibiotics, irradiated, fed genetically modified (GM) fee, GM chicken, and price. Examining conjoint analysis data with a heteroskedastic two-limit tobit model, GM chicken and other novel attributes were found to lower purchase likelihood significantly. Understanding these results should help the industry meet consumer preferences while aiding its continued expansion to benefit workers and growers across the South.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Antibiotics; Chicken; Conjoint analysis; Genetically modified; Heteroskedastic; Irradiated; Tobit; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Q13; D12; C24.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6058
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DEMAND AND QUALITY UNCERTAINTY IN PECAN PURCHASING DECISIONS AgEcon
Park, Timothy A.; Florkowski, Wojciech J..
A generalized Heckman model of purchase decisions incorporating perceived consumer quality attributes, ease of purchase, and familiarity with marketing outlets as factors influencing pecan purchases is estimated. Marketing efforts that encourage consumers to expand expenditures on nut products increase both the probability of pecan purchases and the amount purchased. Consumers who use all types of nuts in a wider variety of foods tend to purchase pecans more frequently. A diverse set of marketing outlets provides consumers with convenient sources of purchasing pecans and has a significant influence on the probability of pecan purchases but not the amount of pecans purchased.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Generalized Heckman model; Pecan purchases; Tobit; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15130
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Demand for Pasture-Raised Livestock Products: Results from Michigan Retail Surveys AgEcon
Conner, David S.; Oppenheim, Diana.
Pasture-raised livestock production offers opportunity for product differentiation and enhanced sustainability. Shopper surveys at three Michigan retail locations measured consumers’ attitudes and beliefs regarding pasture-raised livestock products, and willingness to pay for pasture-raised milk and beef. The shoppers associate pasture-raised products with attributes important to purchase decisions. The shoppers express willingness to pay, on average, about 35% more for pasture-raised milk and beef. Informational messages appear to have no effect on these responses. We suggest pasture-raised is a viable marketing strategy and recommend premium pricing strategies and promotion based on verifiable health benefits.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Animal welfare; Consumer demand; Pasture-raised livestock products; Sustainability; Tobit; Willingness to pay; Agribusiness; Demand and Price Analysis; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90550
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Determinants of Farm Household Income Diversification in the United States: Evidence from Farm-Level Data AgEcon
Mishra, Ashok K.; Erickson, Kenneth W.; Harris, James Michael; Hallahan, Charles B.; Uematsu, Hiroki.
This study examines the determinants of income diversification of farm households in the United States. Farm households allocate their time between farm and off-farm activities to help stabilized household income (consumption). What characterizes those households who engage in off-farm activities? Is there any pattern over time? Using 1999, 2003 and 2007 farm-level data from the USDA’s Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS), this study estimates intensity of off-farm income (or income diversification). The results show that older operators, full owners, and small farms have higher intensity of off-farm income in total household income. In contrast, dairy farms, vertically coordinated farms and farms located in the Southern and Pacific regions have...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Tobit; Income diversification; Vertical integration; Tenure; Farm households; Agricultural Finance; Consumer/Household Economics; D1; J2; Q12.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61632
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ECONOMIC INCENTIVES AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN U.S. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PLANT BREEDING AgEcon
Fuglie, Keith O.; Walker, Thomas S..
Private investment in plant breeding has been increasing while public plant breeding has stagnated or declined. Moreover, research investment among crop commodities is uneven. Using a comprehensive survey of U.S. plant breeders from 1994, we use a simultaneous equations model to examine incentives and public-private tradeoffs in plant breeding research among 84 crop commodities. Allocation of private breeders among crops is strongly influenced by market size, hybrid seed technology, and ease of breeding improvement. In general, the allocation of public breeders does not appear to "crowd out" private breeders, but some competition may occur in applied breeding. Public breeding declines as private breeding increases on a commodity. Public breeding is...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural research policy; Hybrid seed; Plant breeders; Three stage least squares; Tobit; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Q160; L330; O310; O320.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15453
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Eficiência na produção e na venda de mangas no polo Petrolina-Juazeiro: o que os índices de eficiência representam? Repositório Alice
SAMPAIO, Y. de S. B.; BARROS, E. de S.; LIMA, J. R. F. de.
o presente artigo visa analisar os diferenciais de eficiência em produção e em renda entre os produtores de manga do Polo Petrolina-Juazeiro e procura identificar se existe viés de eficiência nesses escores. Caso o preço fosse constante as duas estimações seriam semelhantes, mas o preço obtido pela produção pode variar com a qualidade da manga, com a forma de negociação e com o momento da venda. Assim, foram consideradas duas estimações DEA-V,uma para a quantidade produzida e a outra para o valor da produção. As variáveis independentes utilizadas em ambas as estimações foram área plantada, mão-de-obra, capital e insumos. Em seguida foi calculado modelo Tobit tomando a eficiência como variável dependente. Como resultados, verificou-se que características...
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: DEA-V; Tobit; Mercado; Produção; Mangifera indica; Preço; Produtor; Manga; Economia; Mango.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/995954
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FACTORS AFFECTING COMMERCIAL BANK LENDING TO AGRICULTURE AgEcon
Betubiza, Eustacius N.; Leatham, David J..
A tobit econometric procedure was used to examine the effect of selected demand and supply factors on nonreal estate agricultural lending by commercial banks in Texas. Results show that banks have reduced their agricultural loan portfolios in response to increased use of interest sensitive deposits after deregulation. Moreover, almost half of this decrease came from banks that stopped making agricultural loans. Also, results show that banks affiliated with multi-bank holding companies lend less money to agriculture relative to their assets than do independent banks.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural lending; Commercial banks; Deregulation; Tobit; Agricultural Finance.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15326
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FARM CHARACTERISTICS THAT INFLUENCE NET FARM INCOME VARIABILITY AND LOSSES AgEcon
Dunn, Jerry W.; Williams, Jeffery R..
Farm-level, cross-section and panel data were used with econometric methods to examine relationships between variability in net farm income and explanatory variables including government payments, gross crop income, gross livestock income, costs, efficiency measures, and other socioeconomic characteristics such as age, leverage, percent of land rented, and enterprise diversification. The results suggest that quantifying the impacts of socioeconomic factors on variability of net farm income is difficult. Among the income variables, changes in gross crop income had the largest impact. Among cross-section data, increases in interest costs, age, and diversification were found to have positive relationships with net income variability. However, only the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Diversification; Farm planning; Panel data; Risk; Tobit; Agricultural Finance; Farm Management.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/36337
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Identifying Risk Factors Affecting Weather- and Disease-Related Losses in the U.S. Farm-Raised Catfish Industry AgEcon
Hanson, Terrill R.; Shaik, Saleem; Coble, Keith H.; Edwards, Seanicaa; Miller, J. Corey.
Two double-limit tobit models are used to identify significant risk factors that most affect farm-raised catfish losses from weather-related events and from disease outbreaks. Results of the weather loss model indicate that the variables for operator education level, number of ponds, pond water depth, production management strategy, past experience with severe losses from low oxygen levels from off-farm power outages, past experience with severe losses from diseases, and being in the South are statistically significant. Results of the disease loss model indicate that the variables for operator experience and pond water depth are significant. De-velopment of models explaining weather and disease losses through observable variables pro-vides a better...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Aquaculture; Tobit; Risk management; Columnaris; Enteric septicemia of catfish; Weather losses; Livestock Production/Industries; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44736
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Incentive Payment Programs for Environmental Protection: A Framework for Eliciting and Estimating Landowners' Willingness to Participate AgEcon
Layton, David F.; Siikamaki, Juha.
This paper considers the role of incentive payment programs in eliciting, estimating, and predicting landowners' conservation enrollments. Using both program participation and the amount of land enrolled, we develop two econometric approaches for predicting enrollments. The first is a multivariate censored regression model that handles zero enrollments and heterogeneity in the opportunity cost of enrollments by combining an inverse hyperbolic sine transformation of enrollments with alternative-specific correlation and random parameters. The second is a beta-binomial model, which recognizes that in practice elicited enrollments are essentially integer valued. We apply these approaches to Finland, where the protection of private nonindustrial forests is an...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Protection; Endangered; Voluntary; Incentive; Tobit; Beta-binomial; Stated preferences; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10775
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Modeling Censored Data Using Mixture Regression Models with an Application to Cattle Production Yields AgEcon
Belasco, Eric J.; Ghosh, Sujit K..
This research develops a mixture regression model that is shown to have advantages over the classical Tobit model in model fit and predictive tests when data are generated from a two step process. Additionally, the model is shown to allow for flexibility in distributional assumptions while nesting the classic Tobit model. A simulated data set is utilized to assess the potential loss in efficiency from model misspecification, assuming the Tobit and a zero-inflated log-normal distribution, which is derived from the generalized mixture model. Results from simulations key on the finding that the proposed zero-inflated log-normal model clearly outperforms the Tobit model when data are generated from a two step process. When data are generated from a Tobit...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Censoring; Livestock production; Tobit; Zero-inflated; Bayesian; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6341
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OLS and Tobit Estimates: When is Substitution Defensible Operationally? AgEcon
Wilson, Clevo; Tisdell, Clement A..
Field data are used to illustrate that, other things constant, regression results using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) converge to Tobit estimates as the number of zeros in the regressand decrease. Tobit estimates are theoretically superior to OLS estimates when using censored data. However, if little difference exists between OLS and Tobit estimates, OLS may be operationally acceptable. OLS may even be optimal in a bounded rationality sense because the extra cost of using Tobit analysis may be less than the extra benefits from a very slight increase in accuracy.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Bounded rationality; Censored data; Ordinary Least Squares; Tobit; Regressand; Willingness to pay studies.; Public Economics.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90519
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Policy Reform and Off-farm Labor Supply by Operators in the Delta Region: A AgEcon
Mishra, Ashok K.; Paudel, Krishna P..
Off-farm employment has been an integral part of the emerging structure of production agriculture in the South. Government farm program payments, farm structure, and strong non-farm economy have important impact on labor allocation, farm and non-farm labor, decision of farm operators. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the determinants of off-farm labor supply for farm operators in the Delta States. Results show that off-farm work, educational level, presence of teenager, and farm tenure positive and significant impact on ff-farm labor supply by farm operators. On the other hand, farm size, household wealth, decoupled and couple farm program payments, and degree of farm diversification have a negative and significant impact on off-farm...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Off-farm labor supply; Delta region; Tobit; Semiparametric; Government farm program payments; Education; Farm Management; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6725
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Price Promotions and Brand Loyalty: Empirical Evidence for the German Breakfast Cereals Market AgEcon
Empen, Janine; Loy, Jens-Peter; Weiss, Christoph R..
Price promotions are important marketing activities for (food) retailers; brand loyalty is a major requisite to foster brands' assets. Several theoretical papers have analyzed the relationship between price promotions and brand loyalty resulting in mixed or perhaps contradictory outcomes; only a few empirical studies for (European) grocery markets are available to test which model(s) might be most relevant to reflect pricing strategies in food retailing. In this analysis, two detailed data sets for the German ready-to-eat breakfast cereals market are merged to investigate the relationship between price promotions and brand loyalty. We find significant empirical evidence that stronger brands tend to be promoted less frequently at lower discounts compared to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Price Promotion; Brand Loyalty; Food Retailing; Ready-to-Eat Cereals; Germany; Instruments; Tobit; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114341
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Target Markets for Grain and Cotton Marketing Consultants and Market Information Systems AgEcon
Vergara, Oscar; Coble, Keith H.; Hudson, Darren; Knight, Thomas O.; Patrick, George F.; Baquet, Alan E..
This paper examines the use of market consultants and market information systems by grain and cotton producers. A model of producer demand for marketing information and consultants is proposed that decomposes price received into exogenous and endogenous components. The analysis is based on a survey of over 1,600 producers. The results suggest that expenditures on market information systems and market consultants are not independent and, more specifically, expenditures on marketing consultants substitute for expenditures on market information systems.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Expected utility; Market information; Marketing; Risk; Tobit; Marketing.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30780
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