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Agricultural Land Tenure and Carbon Offsets AgEcon
Claassen, Roger; Morehart, Mitchell J..
Agricultural Land Tenure and Carbon Offsets examines the potential role that land ownership might play in determining the agricultural sector’s involvement in carbon sequestration programs. By estimating the carbon sequestration potential of agricultural producers who own most of the land they operate, this report finds that land ownership should not be a constraining factor in agriculture’s ability to provide carbon offsets.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Keywords: Climate change; Carbon sequestration; Carbon offsets; Cap and trade programs; Farmland ownership; Tenure; Farming practices; Conservation practices; Conservation Reserve Program; Crops; Livestock; Environmental services; ERS; USDA; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58994
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America's Diverse Family Farms 2007 Edition AgEcon
Hoppe, Robert A.; Banker, David E.; Korb, Penelope J.; O'Donoghue, Erik J.; MacDonald, James M..
American farms encompass a wide range of sizes, ownership structures, and business types, but most farms are still family farms. Family farms account for 98 percent of farms and 85 percent of production. Although most farms are small and own most of the farmland, production has shifted to very large farms. Farms with sales of $1 million or more make up less than 2 percent of all farms, but they account for 48 percent of farm product sales. Most of these million-dollar farms are family farms. Because small-farm households rely on off-farm work for most of their income, general economic policies, such as tax or economic development policy, can be as important to them as traditional farm policy.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Family farms; Farm program payments; Farm production; Farm household income; Commodity payments; Direct payments; Government payments; Agricultural Resource Management Survey; Contracting; ERS; USDA; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59029
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America's Diverse Family Farms: 2010 Edition AgEcon
Hoppe, Robert A.; Banker, David E.; MacDonald, James M..
American farms vary widely in size and other characteristics, but farming is still an industry of family businesses. Ninety-eight percent of farms are family farms, and they account for 82 percent of farm production. Small family farms make up most of the U.S. farm count and hold the majority of farm assets, but they produce a modest share of U.S. farm output. In contrast, large-scale family farms and nonfamily farms—only 12 percent of all farms—account for 84 percent of farm production. Small farms are less profitable than large-scale farms, on average, and the households operating them tend to rely on off-farm income for their livelihood. Because small-farm households receive most of their income from off-farm work, general economic policies—such as tax...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Family farms; Farm businesses; Farm financial performance; Farm-operator household income; Farm operators; Farm structure; Farm type; Government payments; Limited-resource farms; Small farms; ERS; USDA; Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Farm Management.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96653
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An Evaluation of Crop Forecast Accuracy for Corn and Soybeans: USDA and Private Information Agencies AgEcon
Egelkraut, Thorsten M.; Garcia, Philip; Irwin, Scott H.; Good, Darrel L..
Using 1971-2000 data, we examine the accuracy of corn and soybean production forecasts provided by the USDA and two private agencies. All agencies improved their forecasts as the harvest progressed, and forecast errors were highly correlated and unbiased. The relative forecast accuracy of the agencies varied by crop and month. For corn, USDA’s forecasts ranked as most accurate of the three agencies in all periods except for august during the recent period and improved most markedly as harvest progressed. For soybeans, forecast errors were very similar, with the private agencies ranking as most accurate for August and September and making largest relative improvements for August during the recent period. The USDA forecasts were dominant for October and...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Corn; Private agencies; Production forecasts; Soybeans; USDA; Q11; Q13; C82; Q18.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37835
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Broadband Internet's Value for Rural America AgEcon
Stenberg, Peter L.; Morehart, Mitchell J.; Vogel, Stephen J.; Cromartie, John; Breneman, Vincent E.; Brown, Dennis M..
As broadband—or high-speed—Internet use has spread, Internet applications requiring high transmission speeds have become an integral part of the “Information Economy,” raising concerns about those who lack broadband access. This report analyzes (1) rural broadband use by consumers, the community-at-large, and businesses; (2) rural broadband availability; and (3) broadband’s social and economic effects on rural areas. It also summarizes results from an ERS-sponsored workshop on rural broadband use, and other ERS-commissioned studies. In general, rural communities have less broadband Internet use than metro communities, with differing degrees of broadband availability across rural communities. Rural communities that had greater broadband Internet access had...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Internet; Broadband; High-speed Internet; Rural economies; Rural economic growth; Digital economy; Telemedicine; Rural; Urban; Census data; June Agricultural Survey; Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS); ERS; USDA; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55944
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Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective AgEcon
Guthrie, Joanne F.; Andrews, Margaret S.; Frazao, Elizabeth; Leibtag, Ephraim S.; Lin, Biing-Hwan; Mancino, Lisa; Nord, Mark; Prell, Mark A.; Smallwood, David M.; Variyam, Jayachandran N.; Ver Ploeg, Michele.
Food stamp recipients, like other Americans, struggle with nutrition problems associated with choice of foods, as well as amounts. This series of Economic Information Bulletins compiles evidence to help answer the question of whether the Food Stamp Program can do more to improve the food choices of participants. It examines the role of affordability and price of healthful foods in influencing food choices and the likely success of any policy targeted at changing food choices through food stamp bonuses or restrictions. It also examines other approaches to changing food choices, including nutrition education and potential strategies drawn from behavioral economics literature. Meaningful improvements in the diets of food stamp recipients will likely depend on...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food Stamp Program; Food consumption; Food prices; Food expenditures; Nutrition education; Behavioral economics; Food choices; Diet; Health; Fruits and vegetables; Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Program; FANRP; ERS; USDA; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59417
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Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective-Food Spending Patterns of Low-Income Households: Will Increasing Purchasing Power Result in Healthier Food Choices? AgEcon
Frazao, Elizabeth; Andrews, Margaret S.; Smallwood, David M.; Prell, Mark A..
The Food Stamp Program provides benefits that low-income households can use to purchase food in grocery stores. The rise in obesity has raised the question of whether food stamp participants would purchase more healthy foods, such as fruits and vegetables, if food stamp benefits were higher. This report examines household food spending patterns and how they differ across income levels to provide insight into how participants might change their food spending in response to additional income.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food Stamp Program; Food consumption; Food prices; Food expenditures; Nutrition education; Behavioral economics; Food choices; Diet; Health; Fruits and vegetables; Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Program; FANRP; ERS; USDA; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59430
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Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective--Higher Cost of Food in Some Areas May Affect Food Stamp Households' Ability To Make Healthy Food Choices AgEcon
Nord, Mark; Hopwood, Heather.
The cost of “enough food,” estimated from the amount that low- and medium-income households in a geographic area report needing to spend to just meet their food needs, differs substantially across States and among metropolitan areas. In areas with high food costs, many food-stamp recipients are likely to have inadequate food resources to support healthy food choices.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food Stamp Program; Food consumption; Food prices; Food expenditures; Nutrition education; Behavioral economics; Food choices; Diet; Health; Fruits and vegetables; Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Program; FANRP; ERS; USDA; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59429
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Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective--How Can We Tell If We Are Making a Difference? ERS Efforts To Improve Evaluation of Nutrition Outcomes AgEcon
Frazao, Elizabeth; Guthrie, Joanne F.; Smallwood, David M..
Currently, the effects of the Food Stamp Program on the food choices and diet quality of participants are the subject of much debate. Improved evaluation of the nutrition and health effects of the program would be of use to program and policy officials, but most of the existing research is limited by three key factors: the difficulty in separating the effect of the program itself from other factors that may be related to program participation (that is, selection bias); relative age of the data (which do not capture current programs or population behaviors); and use of outdated dietary standards and assessment methods. This brief describes current ERS activities to address these problems and improve evaluation.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food Stamp Program; Food consumption; Food prices; Food expenditures; Nutrition education; Behavioral economics; Food choices; Diet; Health; Fruits and vegetables; Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Program; FANRP; ERS; USDA; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59439
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Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective-How Do Low-Income Households Respond to Food Prices AgEcon
Lin, Biing-Hwan; Guthrie, Joanne F..
This brief examines how consumers respond to food prices and how consumers’ response to price influences their purchases of particular foods, using examples drawn from previous ERS research. Implications of the findings for the use of price interventions to improve food choices are considered.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food Stamp Program; Food consumption; Food prices; Food expenditures; Nutrition education; Behavioral economics; Food choices; Diet; Health; Fruits and vegetables; Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Program; FANRP; ERS; USDA; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59432
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Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective--Making Healthy Food Choices Easier: Ideas From Behavioral Economics AgEcon
Mancino, Lisa; Andrews, Margaret S..
With obesity the most prevalent nutrition problem facing Americans at all economic levels, promoting diets that provide adequate nutrition without too many calories has become an important objective for the Food Stamp Program. Findings from behavioral economics suggest innovative, low-cost ways to improve the diet quality of food stamp participants without restricting their freedom of choice. Unlike more traditional economic interventions, such as changing prices or banning specific foods, the strategies explored in this brief can be targeted to those participants who want help making more healthful food choices.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food Stamp Program; Food consumption; Food prices; Food expenditures; Nutrition education; Behavioral economics; Food choices; Diet; Health; Fruits and vegetables; Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Program; FANRP; ERS; USDA; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59436
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Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective-Nutrition Information: Can It Improve the Diets of Low-Income Households? AgEcon
Guthrie, Joanne F.; Variyam, Jayachandran N..
The Food Stamp Nutrition Education (FSNE) component of the Food Stamp Program is intended to improve the food choices, diet quality, and health of program participants. This brief discusses the FSNE program, how it operates, and how it has grown over time. The brief also considers the challenges of nutrition education in general and discusses the research and evaluation needs suggested by the findings.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food Stamp Program; Food consumption; Food prices; Food expenditures; Nutrition education; Behavioral economics; Food choices; Diet; Health; Fruits and vegetables; Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Program; FANRP; ERS; USDA; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59434
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Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspectives--Overview: Can Food Stamps Do More To Improve Food Choices? AgEcon
Guthrie, Joanne F.; Lin, Biing-Hwan; Ver Ploeg, Michele; Frazao, Elizabeth.
The increased food purchasing power offered by the Food Stamp Program can promote food security and improve the overall economic well-being of low-income households. Now, as Americans struggle with obesity and other diet-related health problems, there is interest in whether the program can be more effective in encouraging participants to make healthy food choices. ERS has compiled economic research to provide decisionmakers with information on the likely effects of various proposed strategies for improving the food choices of food stamp program participants. This overview summarizes the findings, which are presented in more detail in a series of individual briefs.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food Stamp Program; Food consumption; Food prices; Food expenditures; Nutrition education; Behavioral economics; Food choices; Diet; Health; Fruits and vegetables; Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Program; FANRP; ERS; USDA; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59422
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Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective-Stretching the Food Stamp Dollar: Regional Price Differences Affect Affordability of Food AgEcon
Leibtag, Ephraim S..
Significant regional differences in food prices affect how far food stamp benefits can go toward enhancing the diet of low-income consumers in a given region. In regions where average food prices exceed the national average, food stamp benefits may not provide the same level of coverage as the same benefit would in below-average-price regions. This report measures average prices paid across U.S. regions. Results show that a household made up of a family of four in the East or West could spend $32-$48 more per month for a similar amount of food than the average U.S. household, whereas a household in the South and Midwest could spend $12-28 less per month than the average U.S. household.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food Stamp Program; Food consumption; Food prices; Food expenditures; Nutrition education; Behavioral economics; Food choices; Diet; Health; Fruits and vegetables; Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Program; FANRP; ERS; USDA; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59428
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Characteristics of Low-Income Households With Very Low Food Security: An Analysis of the USDA GPRA Food Security Indicator AgEcon
Nord, Mark.
This Economic Information Bulletin describes characteristics of low-income households that had very low food security in 2005. The U.S. Department of Agriculture monitors the food security of low-income households to assess how effectively the Government’s domestic nutrition assistance programs meet the needs of their target populations. USDA seeks to reduce the prevalence of very low food security among low-income households as part of its strategic plan under the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA).
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food insecurity; Very low food security; Hunger; Food stamp program; School lunch program; WIC; GPRA; ERS; USDA; Farm Management; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59030
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Do Big Crops Get Bigger and Small Crops Get Smaller? Further Evidence on Smoothing in USDA Crop Production Forecasts AgEcon
Isengildina-Massa, Olga; Irwin, Scott H.; Good, Darrel L..
The purpose of this paper is to determine whether smoothing in USDA corn and soybean production forecasts is concentrated in years with relatively small and large crops. The sample consists of all USDA corn and soybean production forecasts released over the 1970 through 2006 crop years. Results show that USDA crop production forecasts in both corn and soybeans have a marked tendency to decrease in small crop years and increase in big crop years. The magnitude of smoothing is surprisingly large, with corn and soybean production forecasts cumulatively revised downward by about 6 to 7 percent in small crop years and upward by about 5 to 6 percent in large crop years. Crop condition ratings are useful in predicting whether the current year is likely to be a...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Corn; Crop production; Forecasts; Smoothing; Soybeans; USDA.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37563
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Economic Linkages Between the WIC Program and the Farm Sector AgEcon
Hanson, Kenneth; Oliveira, Victor.
In fiscal 2008, the $4.6 billion of food purchased with vouchers from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) generated $1.3 billion in farm revenue. Because WIC participants would have purchased some of these foods with their own money in the absence of the program, the net addition to farm revenue from WIC is estimated at $331 million and the net increase in full-time-equivalent farm jobs at 2,640. The study uses an Input-Output Multiplier Model to derive these estimates and assumes that recent revisions in the WIC food packages were implemented in all States in fiscal 2008.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: WIC; WIC linkage to farm sector; WIC food package; Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Program; FANRP; ERS; USDA; Agricultural and Food Policy; Public Economics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58992
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Economic Returns to Public Agricultural Research AgEcon
Fuglie, Keith O.; Heisey, Paul W..
Over the last several decades, the U.S. agricultural sector has sustained impressive productivity growth. The Nation's agricultural research system, including Federal-State public research as well as private-sector research, has been a key driver of this growth. Economic analysis finds strong and consistent evidence that investment in agricultural research has yielded high returns per dollar spent. These returns include benefits not only to the farm sector but also to the food industry and consumers in the form of more abundant commodities at lower prices.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Productivity; Productivity growth; Technology; Total factor productivity; TFP; Research investments; Food; Input; Output; Crop yield; Agricultural research; Agricultural output; Public spending; Private sector research; ERS; USDA; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6388
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Economic Well-Being of Farm Households AgEcon
Jones, Carol Adaire; El-Osta, Hisham S.; Green, Robert C..
Farm subsidy programs were introduced in the 1930s largely due to concern for chronically low, and highly variable, incomes of US farm households. Today commodity-based support programs are still prominent, though income and wealth of the average farm household now exceed that of the average nonfarm households - by a large margin. Farm income continues to be highly variable, but the small set of farm households most at risk for income variability - because farm income represents more than one-third of household income - are those operating large farms. And they have substantial net worth, which cushions uncertain farm income.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Farm households; Household income; Household wealth; Household net worth; Living expenses; Joint income-wealth indicator; Economic well-being; Financial well-being; Off-farm employment; Income variability; ERS; USDA; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34095
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EFFECTS OF FOOD ASSISTANCE AND NUTRITION PROGRAMS ON NUTRITION AND HEALTH: VOLUME 3, LITERATURE REVIEW AgEcon
This report provides a comprehensive review and synthesis of published research on the impact of USDA's domestic food and nutrition assistance programs on participants' nutrition and health outcomes. The outcome measures reviewed include food expenditures, household nutrient availability, dietary intake, other measures of nutrition status, food security, birth outcomes, breastfeeding behaviors, immunization rates, use and cost of health care services, and selected nonhealth outcomes, such as academic achievement and school performance (children) and social isolation (elderly). The report is one of four volumes produced by a larger study that includes Volume 1, Research Design; Volume 2, Data Sources; Volume 3, Literature Review; and Volume 4, Executive...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Dietary intake; Food expenditures; Nutrient availability; Nutrient intake; Nutritional status; Nutrition and health outcomes; USDA; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33863
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