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25 Years of Food Policy Research: Reflections by Per Pinstrup-Anderson AgEcon
Pinstrup-Andersen, Per.
On the occasion of IFPRI's 25th anniversary, the author has selected a few subjects where the Institute has made an important and recognized contribution to food policy research, either by itself or, more frequently, with others. In each case the topic has broad application and the research includes innovative conclusions or methodology. This has necessarily meant looking more to the past than the present, although in many cases the work is continuing and promises a good deal more, in addition to what has already been achieved. He addresses IFPRI's accomplishments and the influence it has had on the development community’s views on policy issues and the nature of development in general. These areas are discussed: Global Food Trends, Food Subsidies, Markets...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: International Food Policy Research Institute -- History; Environmental policies; Globalization Food security; Subsidies; Trade; Food policies; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42888
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A ANALYSIS OF EVOLUTION OF BRAZIL´S TRADE RELATIONS WITH MERCOSUR AND OTHER ECONOMIC BLOCS AgEcon
Braun, Mirian Beatriz Schneider; Cardoso, Rubiane Daniele; Westeren, Knut Ingar.
O objetivo central deste trabalho é fazer uma retrospectiva histórica do processo de formação do Mercosul, o desenvolvimento das relações comerciais, bem como o conseqüente processo de convergência e divergência neste contexto. E ainda avaliar a eficácia do processo de interação no aumento das transações comerciais, tanto intra quanto extra-bloco. Nesta etapa, a característica que diferencia o outro é o processo de unificação dos estados. Desde o surgimento da idéia de integração das economias do Cone Sul da América Latina, ainda em meados dos anos-1980, o processo passou por várias fases. O primeiro edifício conhecido como o Mercosul, entre 1991 e 1998 caracteriza-se por um forte aumento do fluxo de comércio entre os países do...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Comércio; Integração econômica; Mercosul; Trade; Economic integration; Mercosur; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109676
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A Conflict of Legitimate Concerns or Pandering to Vested Interests? Conflicting Attitudes Towards the Regulation of Trade in Genetically Modified Goods - The EU and the US AgEcon
Perdikis, Nicholas.
The success of multilateral negotiations in reducing explicit trade barriers has focused the attention of policy makers and other interest groups on the impact domestic policies and attitudes may have on trade flows. In the area of genetically modified goods the principal area of dispute between the U.S. and the EU involves fundamental differences in the perception of these goods and consumer attitudes towards them. The current dispute settlement mechanisms do not provide a way of dealing with this type of issue. Existing bodies were designed to deal with "producer vested" interests and so cannot deal with "legitimate" consumer concerns. The paper concludes that a new body should be established to deal with these within the ambit of the WTO.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Conflicts; EU; GMOs; Trade; U.S.; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23835
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A cultura da soja no sul do Maranhão. Infoteca-e
PALUDZYSZYN FILHO, E..
Evolucao da area cultivada; Caracteristicas regionais; Area; Temperatura; Precipitacao e necessidades hidricas; Produtividade; Epoca de plantio; Cultivares; Teor de oleo e proteina; Producao de sementes; Cultivares de ciclo precoce; Cultivares de ciclo medio; Cultivares de ciclo tardio; Comercializacao e transportes.
Tipo: Documentos (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Cultivar; Brasil; Maranhao; Regiao norte; Soybean; Production; Productivity; Transport; North region.; Comercialização; Cerrado; Época de Semeadura; Melhoramento; Pesquisa; Produtividade; Produção; Transporte; Variedade; Soja.; Commercialization; Brazil; Research; Plant breeding; Trade; Varieties.; Sowing date; Savannas.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/infoteca/handle/doc/445817
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A Dynamic CGE Model: An Application of R&D- Based Endogenous Growth Model Theory AgEcon
Diao, Xinshen; Elbasha, Elamin H.; Roe, Terry L.; Yeldan, A. Erinc.
An R&D based endogenous growth - applied general equilibrium model is developed from an underlying analytical model which combines Romer's capital variety with Grossman and Helpman's multi-sector open economy model. The transitional dynamics of the analytical model are derived. For numerical implementation, a time discrete empirical model, with an Armington structure, is fit to East Asian data of the social accounting matrix variety. Simulations of trade reform are performed and their static and dynamic effects compared. The transition paths of the state variables are found to have a half-life of five to six periods. A solution of the Social Planner's problem, and interventions which seek to obtain this outcome from the decentralized model are also...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Applied General Equilibrium; Trade; Growth; International Relations/Trade; F11; 031; 041.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7461
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A FRUTICULTURA IRRIGADA EM ÁREAS DE ASSENTAMENTO NO MUNICÍPIO DE BARAÚNA – RN: ANÁLISE DO PROCESSO DE PRODUÇÃO E COMERCIALIZAÇÃO AgEcon
Maia, Ana Cristina Nogueira; Costa, Genivalda Cordeiro Da.
A fruticultura irrigada foi introduzida no Rio Grande do Norte, no final dos anos 70, pela empresa Maisa Agroindustrial S/A – MAISA, através do cultivo de melão. A partir da década de 80 outras empresas, como por exemplo, a FRUNORTE passaram a produzir melão e outras frutas na região. Porém, a partir de meados da década de 90, o melão passou a ser produzido também por médios e pequenos produtores da região, inclusive por produtores de áreas de assentamentos de Reforma Agrária, os quais se tornaram fornecedores do produto para a agroindústria – que se encarregava da venda do melão junto aos mercados externo e interno (COSTA, 2002). Este estudo teve como objetivo geral: analisar o processo de produção e comercialização da fruticultura irrigada desenvolvida...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Produção; Comercialização; Fruticultura irrigada; Production; Trade; Irrigated fruit; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113197
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A PARTIAL EQUILIBRIUM MODEL OF THE LINKAGES BETWEEN ANIMAL WELFARE, TRADE AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN SCOTLAND AgEcon
Toma, Luiza; Ashworth, Cheryl J.; Stott, Alistair W..
This research analyses the impacts of a scientific advance that improves animal welfare, upon the environment and trade in Scotland using partial equilibrium (PE) modelling. The science improves pig neonatal survival through improved (high fibre) sow diets used before mating. Our model simulates the effects of animal welfare changes on the pig production systems (pig meat) and further on trade flows (trade in pig meat) and environment (water and air pollution). We consider two animal welfare simulation scenarios, namely the status quo – no animal welfare change as regards pig neonatal mortality (baseline scenario) and the case of improving pig neonatal survival (alternative scenario) and compare the impacts on trade and environment between the two...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Pig Welfare; Trade; Environment; Scotland; Partial Equilibrium Model.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Q18; Q50.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44825
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A Primer on US Sugar in the 2007 US Farm Bill AgEcon
Beghin, John C..
This background paper is devoted to US sugar policy. A first section describes the features and economics of the US sugar program; a second section is devoted to the welfare and trade effects of the US sugar program; and a final section reports on potential emerging reforms, their expected effects, and implications. Beyond well-established findings on the social cost and inefficiency of the US sugar program, the main findings of this paper are as follows. The current sugar program is becoming unsustainable because sugar imports are progressively creeping into the US market through regional trade agreements, eventually inducing large sugar inventories, or contracting domestic production to unpalatable low levels in order to maintain high internal prices....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Dispute; HFCS; NAFTA; Sugar; Sugar program; Sweetener; Trade; TRQ; US farm bill; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9374
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A Strategic Perspective on the Impact of Food Safety Standards on Developing Countries AgEcon
Henson, Spencer J.; Jaffee, Steven.
This paper explores the competing concepts of 'standards as barriers' and standards as catalysts' in the context of food safety standards in international trade in agricultural and food products. It is suggested that food safety standards can act as both a barrier to trade and the basis of competitive positioning for developing countries in international markets. This suggests that the application of a strategic framework to analyze and assess alternative responses to evolving food safety standards can throw some light on the circumstances under which standards act to prohibit trade or, alternatively, create competitive trade opportunities. The use of such a framework is illustrated through a brief case study of fish and fishery product exports from...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Food; Trade; Food Safety; Standards; Technical barriers to Trade; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Q18; K32; F13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25456
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A study of the trade in Smoked-Dried Fish From West Africa to th United Kingdom OceanDocs
Ansen, W..
The quantity of smoked fish from West Africa entering the United Kingdom is estimated to be in the region of 500 tonnes per year with a retail value of £5.8 to £9.35 million. Approximately 120 tonnes arrives by airfreight, a significant proportion of the remainder is thought to be entering as accompanied baggage and product is also arriving overland from mainland Europe. Nigeria currently exports approximately 5 tonnes of smoked fish per month as airfreight - 60 tonnes per annum. Most of this is via Gatwick Airport. The other major exporting countries are Ghana, the Ivory Coast and Cameroon....
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Smoked products; Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/914
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A Typology of Food Security in Developing Countries under High Food Prices AgEcon
Yu, Bingxin; You, Liangzhi; Fan, Shenggen.
The recent surge in food prices around the world may reverse the gains of reducing hunger and poverty in the recent years. This paper employs factor and sequential typology analysis using data for 175 countries to identify groups of countries categorized according to four measures of food security: utilization, availability, accessibility and stability. Nine indicators are used for this study: calories intake, protein intake, fat intake, food production, the ratio of total exports to food imports, soil fertility, length of growing period, coefficient of variation of length of growing period and urbanization. The analysis first identifies 5 distinct food security groups characterized by food intake then further split these groups based on similarities and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food security; Factor analysis; Agricultural potential; Typology; Trade; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; C0; F0; O1.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51043
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A zöldség- és gyümölcstermelés, valamint –kereskedelem Katalóniában AgEcon
Kozak, Anita.
Spanyolország az EU egyik legnagyobb zöldség- és gyümölcstermelő országa, amely a nem mindig ideális környezeti és infrastrukturális adottságok, az utóbbi éveket jellemző makrogazdasági nehézségek, a kiszámíthatatlan piaci folyamatok ellenére is versenyképes. Ennek alapja a termelők és a kereskedők közötti szoros és hosszú távú együttműködés. A spanyolországi gyümölcstermelés egyik központjaként számon tartott Katalóniába tett tanulmányút tapasztalatait adjuk közre a termelők és a kereskedők szerveződéséről, a több szintű koordinációról, illetve az érdekképviseleti szervezetek működéséről. --------------------------------------------------- Spain is one of the largest fruit and vegetable producer country in the EU, which has preserved its competitive edge...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Zöldség; Gyümölcs; Termelés; Kereskedelem; Spanyolország; Vegetables; Fruit; Production; Trade; Spain; Agribusiness; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119903
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AAMP Proceedings Report: Trade in Food Staples: Promoting Price Stability and Food Security through Intra-Regional Trade AgEcon
African Agricultural Markets Programme Training Workshop and Policy Seminar Nairobi, Kenya December 2008, COMMON MARKET FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food Security; Trade; Africa; Agriculture; Marketing; Q18.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54704
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Accommodating Imperfect Competition in A Model of World Peanut Trade AgEcon
Fletcher, Stanley M.; Nadolnyak, Denis A..
In this paper, we make an attempt to rationalize the strategic behavior of major peanut exporting and importing countries in the framework of imperfectly competitive markets with the focus on the global and inter-American peanut trade. This study is motivated by the fact that liberalizing imperfectly competitive and often distorted markets can have unorthodox effects, in particular increase the incentives to overuse certain trade policies. The results suggest that the South American peanut producers stand to benefit from the reductions in the U.S. peanut production supports but, paradoxically, preservation of a tariff may still be mutually welfare enhancing. In the broader context of global peanut trade, multi-lateral tariff reduction increases the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade; Peanuts; Strategic behavior; Tariffs; TRQs; Subsidies; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19460
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AGRIBUSINESS TRADE CREDIT -- A PARADOX AgEcon
Gustafson, Cole R..
This article utilizes the Survey of Small Business Finances to compare and contrast trade credit practices of rural small business firms. The results show that these firms borrow money and then re-lend it to others in the form of trade credit. There is a strong direct relationship between various forms of debt held by these firms and their level of accounts receivable (e.g., trade credit extended to customers). The actual level of re-lending varied among firms depending on their adoption level of computers that are used for cash management and credit services. Accounts receivable balances were also dependent on sales levels, costs of doing business, and other income. The most important source of funds for re-lending was obtained from mortgages and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Trade; Credit; Finance; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23513
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Agricultural Import Demand in Low-Income, Middle-Income, and Centrally Planned Economies AgEcon
This report provides summaries of the papers and discussions at the third Consortium on Trade Research held in Washington, D.C., June 23-24, 1981. The cochairmen of the consortium were T. Kelley White, Economic Research Service (ERS), George E. Rossmiller, Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS), and Vernon Sorenson, Michigan State University. The Consortium focused on world demand for agricultural imports and the policies and conditions in low-income, middle-income, and centrally planned countries that influence import demand. An overview paper by Dewain Rahe and Cheryl Christensen assessed future global prospects for agricultural trade. Peter Timmer's paper investigated conceptual and empirical problems in analyzing import demand. Three of the papers...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade; Import demand; Projections; State trading; Food reserves; Stockholding; Bilateral agreements; Low-income countries; Middle-income countries; Centrally planned countries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1982 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51268
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Agricultural Trade Implications of European Community Enlargement: North America Common Market AgEcon
Membership in the European Community (EC) for Greece, Spain, and Portugal may reduce trade between the United States and the EC in selected commodities; prospects for a North American Common Market are not bright; and the diversion of agricultural crops from export to fuel alcohol production would very likely increase, rather than reduce, balance-of-payment deficits for the United States and Brazil. The first meeting of the Consortium on Trade Research, established by the Economics and Statistics Service's International Economics Division and several universities, focused on and continues to analyze these and other global topics.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Trade; Research; European Community; North American Common Market; Fuel alcohol; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1980 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51822
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Agricultural Trade Policy Modelling: Insights from a Meta-Analysis of Doha Development Agenda Outcomes AgEcon
Hess, Sebastian; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan.
In a meta-analysis of trade policy models, Hess and von Cramon-Taubadel (2008) use over 5800 simulated welfare effects from 110 studies of potential Doha Development Agenda outcomes to identify characteristics of models, data and policy experiments that influence simulation results. This meta-analysis, which is recapitulated here, produces plausible results and explains a significant proportion of the variation in simulated welfare effects. However, due to insufficient documentation and the complexity of the general and partial equilibrium models in the literature sample, many explanatory variables employed in this analysis are binary. This precludes more detailed analysis of their impacts across models. Therefore, a partial equilibrium model and a single...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Trade; Policy model; Doha; Meta-analysis; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; International Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43466
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Agricultural Trade Policy Options for Sri Lanka During Crisis Times AgEcon
Weerahewa, Jeevika; Meilke, Karl D..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sri Lanka; Trade; Policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90882
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Agriculture and the World Trade Organization: Does Membership Make a Difference? AgEcon
Grant, Jason H.; Boys, Kathryn A..
Recent empirical studies have estimated the trade flow effect of membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO) and its predecessor, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). One important, although largely untested, conclusion from this literature is that the GATT/WTO has worked well if we ignore trade in agriculture – one of the institution’s seemingly apparent failures. This article investigates this conclusion using a large panel of agricultural and non-agricultural trade flows, the latter of which serves as our benchmark. The results are impressive: the multilateral institution has delivered significant positive effects on members’ agricultural trade relative to trade between non-members. Further, despite their special and differential...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: WTO; Membership; Trade; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90886
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