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A New World Chaos? International Institutions in the Information Age AgEcon
Kerr, William A..
The technological revolutions that underlie the new information age will tax considerably the abilities of existing international institutions to bring order to international relations. Rapid rates of change may lead to chaos if international institutions cannot evolve to accommodate those changes. In some cases, new organisations will be required. The role given international organisations in establishing order in the latter half of the 20th century is reviewed. The new challenges presented by the information age are outlined. Whether the existing international organisations will be sufficiently flexible to accommodate the changes brought by the information age is assessed.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Change; Globalisation; International institutions; Law; Trade policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23831
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A note on taxes, prices, wages, and welfare in general equilibrium models AgEcon
Robinson, Sherman; Thierfelder, Karen.
"January 1999." Includes bibliographical references (p. 11-12).
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Trade policy; Welfare economics; Equilibrium (Economics); Financial Economics.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97541
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A Quantitative Analysis of Trade Policy Responses to High Agricultural Commodity Prices AgEcon
Yu, Tun-Hsiang (Edward); Tokgoz, Simla; Wailes, Eric J.; Chavez, Eddie C..
Replaced with revised version of paper 07/24/09.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade policy; Agricultural markets; Commodity prices; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51805
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A Simple Measure for Agricultural Trade Distortion AgEcon
Roningen, Vernon O.; Dixit, Praveen M..
A simple measure is proposed that estimates the volume of trade distortion caused by the agricultural policies of trading countries. The index, called a TDS (Trade Distorted by support), would be useful for trade analysts to compare the trade impact of agricultural support policies across countries and commodities. The TDS index can be calculated largely from existing information on agricultural support. A TDS index might also be used to assess damages in trade dispute settlement cases.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Indicators; Producer subsidy equivalent; Trade distortion; Trade models; Trade negotiations; Trade policy; GATT; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1991 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51137
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Agricultural Trade Policy Issues in the Eighties, Current Research and Long-Term Forecasting AgEcon
Domestic agricultural policy and trade policy are closely linked. Thus, research, including long-term forecasting activities, must take into account the domestic as well as international implications of trade policy issues. The seventh meeting of the Consortium on Trade Research on June 23-24, 1983, in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, focused on the problems facing international agricultural trade in the eighties; current research efforts at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Canada, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Secretariat; and the status, problems, and applications of long-term forecasting models.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade policy; Trade modeling; Long-term forecasting; Monetary policy; Exchange rates; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1983 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51440
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Agricultural trade reform under the Doha Agenda: some key issues AgEcon
Martin, William J.; Anderson, Kym.
A successful agreement on agriculture is essential for an overall agreement under the WTO’s Doha trade negotiations. Reaching agreement has been difficult, and as of August 2007, much still remains to be done if a successful agreement is to be reached. We consider three of the most controversial areas of the agricultural negotiations: the relative importance of domestic support, market access and export subsidies; three market access issues of sensitive-product exceptions sought for all countries and, the additional special product exceptions sought for developing countries, the proposed special safeguard mechanism; and the domestic support issue. We show that decisions made on reform in these areas will have a critical influence on whether the...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Computable general equilibrium modelling; Doha development agenda; Multilateral negotiations; Trade policy; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117739
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Analysis of the Relationship between State Budget and Trade Balance of Libyan Economy (Period: 2000 – 2008) AgEcon
Maitah, Mansoor; der Ali, A..
The subject of the relationship between state budget and trade balance is important as economic subject, not only at the level of developing countries, but also at of advanced ones, too. Such importance emerged clearly when 1980s witnessed in United States of America a deficit in both state budget and trade balance, which was called at that time as the twin or dual deficit. We can say that the analysis of relationship between state budget and trade balance states the extent of mutual effect between financial and trade policies of any economy, namely; any change in the outcome of either one may affect the other in the same degree. To put in other words, the instruments of financial policy represented by total incomes and total expenditures can affect the...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: State budget; Trade balance; Libya; Trade policy; Fiscal policy; Financial Economics; International Relations/Trade; GA; IN.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99221
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Contingent Protection Measures and the Management of the Softwood Lumber Trade in North America AgEcon
Froese, Marc D..
This article examines Canada’s softwood lumber dispute with the United States in the context of new juridical models of international dispute settlement and an evolving trade policy environment in North America. Two questions are of central importance to this study. First, what does the rise of contingent protection measures mean for Canada’s regulatory model? Strong antidumping legislation has created a new order of trade conflict at a time when intrasectoral competition has increased state support in a number of sectors. Second, how do American antidumping trade remedy measures come to bear in this dispute? In the softwood case, dispute settlement has been less effective because Canada, as the smaller economy, faces the challenge of enforcing panel...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Antidumping; Countervailing duties; Dispute settlement; Softwood; Trade policy; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23844
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Decomposing Changes in Agricultural Producer Prices AgEcon
Liefert, William M..
This paper develops a method for decomposing changes in agricultural producer prices. The method builds on a procedure used by the World Bank, with the key variables in the decomposition being trade prices, exchange rates, and agricultural trade policies. The main ways by which we expand on the World Bank decomposition procedure are by broadening the analysis of policy effects, and by adding the effect from incomplete transmission of changes in border prices and exchange rates to producer prices, and the effect on prices from interactions between variables as they change simultaneously. We demonstrate the decomposition method by using the Russian poultry market in the late 1990s, and find that the dominant factor in changing the producer price was the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural prices; Price transmission; Exchange rates; Trade policy; Russian agriculture; Developing economies; Transition economies; Agricultural Finance; F13; O13; 024; Q11; Q17.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25331
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Do Decoupled Payments Stimulate Production? Estimating the Effect on Program Crop Acreage Using Matching AgEcon
Key, Nigel D.; Roberts, Robert J..
This study uses matching to evaluate the effect of decoupled payments on the acreage response of Iowa farmers who were in business in 1997 and 2002. Using farm-level panel data from the U.S. Agricultural Census, we examine whether farmers receiving high levels of 1997 agricultural payments per acre had a greater increase in program crop acreage between 1997 and 2002 than farmers receiving low levels of payments. The panel data set allows for conditioning current acreage on past individual acreage and operator characteristics. The large and exhaustive sample allows for comparisons across similar farms. The matching methodology avoids distributional and functional form assumptions about the relationship between the treatment and outcome. Results are...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Decoupled payments; Supply response; Government payments; Program crops; Trade policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Production Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6072
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Does international cereal trade save water? The impact of virtual water trade on global water use AgEcon
de Fraiture, Charlotte; Cai, Ximing; Amarasinghe, Upali A.; Rosegrant, Mark W.; Molden, David J..
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Cereals; Trade policy; Water use; Irrigation water; Productivity; Evapotranspiration; Water scarcity; Water conservation; Crop Production/Industries; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92832
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Exploring Linkages Among Agriculture, Trade, and the Environment: Issues for the Next Century AgEcon
Krissoff, Barry; Ballenger, Nicole; Dunmore, John C.; Gray, Denice.
Many trade and environment issues will confront agriculture over the next several years. This report provides an economic framework to better understand these issues and discusses prior empirical inquiries and findings. Four primary issues are addressed: (1) how will environmental policies affect agricultural trade?; (2) how will agricultural trade liberalization affect environmental quality?; (3) to what extent should there be international harmonization of environmental policies and product standards?; and (4) is there economic justification for using trade measures to protect the environment? This report demonstrates that basic economic paradigms can provide a basis for understanding how trade and the environment interact. The few empirical studies...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Environmental policy; Agricultural policy; Trade policy; Trade; Environment; Harmonization; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33961
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Factors Determining EU-Competitiveness of the Hungarian Agriculture: Trade policy approach AgEcon
Halmai, Peter; Elekes, Andrea.
As regards EU accession of Hungary one of the most important questions is how the adaptation of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) will affect the competitiveness of the Hungarian agriculture. Competitive effects of CAP can be revealed in several ways (quantitative, comparative analysis, simulations etc.) but the results may differ significantly. That is why it is interesting to compare the results of different methods. This paper concentrates on the competitive effects of changing trade policy by comparing the results of comparative analyses (producer prices, export subsidy systems and import protection) and simulations. The results of the simulation confirm the conclusion that the CAP adaptation will favour basically the cereal production. CAP...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: EU accession; Trade policy; Competitiveness; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24928
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Finding the Balance Between Agricultural and Trade Policy: Rwanda Coffee Policy in Flux AgEcon
Tardif-Douglin, David; Ngirumwami, Jean Leonard; Shaffer, James D.; Murekezi, Anastase; Kampayana, Theobald.
Coffee is the principal source of foreign exchange for Rwanda. Over the years the predominating coffee policy has been to remunerate coffee producing highly to ensure sufficient production and foreign exchange receipts. The current policy debate focuses on whether the government can remove or modify coffee laws in existence since 1978 in such a way as to reduce the burden of the State and return crop choice to farmers without bringing about a catastrophic collapse in foreign exchange inflows.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; Trade policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F14.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54691
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Food policy and poverty in Indonesia: a general equilibrium analysis AgEcon
Warr, Peter G..
Rice is Indonesia’s staple food and accounts for large shares of both consumers’ budgets and total employment. Until recently, Indonesia was the world’s largest importer, but rice import policy is now highly protectionist. Since early 2004, rice imports have been officially banned. Advocates of this policy say it reduces poverty by assisting poor farmers. Opponents say it increases poverty, stressing negative effects on poor consumers. This paper uses a general equilibrium model of the Indonesian economy to analyse the effects of a ban on rice imports. The analysis recognises 1000 individual households, including allmajor socioeconomic categories, disaggregated by expenditures per person. It takes account of effects on each household’s real expenditure and...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: General equilibrium; Rice imports; Trade policy; Indonesia; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118588
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Food Safety Incidents, Collateral Damage and Trade Policy Responses: China-Canada Agri-Food Trade AgEcon
Liu, Huanan; Hobbs, Jill E.; Kerr, William A..
As markets become globalized, food safety policy and international trade policy are increasingly intertwined. Globalization also means that food safety incidents are widely reported internationally. One result is that food safety incidents can negatively impact products where no food safety issue exists as consumers lose trust in both foreign and domestic food safety institutions. While the policy framework for dealing with directly effected imported foods is well understood, how to deal with the market failure associated with indirectly affected products within the existing trade policy rules has not been explored. Using the example of China’s 2007 problems with a spate of products safety incidents, a theoretical framework is developed and the response of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Canada; China; Cooperation; Food safety; Market failure; Trade policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43463
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GM crop technology and trade restraints: economic implications for Australia and New Zealand AgEcon
Anderson, Kym; Jackson, Lee Ann.
How much might the potential economic benefit from enhanced farm productivity associated with crop biotechnology adoption by Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) be offset by a loss of market access abroad for crops that may contain genetically modified (GM) organisms? This paper uses the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model to estimate effects of other countries’ GM policies without and with ANZ farmers adopting GM varieties of various grains and oilseeds. The gross economic benefits to ANZ from adopting GM crops under a variety of scenarios could be positive even if the strict controls on imports from GM-adopting countries by the European Union are maintained, but not if North-East Asia also applied such trade restaints. From those gross economic...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Computable general equilibrium; Genetically modified organisms; Regulation; Trade policy; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118502
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GM food technology abroad and its implications for Australia and New Zealand AgEcon
Anderson, Kym; Jackson, Lee Ann.
The potential economic benefits from agricultural biotechnology adoption by ANZ need to be weighed against any likely loss of market access abroad for crops that may contain genetically modified (GM) organisms. This paper uses the global GTAP model to estimate effects of other countries' GM policies without and with ANZ farmers adopting GM varieties of various grains and oilseeds. The benefits to ANZ from adopting GM crops under a variety of scenarios are positive even in the presence of the ban on imports from GM-adopting countries by the EU (but not if East Asia also applied such a ban).
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; GMOs; Regulation; Trade policy; Computable general equilibrium; Crop Production/Industries; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; C68; D58; F13; O3; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58365
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How Much Do Decoupled Payments Affect Production? An Instrumental Variable Approach with Panel Data AgEcon
Weber, Jeremy G.; Key, Nigel D..
Agricultural support payments that cause no or minimal production distortions are exempt from World Trade Organization restrictions. If and how much decoupled payments, such as direct payments in the U.S., affect agricultural production remains an open empirical question with implications for policy. We use multiple years of the Census of Agriculture to estimate the aggregate supply response to changes in direct payments. To identify an exogenous source of variation in payments we exploit a provision of the 2002 Farm Act that departed from previous policy by making oilseeds eligible for direct payments, thus increasing payments to areas that historically produced more oilseeds. Using a sample of ZIP codes that accounts for more than eighty percent of the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Decoupled payments; Supply response; Government payments; Program crops; Trade policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103455
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Impact of Trade Liberalization and World Price Changes in Bangladesh: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis AgEcon
Alam, Mohammad Jahangir; Buysse, Jeroen; Begum, Ismat Ara; Nolte, Stephan; Wailes, Eric J.; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido.
The paper analyzes the impact of trade liberalization and changes in world prices of agricultural commodities in Bangladesh using single country CGE model. Since the agricultural sector is sensitive to overall employment, household welfare and food security, the analysis focuses on the changes in agricultural production, consumption, household income and welfare. The results show that trade liberalization increases the welfare of all household groups while world market price increases decrease welfare. It means that although trade liberalization generates a welfare increase for households but this is dependent on the relative level of world commodity prices. Our results are based on the analysis of aggregate household groups, so it may be of future...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Static; CGE; Trade policy; World prices; Agricultural commodities; Bangladesh; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123724
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