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10 years of transition in Ukraine agriculture: An analysis of productivity and efficiency of enterprises AgEcon
Lissitsa, Alexej; Odening, Martin; Babycheva, Tamara.
This paper analyzes efficiency and total factor productivity (TFP) change of large agricultural enterprises during their transition to a market economy in Ukraine. In this case the efficiency is calculated by data envelopment analysis and the productivity change is measured by the Malmquist Productivity Change Index in the period between 1990 and 1999. On average, TFP declined by 6% annually, dropping a total 42%. The main reason for the observed TFP decline is a decrease in technical efficiency, which is found to be remarkably significant. At the same time there is a high variation among individual enterprises: their distribution of efficiency scores widens, which indicates that the farms diverge with respect to their economic performance. The Tobit...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Эффективность; Общая продуктивность фактора; Анализ оболочки данных; Малмквист-индекс изменения общей продуктивности фактора; Переходный период; Украина; Effizienz; Totale Faktor Produktivität; Data Envelopment Analysis; Malmquist Productivity Change Index; Transition; Ukraine; Efficiency; Total Factor Productivity; Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Farm Management; Industrial Organization; Productivity Analysis; Q12; D25; O1; O4; P3.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92168
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13C Photoassimilate partitioning in sweet cherry (Prunus avium) during early spring Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Ayala,Marlene; Lang,Gregory A.
Stored reserves are critical for the early spring growth of reproductive and vegetative sinks in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). To study the distribution of carbon storage reserves on new, highly productive hybrid rootstocks in sweet cherry, an experiment was established using 5-yr-old cv. 'Regina' on the semi-vigorous rootstock 'Gisela®6' ('GI®6'). Using whole-canopy enclosure chambers, five trees were pulse-labeled three times with high levels of 13CO2 during the fall. At leaf drop, leaves, buds, wood, bark and roots were sampled for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The storage organs with the highest percentages of excess 13C atoms were the roots and the older wood in the trunks, branches and buds. During the spring, newly...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Fruit set; 'Gisela®' rootstock; Sink; Spring remobilization stage I; Storage reserves; Transition.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202015000200006
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A Diagnostic Procedure for Transformative Change Based on Transitions, Resilience, and Institutional Thinking Ecology and Society
Ferguson, Briony C.; Monash Water for Liveability; Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities; Monash University; briony.ferguson@monash.edu; Brown, Rebekah R.; Monash Water for Liveability; Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities; Monash University; Rebekah.Brown@monash.edu; Deletic, Ana; Department of Civil Engineering; Monash Water for Liveability; Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities; Monash University; ana.deletic@monash.edu.
Urban water governance regimes around the world have traditionally planned large-scale, centralized infrastructure systems that aim to control variables and reduce uncertainties. There is growing sectoral awareness that a transition toward sustainable alternatives is necessary if systems are to meet society’s future water needs in the context of drivers such as climate change and variability, demographic changes, environmental degradation, and resource scarcity. However, there is minimal understanding of how the urban water sector should operationalize its strategic planning for such change to facilitate the transition to a sustainable water future. We have integrated concepts from transitions, resilience, and institutional theory to develop a...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Institutions; Resilience; Strategic planning; Sustainability; Transformative change; Transition; Urban water.
Ano: 2013
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Acao coletiva e organizacao dos agricultores no Nordeste semi-arido. Repositório Alice
SABOURIN, E..
Este trabalho procura sistematizar as dinamicas de organizacao dos agricultores familiares da regiao semi-arida do Nordeste brasileiro. A primeira parte analisa a origem e as logicas das diferentes formas de organizacao dos produtores a partir de exemplos em varios municipios do Sertao nordestino. Na segunda parte sao identificadas sequencias de evolucao das organizacoes de produtores, assim como indicadores de transicao na passagem de uma situacao a outra. O texto conclui com a formalizacao do processo de organizacao dos produtores na regiao.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Pequeno agricultor; Agricultura familiar; Organizacao socioeconomica; Acao coletiva; Transicao; Brasil; Nordeste; Small farmers; Familiar farms; Socioeconomic organization; Collective action; Transition; Brazil; Northeast.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/133075
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Adjustment of Conventional PSE's Methodology for Economy in Transition AgEcon
Shick, Olga.
The conventional PSE's methodology doesn't provide adequate estimation of agricultural support for the economy in transition. In this paper we attempt to adjust PSE's methodology for Russian economy, and also coefficients' analysis and interpretations are adapted for transitional conditions. Investigation showed that the level of agricultural support in Russia is much lower than conventional methodology estimates.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: PSE; Transition; Adjusted methodology; Russia; Agriculture; Political Economy.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24780
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AGE DIFFERENCES AND MACROECONOMIC EFFECTS ON FOOD STAMP PROGRAM PARTICIPATION AgEcon
Lim, So Yeong; Chen, Susan E.; Waldorf, Brigitte S..
Low income populations are more severely affected by economic downturns than their high income counterparts because they are at high risk of unemployment and face reduced earnings in recessions. The use of food stamp benefits and other types of welfare are one mechanism that families can use to buffer the economic shock brought about by income losses due to unemployment during a recession. As a result, during unfavorable economic conditions, low income households disproportionately rely on public assistance including food stamps. What is less understood are the differential effects of macroeconomic conditions on the participation propensities of different population subgroups. Of particular importance are differential effects by age. Depending on their...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Stamp Program; Age; Macroeconomy; Transition; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; I38; J64.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103783
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AGE DIFFERENCES AND MACROECONOMIC EFFECTS ON FOOD STAMP PROGRAM PARTICIPATION AgEcon
Lim, So Yeong; Chen, Susan E.; Waldorf, Brigitte S..
This study examines Food Stamp Program (FSP) participation patterns with an emphasis on macroeconomic effects and age differences. Entry into and exit out of the program are examined with data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation 2004 panel using probit techniques. The results indicate that young adults easily enter the FSP but quickly move out. Older people are hesitant to enter the FSP but they stay on longer compared to their younger counterparts. The estimation results confirm the common belief that economic dynamics and FSP participation are negatively related. When the unemployment rates rise, the likelihood of entry and continuation on food stamps increases. This study also documents that the macroeconomic effects on FSP transitions...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food stamps; Age; Macroeconomy; Transition; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty; I38; J64.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108558
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Analysing agricultural productivity growth in a framework of institutional quality AgEcon
Ahmed, Mirza Nomman; Maas, Sarah; Schmitz, P. Michael.
This paper addresses the question whether the institutional environment of transition countries in Eastern Europe affects productivity growth in the agricultural sector. Situated in a neoclassical growth framework, a dynamic panel model for the period 1996-2005 provides evidence that poor institutional quality leads to a slowdown in agricultural productivity growth. Productivity growth is limited by a high degree of corruption, which is of particular importance given that corruption has been proven to be most prevalent in Eastern European countries. Moreover, agricultural productivity in countries where privatisation and transferability of land is restricted is found to grow at a slower rate than countries supporting market-oriented land reforms....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Eastern Europe; Transition; Productivity growth; Agricultural and Food Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90793
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BLUNT TO SHARPENED RAZOR: INCREMENTAL REFORM AND DISTORTIONS IN THE PRODUCT AND CAPITAL MARKETS IN CHINA AgEcon
Zhang, Xiaobo; Tan, Kong-Yam.
A key objective of China's reform program was to reduce distortions in the economic system and enhance growth. However, when implemented in incremental and partial ways, local governments or individuals have chance to capture rents inherent in the reform process. Young (2000) warned that the rent-seeking behavior might lead to increasing market fragmentation. Empirical studies have since shown that this did not happen in the product markets. In this paper we argue that as rents from the product markets were squeezed out during the reform process, rent-seeking behavior shifted to the factor markets, especially the capital and land markets. The reform process now needs to be deepened to ensure that the factor markets also become more integrated and efficient.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Reform; China; Rent Seeking; Factor and Product Market; Transition; International Development; D33; D61; D63; O11; O53; P23.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60183
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Changes in agricultural holdings structure during the transition period in Slovenia AgEcon
Udovc, Andrej.
The paper presents the socio-economic restructuring of Slovene agricultural holding due to different transitional processes, such as denationalisation and privatisation, as the biggest property right transformation processes in Slovenia during transition period, as well as agricultural property transactions and will discuss other factors (loss of jobs, unemployment, accession etc) which influenced the recent development. At the end also the future possible development trends in agricultural holdings structure are presented.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm structure; Transition; Socio-economic types of farms; Slovenia.; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7838
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Changes in Competitiveness of Farm Sector in Candidate Countries Prior to the EU Accession: The Case of Poland AgEcon
Zawalinska, Katarzyna.
Prior to the EU accession Polish agricultural sector was experiencing serious structural problems. Not surprisingly Polish agricultural negotiations with EU were the toughest. Polish officials wanted to convince domestic rural electorate that the farms will operate on the competitive basis in enlarged EU. This paper investigates, however, how the competitiveness has been evolving yet prior to the accession, given the strong pressures within which it had to operate. We asked if Polish farms were responsive to this pressure - that is whether they were able to increase their productivity sufficiently to counter negative forces at work and maintain their competitiveness. The research showed a gloomy picture of declining farm productivity together with...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Competitiveness; Productivity; Farm sector; Transition; Poland; Agribusiness; Industrial Organization; Q12.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24520
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Commercialization and Subsistence in Transaction Agriculture: Empirical Evidence from Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania AgEcon
Mathijs, Erik; Noev, Nivelin.
Present-day Central and Eastern European agriculture is characterized by a high incidence of small-scale farmers who are not producing for the market. This paper uses household level data from comparative farm surveys in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania to analyze which farm household characteristics and endowments influence commercialization and subsistence farming.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Subsistence farming; Farm structures; Farm size; Microanalysis; Land ownership; Land tenure; Agricultural policy; Transition; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24786
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COURTS AND CONTRACT ENFORCEMENT IN TRANSITION AGRICULTURE: THEORY AND EVIDENCE FROM POLAND AgEcon
Beckmann, Volker; Boger, Silke.
The paper investigates theoretically and empirically the role of courts for contract enforcement in transition agriculture. In a survey of 306 Polish hog farmers conducted in 1999, only 38.5% of them reported to believe that they could use courts to enforce contracts with their most important customer. Furthermore, those who believe the legal system could be used would accept significant financial losses before taking action. We develop a theoretical model, based on the costs and benefits of court enforcement, which captures the boundary between contracts to be regarded as "enforceable" and "not-enforceable" and, simultaneously, the threshold of taking legal action. The empirical analysis strongly supports our model: (1) the farmers' responds can be...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural contracts; Contract enforcement; Courts; Transition; Political Economy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25878
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CREATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND MARKET IN UKRAINE: CURRENT STATE OF DEVELOPMENT AgEcon
Melnychuk, Volodymyr; Parchomenko, Sergej; Lissitsa, Alexej.
Land reform started in Ukraine 14 years ago became one of the most important issues in transformation of large state agricultural enterprises into market oriented agricultural enterprises. Significant changes in land use and land ownership has happened as a result of land reform implementation in Ukraine. Namely, state monopoly on land was eliminated, agricultural land was privatized, citizens of Ukraine received land plots in possession, first land transactions have happened at agricultural land market etc. Actual data regarding Ukrainian land relations reformation is systematized in this Discussion paper with especial focus on establishing the prerequisites of further formation and perspective development of the agricultural land market in Ukraine....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land market reform; Transition; Ukraine; Bodenmarktreform; Transformationsprozess; Реформа рынка земли; Переходный период; Украина; Agribusiness; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Land Economics/Use; O13; O 17; P26; P32; P48; Q15; Q18.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92022
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CREATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND MARKET IN UKRAINE: CURRENT STATE OF DEVELOPMENT AgEcon
Melnychuk, Volodymyr; Parkhomenko, Sergiy; Lissitsa, Alexej.
Land reform started in Ukraine 14 years ago became one of the most important issues in transformation of large state agricultural enterprises into market oriented agricultural enterprises. Significant changes in land use and land ownership has happened as a result of land reform implementation in Ukraine. Namely, state monopoly on land was eliminated, agricultural land was privatized, citizens of Ukraine received land plots in possession, first land transactions have happened at agricultural land market etc. Actual data regarding Ukrainian land relations reformation is systematized in this Discussion paper with especial focus on establishing the prerequisites of further formation and perspective development of the agricultural land market in Ukraine....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land market reform; Transition; Ukraine; Land Economics/Use; O13; O17; P26; P32; P48; Q15; Q18.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14928
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CREDITS FOR SERBIAN AGRICULTURE IN THE TRANSITION PERIOD AgEcon
Božić, Dragica; Muncan, Petar; Bogdanov, Natalija.
The possibility for self-financing in agriculture is very small, primarily due to lower labour productivity leading to lower rate of surplus value. Therefore, in the development of Serbian agriculture, special importance is attached to other sources of financing such as: the Agrarian budget, i.e. credits of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management; credits of business banks; development funds; leasing companies. With the reconstruction of the Serbian banking system in 1994, the primary issue, as an important source for financing agriculture used primarily for current reproduction, was abandoned. Due to transition to a market economy system and cancellation of financing from the primary issue, economic entities in agriculture have found...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Credit lending; Agriculture; Agricultural budget; Transition; Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57339
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Czech Agricultural Associations and the Impact of Membership on Farm Efficiency AgEcon
Bavorova, Miroslava; Curtiss, Jarmila; Jelinek, Ladislav.
The study investigates the efficiency effect of affiliation with the two strongest associations in Czech agriculture. These represent large-scale enterprises and individual farmers, respectively. The efficiency analysis is supplemented by analyses of incentives for associations' membership and farm characteristics decisive for membership choice. The results imply that political lobbying is the main entry incentive. Commercially-oriented individual farms which employ external workers are more likely to choose association membership, as are agricultural enterprises that specialize in livestock production or preserve a high share of employee ownership. We find that association membership has a significant positive impact on farms' performance, especially...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Associations; Agricultural enterprises; Czech agriculture; Incentives; Individual farms; Technical efficiency; Stochastic frontier analysis; Transition; Farm Management.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24430
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DER OSTDEUTSCHE AGRARSEKTOR IM TRANSFORMATIONSPROZESS - AUSGANGSSITUATION, ENTWICKLUNG UND PROBLEMBEREICHE AgEcon
Rothe, Andrea; Lissitsa, Alexej.
This Discussion Paper focuses on developments of the agricultural sector in the federal states of the former Eastern Germany after German reunification. Descriptive analysis is involved to display problems of transition process and changes in agricultural production and structures. The results of the analysis report considerable differences in the agricultural sector between New and Old Federal States after 15 years after the reunification. These differences are especially to find in a variety of existing legal forms, considerably higher share of rented land, lower cattle stock as well as larger farm size of the farms in the New Federal States. Observed structural changes of the German agricultural sector display that due to European Union measures the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: New Bundeslaender; Transition; Agricultural structure; P20; R30; R58; Agricultural and Food Policy; Political Economy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14884
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Economic Ideas and Institutional Change: Evidence from Soviet Economic Discourse 1987-1991 AgEcon
Zweynert, Joachim.
In recent years, institutional and evolutionary economists have become increasingly aware that ideas play an important role in economic development. In the current literature, the problem is usually elaborated upon in purely theoretical terms. In the present paper it is argued that ideas are always also shaped by historical and cultural factors. Due to this historical and cultural specificity theoretical research must be supplemented by historical case studies. The paper analyses the shift in ideas that took place in Soviet economic thought between 1987 and 1991. This case study, it is argued, may contribute to our understanding of the links between ideas and institutions. More specifically, it sheds new light on the issue of whether the evolution of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic Ideas; Philosophy of Science; Institutional Change; Historical Specificity; Soviet Union; Transition; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; B24; P27.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26276
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Empirical Tests of Impacts of Rationing: The Case of Poland in Transition AgEcon
Huffman, Sonya Kostova; Johnson, Stanley R..
This study tests the theory of rationing, examining changes in household consumption behavior during the transition to a market economy in Poland, 1987–92. A model of consumption under rationing is developed and fitted to prereform quarterly data from the Polish Household Budget Survey. Virtual prices, prices at which consumers would have voluntarily chosen the rationed levels of goods, are derived for food and housing. The prereform Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model with rationing is estimated. Estimates from the virtual AIDS yield plausible values for price and income elasticities. The AIDS model (without rationing) is also fitted to postreform quarterly household survey data for comparison and evaluation. When the two sets of results are compared,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: AIDS model; Hicksian; Poland; Rationing; Transition; Political Economy.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18613
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