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Registros recuperados: 25
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A sustainability framework for assessing trade-offs in ecosystem services Ecology and Society
Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota; Institute on Environment, University of Minnesota; cavender@umn.edu; Polasky, Stephen; Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota; Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota; Institute on Environment, University of Minnesota; polasky@umn.edu; King, Elizabeth; Biological Sciences, Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia; Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia; egking@uga.edu.
Achieving sustainability, i.e., meeting the needs of current populations without compromising the needs of future generations, is the major challenge facing global society in the 21st century. Navigating the inherent trade-offs between provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting ecosystem services, and doing so in a way that does not compromise natural capital needed to provide services in the future, is critical for sustainable resource management. Here we build upon existing literature, primarily from economics and ecology, to present an analytical framework that integrates (1) the ecological mechanisms that underpin ecosystem services, (2) biophysical trade-offs and inherent limits that constrain management options, (3) preferences and values...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Dynamics; Ecosystem services; Efficiency frontier; Management constraints; Preferences; Stakeholders; Time lags; Trade-offs.
Ano: 2015
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Acknowledging Trade-offs and Understanding Complexity: Exurbanization Issues in Macon County, North Carolina Ecology and Society
Vercoe, Richard A.; Department of Geography, University of Georgia; ravercoe@uga.edu; Welch-Devine, M.; Center for Integrative Conservation Research, University of Georgia; mwdevine@uga.edu; Hardy, Dean; Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia; rdhardy@uga.edu; Demoss, J. A.; Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia; jdemoss@uga.edu; Bonney, S. N.; Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia; sbonney@uga.edu; Allen, K.; Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia; kallen@uga.edu; Brosius, Peter; Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia; pbrosius@uga.edu; Charles, D.; Department of Geography, University of Georgia; dhc31@uga.edu; Crawford, B.; Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia; bcrawford515@gmail.com; Heisel, S.; Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia; saraelizabethheisel@yahoo.com; Heynen, Nik; Department of Geography, University of Georgia; nheynen@uga.edu; Nibbelink, N.; Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia; nate@warnell.uga.edu; Parker, L.; Department of Geography, University of Georgia; loweryp@uga.edu; Pringle, Cathy; Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia; pringle@sparc.ecology.uga.edu; Shaw, A.; Department of Geography, University of Georgia; alanashaw@uga.edu; Van Sant, L.; Department of Geography, University of Georgia; leviv@uga.edu.
We applied an integrative framework to illuminate and discuss the complexities of exurbanization in Macon County, North Carolina. The case of Macon County, North Carolina, highlights the complexity involved in addressing issues of exurbanization in the Southern Appalachian region. Exurbanization, the process by which urban residents move into rural areas in search of unique natural amenities and idealized lifestyles, can often have a dramatic impact on the local economy, culture, and environment. Within Macon County, complex debates and tensions among multiple stakeholders struggle to address local residential development. How can better problem definition benefit rural communities in addressing exurbanization pressures and effects? We asserted that a key...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Conservation; Development; Ecological; Exurbanization; Integrative conservation; Trade-offs.
Ano: 2014
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Addressing Trade-offs: Experiences from Conservation and Development Initiatives in the Mkuze Wetlands, South Africa Ecology and Society
Dahlberg, Annika C.; Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University; annika.dahlberg@natgeo.su.se; Burlando, Catie; Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba; umburlac@cc.umanitoba.ca.
Present-day conservation policies generally include the aim to integrate biodiversity conservation and local development, and describe this as a win–win solution that can satisfy all interests. This is challenged by research claiming that many efforts fail to match practice to rhetoric. South Africa has made strong commitments to fulfill the dual goals of conservation and development, and the iSimangaliso Wetland Park is promoted as an example of this. We explore present and potential outcomes of conservation and development interventions in a community bordering the Wetland Park through the perspective of different stakeholders, with the aim of uncovering opportunities and risks. In terms of improving local livelihoods as well as involvement in...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Integrated conservation and development; Mkuze wetlands; Natural resource management; Protected area; Rural livelihoods; South Africa; Trade-offs.
Ano: 2009
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Agricultural land management strategies to reduce phosphorus loads in the Gippsland Lakes, Australia AgEcon
Roberts, Anna M.; Pannell, David J.; Doole, Graeme J.; Vigiak, Olga.
A target to reduce phosphorus flows into the Gippsland Lakes in south-eastern Australia by 40 per cent to improve water quality has previously been established by stakeholders. An integrated analysis at the catchment scale is undertaken to assess the agricultural land management changes required to achieve this target, and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these changes. It appears technically feasible to achieve a 40 per cent reduction in P load entering the lakes, but the least-costly way of doing so would require around A$1 billion over 20 years, a dramatic increase in the current levels of funding provided for management. On the other hand, a 20 per cent P reduction could be achieved at much lower cost: around $80 million over 20 years and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Benefit: cost analysis; Dairy; Diffuse source; Trade-offs; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q15; Q25; Q53; Q57.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102454
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Challenges of achieving Good Environmental Status in the Northeast Atlantic Ecology and Society
Alexander, Karen A; Scottish Association for Marine Science; Karen.Alexander@sams.ac.uk; Kershaw, Peter; Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science; peter.kershaw@cefas.co.uk; Cooper, Philip; School of Management, University of Bath; p.cooper@bath.ac.uk; Gilbert, Alison J.; Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University of Amsterdam; alison.gilbert@vu.nl; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth; jason.hall-spencer@plymouth.ac.uk; Heymans, Johanna J.; Scottish Association for Marine Science; sheila.heymans@sams.ac.uk; Kannen, Andreas; Institute for Coastal Research, Helmholz-Zentrum Geesthacht; Andreas.Kannen@hzg.de; Los, Hans J.; Deltares; Hans.Los@deltares.nl; O'Higgins, Tim; Scottish Association for Marine Science; Tim.O'Higgins@sams.ac.uk; O'Mahony, Cathal; Coastal & Marine Research Centre, University College Cork; c.omahony@ucc.ie; Tett, Paul; Scottish Association for Marine Science; paul.tett@sams.ac.uk; Troost, Tineke A.; Deltares; tineke.troost@deltares.nl; van Beusekom, Justus; Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, University of Hamburg; Justus.van.Beusekom@uni-hamburg.de.
The sustainable exploitation of marine ecosystem services is dependent on achieving and maintaining an adequate ecosystem state to prevent undue deterioration. Within the European Union, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires member states to achieve Good Environmental Status (GEnS), specified in terms of 11 descriptors. We analyzed the complexity of social-ecological factors to identify common critical issues that are likely to influence the achievement of GEnS in the Northeast Atlantic (NEA) more broadly, using three case studies. A conceptual model developed using a soft systems approach highlights the complexity of social and ecological phenomena that influence, and are likely to continue to influence, the state of ecosystems in the...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Ecosystem-based management; Good Environmental Status; Northeast Atlantic; Soft systems methodology; Trade-offs.
Ano: 2015
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Changements adaptatifs induits par la pêche chez les populations halieutiques ArchiMer
Marty, Lise.
Fishing is an important source of mortality in harvested populations and therefore may induce adaptive responses. These responses affect life-history traits in particular, which have consequences for stocks’ dynamics, and thus can alter the demographic direct effect of fishing (i.e. the reduction in stock’s biomass). Fishing-induced adaptive changes depend, non-exclusively, on two processes: evolution and phenotypic plasticity. These two components are observed at the phenotypic level because functional genes coding for the traits undergoing adaptive changes have not yet been identified. These two origins are confounded in individual phenotypes, and the impact of adaptive changes in the long run remains therefore unclear: evolutionary changes are expected...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: : Pêche; Évolution adaptative; Plasticité phénotypique; Norme de réaction; Dérive génétique; Érosion génétique; Age et taille à maturation; Croissance; Survie; Trade-offs; Densité-dépendance; Gadidées de mer du nord; Fishing; Adaptive evolution; Phenotypic plasticity; Reaction norm; Genetic drift; Genetic erosion; Age and size at maturation; Growth; Survival; Trade-offs; Density-dependence; North sea Gadoids.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00079/19013/16591.pdf
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Choice modelling in the development of natural resource management strategies in NSW AgEcon
Mazur, Kasia; Bennett, Jeffrey W..
Protecting environmental services generates social benefits. At the same time, private landholders supplying these benefits may face some costs. To provide these services efficiently, policy makers need information about community values for the environment as well as landholders’ costs. This study explores how choice modelling (a non-market valuation technique) is used to estimate comment values. These include use and non-use values for increasing environmental quality in NSW catchments. Non-market valuation techniques for estimating environmental values are reviewed. This is followed by a discussion of methodological aspects of the choice modelling technique and its potential as a regional planning tool for Catchment Management Authorities (CMA’s)
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Nonmarket valuation; Choice modelling; Trade-offs; Bio-physical modelling; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94716
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Ecosystem service trade-offs across global contexts and scales Ecology and Society
Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; University of Minnesota; cavender@umn.edu; King, Elizabeth; University of Georgia; egking@uga.edu; Polasky, Stephen; Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota; Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota; Institute on Environment, University of Minnesota; polasky@umn.edu.
Meeting human needs while sustaining the planet’s life support systems is the fundamental challenge of our time. What role sustenance of biodiversity and contrasting ecosystem services should play in achieving a sustainable future varies along philosophical, cultural, institutional, societal, and governmental divisions. Contrasting biophysical constraints and perspectives on human well-being arise both within and across countries that span the tropics and temperate zone. Direct sustenance of livelihoods from ecosystem services in East Africa contrasts with the complex and diverse relationships with the land in Mexico and the highly monetary-based economy of the United States. Lack of understanding of the contrasting contexts in which...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed article Palavras-chave: Biophysical constraints; Cultural contexts; Ecosystem services; Empirical case studies; Human preferences; Sustainability framework; Trade-offs.
Ano: 2015
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Ecosystem service trade-offs, perceived drivers, and sustainability in contrasting agroecosystems in central Mexico Ecology and Society
The ability of agroecosystems to provide food ultimately depends on the regulating and supporting ecosystem services that underpin their functioning, such as the regulation of soil quality, water quality, soil erosion, pests, and pollinators. However, there are trade-offs between provisioning and regulating or supporting services, whose nature at the farm and plot scales is poorly understood. We analyzed data at the farm level for two agroecosystems with contrasting objectives in central Mexico: one aimed at staple crop production for self-subsistence and local markets, the other directed to a cash crop for export markets. Bivariate and multivariate trade-offs were analyzed for different crop management strategies (conventional, organic, traditional, crop...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Agroecosystems; Avocado; Ecosystem services; Maize; Mexico; Trade-offs.
Ano: 2015
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Ecosystem Services, Land-Cover Change, and Stakeholders: Finding a Sustainable Foothold for a Semiarid Biodiversity Hotspot Ecology and Society
Reyers, Belinda; Natural Resources and the Environment, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research; breyers@csir.co.za; Cowling, Richard M.; Department of Botany, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University;; Egoh, Benis N.; Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University;; Le Maitre, David C.; Natural Resources and the Environment, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research;; Vlok, Jan H. J.; Regalis Environmental Services;.
Land-cover change has been identified as one of the most important drivers of change in ecosystems and their services. However, information on the consequences of land cover change for ecosystem services and human well-being at local scales is largely absent. Where information does exist, the traditional methods used to collate and communicate this information represent a significant obstacle to sustainable ecosystem management. Embedding science in a social process and solving problems together with stakeholders are necessary elements in ensuring that new knowledge results in desired actions, behavior changes, and decisions. We have attempted to address this identified information gap, as well as the way information is gathered, by quantifying the...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Carbon; Grazing; Human well-being; Land degradation; Ostriches; Tourism; Trade-offs; Water..
Ano: 2009
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Ecosystem services to support environmental and socially sustainable decision-making Ecología austral
Rusch,Verónica E; Rusch,Graciela M; Goijman,Andrea P; Varela,Santiago A; Claps,Leonardo.
The theory of ecosystem services (ES) needs to be operationalized to contribute to practices leading to sustainable use of ecosystems, which includes solving trade-offs between private and public benefits and incorporating monetary and non-monetary values to help inform decisions. We developed a framework to analyse the impacts of farmers’ management alternatives on Nothofagus antarctica (G. Forst.) Oerst. forest in northern Patagonia, and analysed synergies and trade-offs between private and public benefts based on three conceptual and methodological approaches: a) a state-and-transition model of ecosystem dynamics, and b) indicators of values of ecosystem service benefits based on the cascade model, implemented as c) a decision support tool...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Forest law; Public and private benefits; Trade-offs; Cascade model; Infuence diagram; Nothofagus.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1667-782X2017000200007
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Fishful Thinking: Rhetoric, Reality, and the Sea Before Us Ecology and Society
Pitcher, Tony J.; Policy and Ecosystem Restoration in Fisheries, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia.; pitcher.t@gmail.com; Lam, Mimi E; Policy and Ecosystem Restoration in Fisheries, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia.; m.lam@fisheries.ubc.ca.
Fisheries science and management have been shrouded in controversy and rhetoric for over 125 yrs. Human reliance on fish through history (and even prehistory) has impacted the sea and its resources. Global impacts are manifest today in threatened food security and vulnerable marine ecosystems. Growing consumer demand and subsidized industrial fisheries exacerbate ecosystem degradation, climate change, global inequities, and local poverty. Ten commonly advocated fisheries management solutions, if implemented alone, cannot remedy a history of intense fishing and serial stock depletions. Fisheries policy strategies evaluated along five performance modalities (ecological, economic, social, ethical, and institutional) suggest that composite management...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Back-to-the-future; Ecological ethics; Ecosystem restoration; Fisheries management; Fishing down the food web; Food security; Policy goals; The sea ahead; Trade-offs.
Ano: 2010
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From biophysical to social-ecological trade-offs: integrating biodiversity conservation and agricultural production in the Argentine Dry Chaco Ecology and Society
Agricultural intensification in rural areas of developing countries compromises the provision of ecosystem services. Social conflict arises among landholders with different preferences for ecosystem services and land-use practices in agricultural frontiers of the Argentine Dry Chaco. We explored policy and management options by assessing the actual and potential outcomes of alternative land-use systems and scenarios. We first constructed the efficiency frontier for avian habitat and agricultural productivity to analyze the combinations of ecosystem services that can be achieved under different land-use intensities. A nonlinear, concave efficiency frontier indicated opportunities to achieve large gains for production with small losses for conservation, for...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed article Palavras-chave: Dry Chaco; Ecosystem services; Efficiency frontier; Indifference curve; Multifunctional systems; Trade-offs.
Ano: 2015
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Integrated and Adaptive Management of Water Resources: Tensions, Legacies, and the Next Best Thing Ecology and Society
Engle, Nathan L; School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan; Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory/University of Maryland; nathan.engle@pnl.gov; Johns, Owen R; School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan; orjohns@umich.edu; Lemos, Maria Carmen; School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan; lemos@umich.edu; Nelson, Donald R; University of Georgia; dnelson@uga.edu.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Adaptive capacity; Adaptive management; Institutional inertia; Integrated water resources management; Resilience; Trade-offs; Water governance.
Ano: 2011
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Integrating Expert Knowledge into Mapping Ecosystem Services Trade-offs for Sustainable Forest Management Ecology and Society
Brunner, Sibyl H.; Planning of Landscape and Urban Systems (PLUS), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich ; brunner@nsl.ethz.ch; Altwegg, Juerg; Planning of Landscape and Urban Systems (PLUS), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich ; altwegg@nsl.ethz.ch; Christen, Marc; WSL - Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF; christen@slf.ch; Bebi, Peter; WSL - Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF; bebi@slf.ch.
Mountain ecosystems are highly sensitive to global change. In fact, the continued capacity of mountain regions to provide goods and services to society is threatened by the impact of environmental changes on ecosystems. Although mapping ecosystem services values is known to support sustainable resource management, the integration of spatially explicit local expert knowledge on ecosystem dynamics and social responses to global changes has not yet been integrated in the modeling process. This contribution demonstrates the importance of integrating local knowledge into the spatially explicit valuation of ecosystem services. Knowledge acquired by expert surveys flows into a GIS-based Bayesian Network for valuing forest ecosystem services under a land-use and a...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Bayesian network; Climate change; Ecosystem services; Expert survey; Forest management; Land-use change; Mapping; Mountain ecosystem; Trade-offs; Uncertainty.
Ano: 2013
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Interactions Among Ecosystem Services Across Land Uses in a Floodplain Agroecosystem Ecology and Society
Bennett, Elena M.; Department of Natural Resource Sciences and McGill School of Environment, McGill University; elena.bennett@mcgill.ca.
Managing human-dominated landscapes such as agroecosystems is one of the main challenges facing society today. Decisions about land-use management in agroecosystems involve spatial and temporal trade-offs. The key scales at which these trades-offs occur are poorly understood for most systems, and quantitative assessments of the services provided by agroecosystems under different combinations of land uses are rare. To fill these knowledge gaps, we measured 12 ecosystem services (ES), including climate regulation, gas regulation, soil stability, nutrient regulation, habitat quality, raw material production, food production, fishing, sports, recreation, education, and social relationships, in seven common land-use types at three spatial scales, i.e., patch,...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Agroecosystem; Ecosystem services; Floodplain; Interactions; Land uses; Spatial scales; Trade-offs.
Ano: 2014
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Less or More Intensive Crop Arable Systems of Alentejo Region of Portugal: what is the sustainable option? Rev. Econ. Sociol. Rural
Marques,Carlos; Baptista,Fátima; Silva,Luis Leopoldo; Murcho,Dina; Rosado,Maurícia.
Competitiveness of traditional arable crop system of Alentejo region of Portugal has been questioned for long. Discussion and research on the sustainability of the system has evolved on two contrasted alternative options for production technologies to traditional system. On the one hand reduced and no tillage systems aim to more extensive technical operations reducing costs and maintaining production, or even to increase it in the long run as soil fertility improves. On the other hand, input intensification using irrigation, as a complement in the last stage of crop cycle or always when needed, aimed to increase system production levels. To evaluate competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop system we evaluated traditional rotation technology and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Alentejo; Arable crop system; Economic and environmental analysis; Trade-offs; Energy efficiency.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-20032015000600081
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Linkages Among Water Vapor Flows, Food Production, and Terrestrial Ecosystem Services Ecology and Society
Gordon, Line; Stockholm University; line@system.ecology.su.se; Folke, Carl; Stockholm University; calle@system.ecology.su.se; Falkenmark, Malin; Swedish Natural Science Research Council;; Engwall, Maria; ;.
Global freshwater assessments have not addressed the linkages among water vapor flows, agricultural food production, and terrestrial ecosystem services. We perform the first bottom-up estimate of continental water vapor flows, subdivided into the major terrestrial biomes, and arrive at a total continental water vapor flow of 70,000 km3/yr (ranging from 56,000 to 84,000 km3/yr). Of this flow, 90% is attributed to forests, including woodlands (40,000 km3/yr), wetlands (1400 km3/yr), grasslands (15,100 km3/yr), and croplands (6800 km3/yr). These terrestrial biomes sustain society with essential welfare-supporting ecosystem services, including food production. By analyzing the freshwater requirements of an increasing demand for food in the year 2025, we...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Catchment management; Ecohydrological landscape; Evapotranspiration; Food production; Freshwater management; Global freshwater assessment; Resilience; Terrestrial ecosystem services; Trade-offs; Water use efficiency; Water vapor flows..
Ano: 1999
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Phenotypic plasticity of Myzus persicae (Hemíptera: Aphididae) raised on Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale) and Raphanus sativus L. (radish) Genet. Mol. Biol.
Peppe,Fernanda Borja; Lomônaco,Cecília.
The study of variability generated by phenotypic plasticity is crucial for predicting evolutionary patterns in insect-plant systems. Given sufficient variation for plasticity, host race formation can be favored and maintained, even simpatrically. The plasticity of size and performance (assessed by the lifetime fitness index r m) of six clones of Myzus persicae was tested, with replicates allowed to develop on two hosts, kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) and radish (Raphanus sativus). The clones showed significant variability in their plasticity. Reaction norms varied through generations and negative genetic correlation, although not significant, tend to increase with the duration of host use. The lack of plasticity in lifetime fitness among generalist...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Quantitative genetics; Genetic correlation; Morphological plasticity; Phenotypic correlation; Physiological plasticity; Trade-offs.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572003000200012
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Scale and ecosystem services: how do observation, management, and analysis shift with scale—lessons from Québec Ecology and Society
Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara; McGill University; ciara.rh@gmail.com; Peterson, Garry D; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University; garry.peterson@su.se.
Ecosystem service assessment and management are shaped by the scale at which they are conducted; however, there has been little systematic investigation of the scales associated with ecosystem service processes, such as production, benefit distribution, and management. We examined how social-ecological spatial scale impacts ecosystem service assessment by comparing how ecosystem service distribution, trade-offs, and bundles shift across spatial scales. We used a case study in Québec, Canada, to analyze the scales of production, consumption, and management of 12 ecosystem services and to analyze how interactions among 7 of these ecosystem services change across 3 scales of observation (1, 9, and 75 km²). We found that ecosystem service...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Covariance; Ecosystem service bundles; Mont Saint-Hilaire; Problem of fit; Scaling; Social-ecological; Spatial; Trade-offs.
Ano: 2016
Registros recuperados: 25
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