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Registros recuperados: 18
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Déterminismes génétiques de l'allocation à la reproduction chez les huîtres creuses (Crassostrea gigas) triploïdes ArchiMer
Normand, Julien.
In diploid Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, gonadic development can be important in terms of energetic investment. Phenotypic and genetic negative correlations have also been observed between gonadic occupation and traits related to survival and growth, and this fact suggests that this trait could be deleterious for its aquaculture production. Triploidy can be been artificially induced to improve the production of Pacific oysters as it results in a general diminution of mean gonadic development. This trait is however highly variable. In this context, this study aimed to quantify and qualify the allocation to reproduction in triploid oysters and to study its genetic bases. Variability for allocation to reproduction and growth was first studied in 3 sets of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Triploidy x genetic interaction; Genetic determinism; Sexual dimorphism; Gametogenesis; Allocation to reproduction; Triploid; Oyster; Interaction triploïdie x génétique; Déterminisme génétique; Dimorphisme sexuel; Gamétogenèse; Allocation à la reproduction; Triploïde; Huître.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/these-6971.PDF
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Effect of ploidy on the mortality of Crassostrea gigas spat caused by OsHV-1 in France using unselected and selected OsHV-1 resistant oysters ArchiMer
Degremont, Lionel; Ledu, Christophe; Maurouard, Elise; Nourry, Max; Benabdelmouna, Abdellah.
The effect of ploidy on the mortality of Crassostrea gigas spat caused by the ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV-1) genotype μVar was investigated at five sites along the Atlantic coast in France in 2011. Sibling diploids and triploids were produced using either unselected or selected OsHV-1-resistant oysters. No significant interactions were found between the factors of environment, genotype and ploidy at the endpoint dates. The mean mortality rates at the sites were 62 and 59% for diploids and triploids, respectively, and the two rates were not significantly different. The mean mortality rates were 33 and 32% for sibling diploids and triploids, respectively, when OsHV-1-resistant parents were used, and 91 and 85%, respectively, when unselected parents were used....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Diploid; Triploid; Mortality; Crassostrea gigas; Ostreid herpesvirus OsHV-1.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00199/31028/29427.pdf
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Genetic improvement of hatchery propagated bivalve stocks : prospects and constraints ArchiMer
Boudry, Pierre.
To date, the most significant genetic improvement for the production of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) has been obtained through the production of triploids, especially since the development of tetraploids. Quantitative genetics studies suggest that significant gains, for disease resistance or other traits, could be obtained in diploids. However, the limited extent of hatchery-propagation (versus natural recruitment) and/or various technical difficulties and biological characteristics of the species have retarded the development of selective breeding programs. In the U.S.A., Australia and New Zealand, family-based selective breeding programs have recently been initiated to improve growth, disease tolerance and yield. In Europe, where both natural and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Microsatellite markers; Crassostrea gigas; Selective breeding; Triploid; Pacific oyster; Genetic.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2005/acte-3451.pdf
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Genetical improvement of marine fish and shellfish : a french perspective ArchiMer
Boudry, Pierre; Chatain, Beatrice; Naciri-graven, Yamama; Lemaire, Christophe; Gerard, Andre.
In France, marine fish and shellfish farming is based mainly on the breeding of wild species, whose natural populations are traditionally exploited. Research programs are conducted by IFREMER, in co-operation with INRA and Universities. French research programs for the genetical improvement of marine fish and shellfish concern primarily seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and oysters (Ostrea edulis and Crassostrea gigas). The following programs are developed: •The knowledge of wild and farmed populations. The most recent prodjects involve the highly variable microsatellite markers. Seven markers are presently available for seabass and the work is now initiated on turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). In molluscs, microsatellite markers have been developed for the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Selection; Triploid; Shellfish; Fish; Genetic.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1996/acte-3206.pdf
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Haematological and physiological characteristics of diploid and triploid sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L. ArchiMer
Peruzzi, Stefano; Varsamos, Stamatis; Chatain, Beatrice; Fauvel, Christian; Menu, Bruno; Falguiere, Jean-claude; Severe, Armelle; Flik, Gert.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether diploid and triploid sea bass differed in terms of main haematological and physiological characteristics. Diploid and triploid fish were produced by sub-optimal pressure treatments and held in communal environments under standard rearing conditions. Total red blood cell count (RBCC), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cellular haemoglobin content (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), plasma metabolites, osmotic pressure, gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity, electrolytes, cortisol, and 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T-3) were measured and compared. Triploidisation in sea bass led to an increase in erythrocyte size (32% in cytoplasm surface area, and 50% in...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Dicentrarchus labrax; Sea bass; Triploid; Diploid; Physiology; Haematology.
Ano: 2005 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2005/publication-508.pdf
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Hematologia comparada entre diplóides e triplóides de truta arco-íris, Oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum (Pisces, Salmonidae) Zoologia
Ranzani-Paiva,Maria José Tavares; Tabata,Yara Aiko; Eiras,Augusta Cocuzza das.
This Study was carried out at the Salmoniculture Experimental Station "Dr. Ascanio de Faria", in Campos do Jordão, São Paulo. Brazil. The aim was to compared the hematology of triploid and diploid rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792, by sex and gonadal maturation stages. Blood was obtained from 144 individuais for determinati-ons of: haemoglobin rate (Hb), haematocrit (Ht), erythrocyte count (Er), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and differential leucocyte counts. The ploid was determinated by measuring the erythrocyte major axis, in fresh and stainncd smears. Triploid rainbow trout had a large eiythrocyte diameter, mean erythrocyte volume and mean haemoglobin...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Oncorhynchus mykiss; Diploid; Triploid; Hematolology; Rainbow trout.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-81751998000400026
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Identification and characterization of an original grapevine cultivar (Vitis vinifera) found in Chile Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Gonzalez,Alvaro S; Massera,Franco; Moscoso,Daniel; Hinrichsen,Patricio; Montenegro,Gloria; Laucou,Valerie; Lacombe,Thierry; Boursiquot,Jean-Michel; Pszczólkowski,Philippo.
Currently, many monovarietal vineyards present a minority of mixed cultivars. Some of these cultivars are unknown and could represent an opportunity to discover new and potentially useful genotypes both for research and production purposes. In a 'Carmenère' vineyard planted in 1994 in Palmilla (Colchagua Valley, Chile), a minority presence of other cultivars was found. The present work covers for the first time the identification and characterization of one of these cultivars, which presented a very poor fruit set. Through classic ampelography, it was not possible to associate the studied cultivar with any known cultivar in Chile. However, through a simple sequence repeats (SSR) comparison against the database of the INRA Germplasm Repository "Domaine de...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Ampelography; Chile; Coulure; Molecular markers; Poor fruit set; SSR; Triploid.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202016000200016
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Image analysis : a new method for estimating triploidy in commercial bivalves ArchiMer
Gerard, Andre; Naciri, Yamama; Peignon, Jean-marie; Ledu, Christophe; Phelipot, Pascal; Noiret, Christophe; Peudenier, Isabelle; Grizel, Henri.
For determination of ploidy levels in bivalves, three techniques are now routinely used: karyological determination. microfluorimetry and flow cytometry. This paper proposes an alternative technique which is based on determination of the optical density (OD) of stained nuclei using image analysis. A karyological and image analysis comparative experiment conducted on juveniles of Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) and Ruditapes philippinarum (Adam & Reeve) is described and highlights the advantages of the image analysis technique. Initially developed on C. gigas and R. philippinarum, the image analysis method was easily extended to other bivalve species and to different developmental stages, as demonstrated by two experiments conducted on Ostrea edulis (L.)....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Estimation bivalve triploidy; Image analysis; Triploid; Genetic; Crassostrea gigas; Oysters.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1994/publication-3200.pdf
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Influence of Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) sexual maturation stage and ploidy on uptake of paralytic phycotoxins ArchiMer
Gueguen, Marielle; Baron, Regis; Bardouil, Michele; Haberkorn, Hansy; Soudant, Philippe; Truquet, Philippe; Lassus, Patrick.
The purpose of this study was to assess paralytic phycotoxin uptake in diploid and triploid oysters at two stages of their sexual cycle corresponding to their status in early summer (June) and winter (November). Samples of diploid and triploid oysters were exposed to a toxic culture of Alexandrium minutum for 4 days in each season. No significant differences in filtration or clearance rates were observed during either November or June experiments. When diploid oysters were at resting stage (November), toxin uptake showed no significant difference between the ploidy classes. In contrast, when the diploid oysters were at the peak of their sexual maturation (June), the triploid oysters were seen to accumulate almost double the amount of paralytic toxins as...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Crassostrea gigas; Diploid; Triploid; Contamination.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00087/19796/17487.pdf
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Influence of gametogenesis pattern and sex on paralytic shellfish toxin levels in triploid Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas exposed to a natural bloom of Alexandrium minutum ArchiMer
Hermabessiere, Ludovic; Fabioux, C.; Lassudrie, Malwenn; Boullot, F.; Long, Marc; Lambert, Christophe; Le Goic, N.; Gouriou, Jeremie; Le Gac, Mickael; Chapelle, Annie; Soudant, P.; Hegaret, Helene.
This study investigated the effect of gametogenesis pattern and sex on levels of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) accumulated by triploid oysters Crassostrea gigas exposed to a natural bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum in the Bay of Brest (Western Brittany, France), over the summer 2014. Toxin accumulation in oysters was proposed to be influenced by the proportion of energy allocated to reproduction versus other metabolisms, as proposed by Haberkorn et al. (2010). Thus, we hypothesized that triploid oysters with different gametogenesis patterns (α or β, producing respectively numerous gametes or rare gametes) could result in differences in toxin accumulation. Toxin level could also be different according to the gender of the oysters. To...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crassostrea gigas; Alexandrium minutum; Harmful algal bloom (HAB); Paralytic shellfish toxin (PST); Gametogenesis pattern; Triploid.
Ano: 2016 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00307/41801/41010.pdf
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INFLUENCE OF ROOTSTOCKS ON Fusarium WILT, NEMATODE INFESTATION, YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY IN WATERMELON PRODUCTION Ciência e Agrotecnologia
Álvarez-Hernández,Juan Carlos; Castellanos-Ramos,Javier Zaragoza; Aguirre-Mancilla,César Leobardo; Huitrón-Ramírez,María Victoria; Camacho-Ferre,Francisco.
Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata rootstock are used to prevent infection with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum in watermelon production; however, this rootstock is not effective against nematode attack. Because of their vigor, the grafted plants can be planted at lower plant densities than the non-grafted plants. The tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Meloidogyne incognita was assessed in watermelon plants grafted onto a hybrid of Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta or the Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata cv Super Shintoza rootstocks. The densities of plants were 2083 and 4166 plants ha-1. Non-grafted watermelons were the controls. The Crunchy Red and Sangría watermelon cultivars were used as the scions, it the latter as a pollinator. The...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Citrullus lanatus; Grafting; Triploid; Fusarium oxysporum; Root-knot nematodes.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-70542015000400323
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Intrapopulational chromosome number variation in Zephyranthes sylvatica Baker (Amaryllidaceae: Hippeastreae) from Northeast Brazil Rev. Bras. Bot.
Felix,Winston J. P.; Dutilh,Julie H. A.; Melo,Natoniel F. de; Fernandes,Andrea A.; Felix,Leonardo P..
Zephyranthes Herb. is a taxonomically complex and cytologically variable group, with about 65 species of Neotropical distribution. Chromosome number variability in 32 individuals of a Zephyranthes sylvatica population from Northeast Brazil was investigated. Three cytotypes were found: 2n = 12 (one metacentric, four submetacentric and one acrocentric pairs), in 24 individuals; 2n = 12 + 1B, in five and three individuals with 2n = 18, a triploid cytotype. All diploid individuals showed chromosomes with polymorphism in pair one and two, while in triploids this polymorphism was observed in all chromosome triplets, generally with two homomorphic chromosomes and a higher or lower heteromorphic chromosome. All individuals had reticulated interfasic nucleus and a...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/report Palavras-chave: Amaryllidaceae; B chromosomes; Chromosome variability; Triploid; Zephyranthes.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-84042008000200020
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Minimizing maternal effect in salmonid families mixed since eyed stages and a posteriori DNA-pedigreed ArchiMer
Haffray, Pierrick; Vandeputte, Marc; Petit, V.; Pincent, Cedric; Chatain, Beatrice; Chapuis, H.; Meriaux, J. C.; Coudurier, B.; Quillet, E.; Dupont-nivet, M..
Application of DNA parentage assignment for commercial selection in aquaculture is still rare. An experiment was performed to quantify and to minimize maternal effects on growth in rainbow trout. Six hundred families were reared until 198 day post fertilization (dpf) according to two different procedures. In the first procedure (NORM), all families were pooled at eyed stage. In the second procedure (MIN), where maternal effects due to differences in egg size were expected to be minimal, the spawns were divided into sub-groups with similar mean egg weight at eyed stage. These sub-groups were then pooled when they achieved the same mean body length (147 dpf). Genetic parameters were estimated for body weight, body length and condition factor at 198 dpf, with...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Rainbow trout; Fingerprint; Maternal effect; Heritability; Growth; Triploid.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00115/22639/20395.pdf
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Optimization of triploid induction by the use of 6-DMAP for the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) ArchiMer
Gerard, Andre; Naciri, Yamama; Peignon, Jean-marie; Ledu, Christophe.
A novel method using 6-dimcthylaminopurinc (6-0MAP) has recently been demonstrated to be a good triploid inductor for bivalve molluscs. The effects of 6-DMAP concentration, timing of treatment after fertilization and treatment duration on survival and triploid induction of Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) embryos were examined. An influence of sperm concentration was also detected and discussed. Survival to D-stage was inversely related to 6-DMAP concentration and the percentage of triploids was shown to be 6-DMAP dose dependent. Two optimal moments for treatment application were determined corresponding to extrusions of the first and second polar bodies. Optimal treatment of 450 µmol/l 6-DMAP beginning 15 min after fertilization over a 10 min period yielded...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Genetic; Triploid induction; Crassostrea gigas; 6 DMAP; Triploid; Oysters.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1994/publication-3198.pdf
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Performance of triploid Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) reared in high carrying capacity ecosystem : survival, growth and proximate biochemical composition ArchiMer
Goulletquer, Philippe; Joly, Jean-pierre; Gerard, Andre; Le Gagneur, Eric; Moriceau, Jacques; Peignon, Jean-marie; Heurtebise, Serge; Phelipot, Pascal.
Triploid oysters Crassllstrea gigas were: produced in 1990 by treating fertilized eggs with cytochalasin B (CS). Triploids, treated diploids, and controls were deployed early 1991 in a high carrying capacity ecosystem on the Eastern Coast of Normandy (France). A monthly monitoring in 1992 showed that triploids yielded significantly higher growth rate and biochemical composition. However, growth was more heterogeneous. No evidence was found for a length or weight bimodal frequency distribution within triploid groups after a 26 months rearing cycle. Triploids showed retardation of gametogenesis. Carbohydrates content in triploids remained almost constant (40%) from June to September. Their survival rates were significantly lower than controls. Moreover...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Biochemical compostion; Survival; Carrying capacity; Triploid; Growth; Oysters; Crassostrea gigas; Composition biochimique; Survie; Capacité trophque; Triploïdes; Croissance; Huîtres; Crassostrea gigas.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1996/publication-3088.pdf
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Physiological and molecular basis of gametogenesis in triploid Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Normand, Julien; Huvet, Arnaud; Fabioux, Caroline; Raguenes, Morgane; Boudry, Pierre.
Genetic improvement of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, can be achieved through triploidisation, which leads to partially sterility, allowing higher growth and survival together with improved meat quality during the reproductive period. Most triploids are not fully sterile and the genetic and environmental factors involved in their partial fertility remained to be investigated. We examined gametogenesis by image analysis of histological cross sections in diploid (2n) and triploid oysters obtained either by crossing tetraploids and diploid broodstock (« natural » triploids: 3nn) or from second polar body retention (« chemical » triploids: 3nc). 5-month old triploid spat reared in a standard intensive nursery system only showed a reduction of 50% of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Gametogenesis; Triploid; Crassostrea gigas; Genetic; Oysters.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/acte-3327.pdf
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Selection for muscle fat content and triploidy affect flesh quality in pan-size rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss ArchiMer
Lefevre, Florence; Cardinal, Mireille; Bugeon, Jerome; Labbe, Laurent; Medale, Francoise; Quillet, Edwige.
A lean muscle line (L) and a fat muscle line (F) of rainbow trout were established (Quillet et al., 2005) by a two-way selection for muscle lipid content performed on pan-size rainbow trout using a non-destructive measurement of muscle lipid content (Distell Fish Fat Meter®). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the consequences of this selective breeding on flesh quality of pan size (290 g) diploid and triploid trout after three generations of selection. Instrumental evaluations of fillet color and pH measurement were performed at slaughter. Flesh color, pH, dry matter content and mechanical resistance were measured at 48 h and 96 h postmortem on raw and cooked flesh, respectively. A sensorial profile analysis was performed on cooked fillets....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Flesh quality; Lipid content; Muscle fiber; Triploid; Fish; Texture.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00271/38246/36431.pdf
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Study of the reproductive potential of triploid oysters ArchiMer
Normand, Julien; Boudry, Pierre; Cornette, Florence; Ledu, Christophe.
Reproduction was studied in triploid Crassostrea gigas, by crossing gametes from diploid and triploid parents.Triploids are able to produce viable gametes and their resulting progeny consisted in diploids, aneuploids and polyploids. Gametes from triploid parents frequently led to abnormal polar body formation, even before caryogamy occurred. A high frequency of aneuploids was observed, related to the missegregation of chromosomes during meiosis in triploids. This might be due to the observed incomplete synapsis in triploid eggs during Prophase I. The proportion of aneuploids decreased during larval development, reflecting differential mortality between ploidy levels. Due to limited gonadic development and high larval mortality rates, the reproductive...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Triploid; Genetic; Oysters; Crassostrea gigas.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2005/acte-3319.pdf
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